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Stanton, Elizabeth Cady

STANTON, ELIZABETH CADY

The opening salvo in the battle for women's rights was fired in 1848 by the grande dame of U.S. feminism, Elizabeth Cady Stanton. When Stanton and colleague Lucretia Mott organized the nation's first women's rights convention in 1848, in Seneca Falls, New York, they sought nothing less than a revolution. They pressed for equal education, better employment opportunities, and the vote for women—radical notions in the mid–nineteenth-century United States. For fifty years, Stanton was a key strategist and standard-bearer for the feminist movement. Along

with fellow suffragist susan b. anthony and other activists, she helped elevate the legal, social, and political status of U.S. women.

"The Bible and the Church have been the greatest stumbling blocks in the wayofwomen's emancipation."
—Elizabeth Cadystanton

Stanton was born November 12, 1815, in Johnstown, New York. She was the middle daughter of Daniel Cady and Margaret Livingston Cady, a prominent couple in Johnstown. Elizabeth was one of eleven children, but all five of her brothers and one sister died during childhood. In some ways, Stanton was raised by her parents as a substitute for those deceased brothers. Unlike most girls of her generation, Stanton participated in athletic activities and excelled in courses typically reserved for males, such as

Latin, Greek, logic, philosophy, and economics. Stanton's father, a lawyer and a New York Supreme Court judge, even encouraged her to study law with him, although later he regretted his actions: as an adult, Stanton used her legal knowledge to craft well-reasoned arguments for women's rights, a cause he disliked.

After she graduated from Johnstown Academy in 1830 at age fifteen, Stanton's ambition was to attend New York's Union College. Her enrollment was impossible, however, because Union, like every other college in the entire nation, did not admit women as students. (Ohio's Oberlin College was the first U.S. college to accept female students, in 1834.) Instead of Union College, Stanton attended Troy Female Seminary, in Troy, New York. She graduated in 1833.

Stanton returned to Johnstown, where she divided her time between the pleasant diversions of upper-class life and the important social causes of the day. Despite her parents' objections, she married an abolitionist, Henry Brewster Stanton, in 1840. From the beginning of their marriage, Stanton insisted on being addressed in public by her full name. Throughout her long life, only her political enemies called her Mrs. Henry Stanton.

While attending an international antislavery conference in London with her new husband in 1840, Stanton met Mott, a Quaker activist involved in the nascent U.S. women's movement. Stanton and Mott became quick friends and allies. Both were outraged over the refusal of the male antislavery leaders to seat female delegates at the London conference. Back in the United States, the two corresponded and sometimes joined forces in abolitionist activities. They also finalized plans for the nation's first women's rights convention.

In 1848, one hundred women and men gathered in Seneca Falls for the historic convention. The agenda included a speech by renowned African American abolitionist frederick douglass, and a proposal to adopt Stanton's manifesto, the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments. The Seneca Falls declaration was inspired by the U.S. Declaration of Independence. It boldly proclaimed that all men and women were equal and that women deserved greater protection under the law. The declaration called for the expansion of employment and educational opportunities for women, and the right for women to vote. After lengthy debate, it was adopted in its entirety by the convention.

The seneca falls convention was derided by the press—prompting Stanton to complain that its participants "were neither sour old maids, childless women, nor divorced wives as the newspapers declared them to be." Nevertheless, the convention succeeded in bringing women's issues to the political forefront.

After Seneca Falls, Stanton was an acknowledged leader of the U.S. women's movement. She soon joined forces with Anthony, the country's most prominent suffragist. For the next fifty years, Anthony was Stanton's staunchest feminist ally.

In addition to women's rights and abolition, Stanton was involved in temperance, the movement to ban the sale and consumption of alcohol in the United States. Combining temperance with women's rights made sense to Stanton, both philosophically and practically. Drunken men destroyed the lives of powerless wives and children. Without laws to protect them, women who were married to chronic drinkers often faced physical abuse and financial ruin. The Married Women's Property Act of 1848 addressed this imbalance in legal power. Stanton helped win passage of the law by conducting an exhaustive petition drive throughout the state of New York.

