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Apocrypha

Apocrypha (əpŏk´rĬfə) [Gr.,=hidden things], term signifying a collection of early Jewish writings excluded from the canon of the Hebrew scriptures. It is not clear why the term was chosen. The Apocrypha include the following books and parts of books: First and Second Esdras; Tobit; Judith; the Additions to Esther; Wisdom of Solomon; Sirach (also called Ecclesiasticus); Baruch; the Letter of Jeremiah (in Baruch); parts of Daniel (the Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men; see also Bel and the Dragon and Susanna1); First and Second Maccabees; the Prayer of Manasses (see Manasseh). All are included in the Septuagint, with the exception of 2 Esdras (4 Ezra). However, they were not included in the Hebrew canon (ratified c.AD 100). In 1566 the collection was deemed "deutero-canonical" by the Roman Catholic Church, meaning that their canonicity was recognized only after a period of time. Protestants follow Jewish tradition in regarding all these books as non-canonical. Jewish and Christian works resembling biblical books, but not included among the Apocrypha, are collected in the Pseudepigrapha. The term Apocrypha is sometimes applied to early Christian writings that were once considered canonical by some but are not in the New Testament.

See The Oxford Annotated Apocrypha (1977); G. W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah (1981).

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"Apocrypha." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Apocrypha

Apocrypha biblical or related writings not forming part of the accepted canon of Scripture. The Old Testament Apocrypha include writings (dating from around 300 bc to ad 100) which appeared in the Septuagint and Vulgate versions but not in the Hebrew Bible; most are accepted by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches as the ‘deuterocanonical’ books. The New Testament Apocrypha include texts attributed to Apostles and other biblical figures but not regarded as authentic by the Councils of the Church.

Recorded from late Middle English, the word comes from ecclesiastical Latin apocrypha (scripta) ‘hidden (writings)’, ultimately from Greek apokruptein ‘hide away’. The adjective apocryphal, meaning of doubtful authenticity, mythical, fictional, is recorded from the late 16th century.

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"Apocrypha." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Apocrypha." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/apocrypha

Apocrypha

Apocrypha Certain books included in the Bible as an appendix to the Old Testament in the Septuagint and in Saint Jerome's Vulgate translation but not forming part of the Hebrew canon. Nine books are accepted as canonical by the Roman Catholic Church. They are: Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch (including the Letter to Jeremiah), 1 and 2 Maccabees, and parts of Esther and Daniel. Other books are found in Eastern Orthodox bibles and in the appendix to the Roman Catholic Old Testament. Anglican and Protestant translations of the Bible have, since the 16th century, placed books of the Apocrypha between the Old and New Testaments.

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"Apocrypha." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Apocrypha

Apocrypha (Gk., ‘hidden things’). Jewish books associated with the Bible, but not included in the Jewish canon. These are works regarded by the sages as Sefarim hizonim (extraneous books). They include (i) Esdras; (ii) Tobit; (iii) Judith; (iv) additions to Esther; (v) Wisdom of Solomon; (vi) Ecclesiasticus; (vii) Baruch; (viii) Song of the Three Children; (ix) Susanna; (x) Bel and the Dragon; (xi) The Prayer of Manasseh; (xii) 1 Maccabees; (xiii) 2 Maccabees. In addition, there are many other books, known as Pseudepigrapha (frequently apocalyptic in character), which were written in the same period.

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"Apocrypha." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Apocrypha." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 26, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/apocrypha

"Apocrypha." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/apocrypha

Apocrypha

Apocrypha †adj. of unknown authorship, uncanonical; sb. writings of doubtful authorship, (spec.) uncanonical books of the O.T. XIV. — n. pl. (sc. scripta writings) of ecclL. apocryphus, Gr. apókruphos hidden, f. apokrúptein hide away; see APO- and CRYPT.
Hence apocryphal XVI.

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"Apocrypha." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Apocrypha." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/apocrypha-2

Apocrypha

A·poc·ry·pha / əˈpäkrəfə/ • pl. n. [treated as sing. or pl.] biblical or related writings not forming part of the accepted canon of Scripture. ∎  (apocrypha) writings or reports not considered genuine.

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"Apocrypha." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Apocrypha." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved May 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/apocrypha-1

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