Although Stanton supported temperance wholeheartedly, she was angered that the movement's male leaders were just as misguided as the abolitionists at the London antislavery conference. When Stanton attempted to participate in a Sons of Temperance meeting, she was summarily removed from the building. She and Anthony formed their own group, the Woman's State Temperance Society, in 1852.

The women's movement stalled around the time of the u.s. civil war because many of its supporters focused exclusively on abolition. As president of the National Woman's Loyal League, Stanton helped gather four hundred thousand signatures on petitions in support of the thirteenth amendment abolishing slavery. After the war, Stanton and Anthony were bitterly disappointed when their abolitionist colleagues refused to support the inclusion of women in either the fourteenth amendment, which granted African American males citizenship, or the fifteenth amendment, which gave those males the right to vote. Stanton and Anthony formed the National Woman's Suffrage Association in 1869 with the sole purpose of winning the vote for women.

Because Stanton was busy with her family of seven children, she initially worked at her home on voting rights strategy while Anthony traveled the country delivering lectures. Later, this arrangement changed as Stanton became a sought-after speaker during the 1870s in the lyceum movement, a series of cultural and educational programs for adults.

As Stanton grew older, she became even more radical in her thinking. She shocked people with her pro-divorce, pro-labor, and antireligion opinions. In particular, her book Woman's Bible, published partially in 1895 and partially in 1898, drew fire because in it, Stanton lambasted what she viewed as the male bias of the Bible. When Stanton suggested that all organized religion oppressed women and should therefore be abolished, many felt she had gone too far. These unpopular opinions explain why some feminists disassociated themselves from Stanton and looked exclusively to Anthony for leadership.

Stanton also helped compile three of the six volumes of the less controversial History of Woman Suffrage, published from 1881 to 1886, with coauthor Matilda Joslyn Gage.

On Stanton's eightieth birthday, she was honored at a gala in New York City's Metropolitan Opera House. Looking back at her life, she told a crowd of six thousand people that she had been warned repeatedly against organizing the Seneca Falls convention. People told her it was a huge mistake because God had set the bounds of a woman's world and she should be satisfied with it. Stanton remarked that it was exactly this type of repressive attitude that led to her embrace of the women's movement.

Stanton died October 26, 1902, in New York City, at the age of eighty-six. Although she did not witness the passage of the nineteenth amendment, which gave nearly 25 million U.S. women the right to vote in 1920, she left her imprint on it.

further readings

Griffith, Elisabeth. 1984. In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. 1898. Eighty Years and More: Reminiscences, 1815–1897. Reprint, 2002. Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books.

Wellman, Judith. 2004. The Road to Seneca Falls: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the First Woman's Rights Convention. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press.

cross-references

Temperance Movement.

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Stanton, Elizabeth Cady (1815-1902)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)

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Womans rights leader

Quest for Equality. Born on 12 November 1815, in Johnstown, New York, Elizabeth Cady Staton was from an early age determined to demonstrate that women were the equal of men and to help them secure better treatment. In her fathers law office, she heard the grievances of women whose property passed into the control of their husbands on marriage and whose children were presumptively awarded to the father in divorce proceedings. She later recalled that upon the death of her only brother in 1826 she took motivation from her fathers lamentation to her, Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy! Her education included studies in Greek, Latin, and mathematics as well as development of proficiency in traditionally male activities like horseback riding and chess. In 1832 she graduated from Emma Willards Troy Female Seminary, perhaps the most influential womens educational institution in the country.

Reform Community. During the 1830s Elizabeth Cady became involved in temperance and antislavery activities in part through the connections of her cousin Gerrit Smith, a wealthy supporter of reform initiatives. In 1840 she married abolitionist Henry B. Stanton and immediately after their wedding traveled to London so her new husband could serve as a delegate to the Worlds Anti-Slavery Convention. Controversy broke out at the convention over the exclusion of women delegates, in the course of which she became friendly with Lucretia Mott, the distinguished Quaker reformer from Philadelphia. The two agreed to hold a convention for womans rights in the United States, but little came of the project for the next several years. Stanton spent part ofthat time in Boston, where she developed close relations with Lydia Maria Child, Maria Weston Chapman, Frederick Douglass, Theodore Parker, and other reformers. She also had three children during the first five years of her marriage, with another four to follow during the 1850s.

Womans Rights Movement. One year after her husbands health prompted a move from Boston to Seneca Falls, New York, Stanton and Mott sponsored in July 1848 the womans rights convention that they had projected in London. Stanton drafted the Declaration of Sentiments for the convention, a pointed adaptation of the Declaration of Independence that represented the first public call for woman suffrage. Prior to the Seneca Falls convention she had lobbied in support of the married womens property act passed by the New York legislature in March 1848. Stanton promoted her cause in many ways, contributing articles to the New York Tribune, wearing for a time the Bloomer outfit developed by her cousin Elizabeth Smith Miller, and in 1851 forming a historic friendship with Susan B. Anthony. The two women were in many ways different. Stanton was cosmopolitan, gregarious, wide-ranging in her interests, and an able writer; Anthony was single-minded in her dedication to the suffrage movement, tenacious, and effective in administrative matters. Often kept at home by family duties, Stanton wrote many speeches and resolutions that Anthony presented at meetings. Stanton also made personal appearances in New York, addressing the legislature in 1854 in support of an expanded married womens property act and serving as president of the Womans State Temperance Society, through which she advocated liberalization of divorce laws to protect wives of alcoholics.

Civil War and Reconstruction. Stanton moved from her isolated base in Seneca Falls when her husband was appointed to a position in the New York Custom House, and in May 1863 she teamed again with Anthony to form the Womens Loyal National League. The organization collected three hundred thousand signatures on a petition for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, and Stanton also sought to promote emancipation by endorsing the nomination of a Republican presidential candidate more radical than Abraham Lincoln in 1864. When the war ended, Stanton and Anthony moved swiftly to demand the inclusion of women in the redefinition of citizenship and voting rights under the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. But even strong supporters of reform agreed with Wendell Phillips that this is the Negros hour. Stanton and Anthony in turn launched a campaign to block the Reconstruction amendments, hoping for a reconsideration. Their resort to arguments grounded in privileges of class and ethnicity alienated many former allies. Think of Patrick and Sambo and Hans and Ung Tung, Stanton baited, who do not know the difference between a Monarchy and a Republic, who never read the Declaration of Independence making laws for Lydia Maria Child, Lucretia Mott, or Fanny Kemble. In May 1869 the bitter dispute shattered the Equal Rights Association, which had urged enfranchisement of women as well as blacks.

Continuing the Struggle. After the breakup of the Equal Rights Association, Stanton and Anthony promptly organized the National Woman Suffrage Association, which Stanton served as president for the next twenty-one years. She continued to promote the cause of womans rights through various lectures and publications during this period. When in 1890 the National Woman Suffrage Association merged with its more conservative rival, the American Woman Suffrage Association, Stanton headed the combined organization for two years before retiring to devote more time to writing. She spent much time during her last years absorbed in the study of religion and working on the Womans Bible (18951898), which reinterpreted passages of scripture that were derogatory to women. In a gala at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York on the occasion of her eightieth birthday, she underscored one of the most important themes of her career by dismissing the idea that religion or nature assigned women to a separate sphere from the domain of men and urging women to continue the struggle to assume positions of leadership in churches, business, and politics. Stanton died in 1902.

Sources

Ellen Carol Dubois, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Womens Movement in America, 18481869 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978);

Elisabeth Griffith, In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984).

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Stanton, Elizabeth Cady

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Born: November 12, 1815
Johnstown, New York
Died: October 26, 1902
New York, New York

American writer and women's rights activist

The writer and reformer Elizabeth Cady Stanton (18151902) was perhaps the most gifted feminist leader in American history.

The makings of a feminist

Elizabeth Cady was born in Johnstown, New York, on November 12, 1815. She came from a wealthy and politically important family. Her father, Daniel Cady (17731859), was a well-known lawyer who had served in Congress, on the New York state legislature, and as a judge on the New York state supreme court. Her mother came from a wealthy family whose members had included a hero of the American Revolution (177583), when the thirteen British colonies in North America fought for their freedom.

The Cadys had eleven children, most of whom did not survive to adulthood. Eleazar Cady, their only son to survive, died when he was twenty, leaving them with four daughters. In her autobiography, Eighty Years and More, Stanton related her father's feelings at having lost all his male heirs. Although the eleven-year-old Elizabeth attempted to console him, his reaction was to tell her, "Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy." The experience made young Cady determined to be the equal of any male. She tried hard to please her father by excelling in areas normally reserved for men, starting with Greek and horsemanship.

Cady's father's profession also led her to embrace the cause of women's rights. As the daughter of a judge, she was exposed early to the legal barriers to women's equality. While still a child, she heard her father tell abused women that they had no legal alternative but to endure mistreatment by their husbands and fathers. She was especially outraged by the rights of husbands to control their wives' property.

Education and marriage

As a young woman, Elizabeth Cady studied at the Troy Female Seminary from 1830 to 1833. She had the best education then available to women. The school offered a strong academic course of studies in addition to the more typical educational options for women at that timewhich tended to focus on developing social skills. However, while at Troy, she experienced a nervous collapse after experiencing a religious conversion (change) that filled her with fears that she would go to hell. After this experience, she developed an intense dislike toward organized religion.

In 1840 she married the abolitionist (a person who is against slavery) leader Henry B. Stanton (18051887). Her feminist side showed at the wedding ceremony, in which she insisted (and Stanton agreed) that she would not give the wife's traditional promise to "obey" her husband. Keeping her maiden name as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, rather than going by the name of Mrs. Henry B. Stanton, was also unusual at the time.

Working for suffrage

Although Henry Stanton sympathized with his wife's ambitions for a wider role in the world, he was not wealthy, and she remained home with her five children for many years. All the same, she was able to do some writing and speaking for the feminist cause. In 1848 she organized America's first woman's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York, where the Stantons lived. She also composed a declaration of principles, which described the history of humankind as one in which men had repeatedly and intentionally suppressed the rights of women in order to establish "absolute tyranny" over them. Despite opposition, she persuaded the convention to approve a resolution calling for women's suffrage, or women's right to vote.

The Civil War (186165) was fought between the northern states and southern states to decide whether or not slavery would be allowed in new territories, and whether or not the South would leave the Union to form an independent nation. During the war Stanton and her ally Susan B. Anthony (18201906) created the National Woman's Loyal League to build support for what became the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which ended slavery in the United States. Once the slaves were free, Stanton and Anthony worked to ensure that women would be given the vote along with former male slaves. However, it was thought that if the struggle to gain the right to vote for black men was associated with votes for women, neither black men nor women of any color would get the vote.

This opposition only made Stanton and her colleagues more stubborn. Their campaign finally divided the women's suffrage movement into two camps. One was their own, New York-based band of uncompromising radicals (people who are extreme in their political beliefs), called the National Woman Suffrage Association. The other was a more conservative group, the American Woman Suffrage Association, which was centered in Boston and supported the idea that attaining the vote for black men was more important than demanding the vote for women. There were several differences in the positions of the two organizations, and a good deal of personal hostility developed between them. By 1890, however, these problems were overcome, and the two organizations merged into the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Stanton became the group's president.

Later years

Stanton remained active during her later years, however, she was less concerned with suffrage and more interested in reforming divorce laws and other similar matters. A stylish and witty writer, she worked with Anthony and Matilda Gage on the first three volumes of the massive collection History of Woman Suffrage and edited The Woman's Bible. Stanton also wrote articles on a variety of subjects for the best magazines of her time. She died on October 26, 1902, in New York City. With Susan B. Anthony, she is recognized today as one of the most important figures in the early movement to gain women's rights in the United States.

For More Information

Griffith, Elisabeth. In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. Eighty Years and More. New York: European Publishing Company, 1898, revised edition 2002.

Ward, Geoffrey C. Not For Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. New York: Knopf, 1999.

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Stanton, Elizabeth Cady (1815-1902)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)

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Reformer, suffragist, and writer

Marriage. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was born in Johnstown, New York, the daughter of a prominent lawyer. As a girl she was moved by the grief of her fathers female clients who learned that they had no legal identity as wives, that they were not the owners of their own property and wages, and that their children could be taken from them if they separated from their abusive or drunkard husbands. Such scenes convinced her early that women were at a serious disadvantage in society. While young she was provided with no formal education, but she worked hard to educate herself, borrowing her brothers books to learn Greek and Latin. At the age of sixteen she left home to attend Emma Willards Female Seminary in Troy, New York. Going to college was not an option as none was yet open to women. When she returned home she developed an interest in the temperance and abolition movements through the influence of her cousin Gerrit Smith, and at the age of twenty-four she married the abolitionist Henry Stanton. Elizabeth insisted on absolute equality in the marriage, a stipulation that Henry accepted by agreeing to leave out the word obey from their marriage vows. The newlyweds spent their honeymoon in London as delegates to the World Anti-Slavery Convention, where Elizabeth was precluded from participating. Instead she spent her days with Lucretia Mott, who convinced her of the necessity of fighting for the rights of women as well as slaves. The two decided that they would continue their conversations in the United States.

Motherhood and Reform. Stanton had seven children, and her duties as a mother limited her participation in the reform movements that had won her heart. Over the years, while her responsibilities kept her at home, she trained herself as a writer and used her pen to fight for justice. In 1848, when she met up with Mott again for the first time since their days in London, the two women organized the first American womens rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York. Stanton drafted the Declaration of Sentiments and resolutions that the convention adopted. She was especially insistent that the enfranchisement resolution be adopted, despite the resistance of many of those present, and thus launched the suffrage movement that would gather momentum at the end of the century. In the years following the Seneca Falls convention Stanton continued to attend womens rights meetings, developing a close relationship with Susan B. Anthony, whom she convinced to transfer her energies from temperance reform to womens rights. For Stanton womens rights became a necessary preliminary to all other reform because womens participation in other reform causes was being challenged at every turn. Stanton believed that it is womans duty to speak whenever she feels the impression to do so; it is her right to be present in all the councils of Church and State. Stanton and Anthony became the leaders of the movement as Stanton wrote speeches and developed her ideas while Anthony, who was not married, traveled around the country drumming up support. Stanton, more than any other early womens rights advocate, articulated objectives more radical than most believed would be acceptable to the public, including not only the right to vote but also the reform of married womens property laws and divorce laws. On these issues she made some progress; in 1860 New York State granted women guardianship of their children in case of divorce and the right to their own property and wages while married.

After the War. While the Civil War diverted attention away from reform, Stanton picked up where she left off once the war was over. With her children grown she devoted more time and energy to the cause. She ran for Congress in 1866, receiving twenty-four out of twelve hundred votes (all cast by men). As the Fifteenth Amendment was debated, women rallied for their right to vote along with African American males. When the American Woman Suffrage Association voted to back away from the issue and not fight for women to be included, Stanton retorted that she would cut off this right arm of mine before I will ever work for or demand the ballot for the Negro and not the woman. Anthony joined Stanton in creating a new organization in 1869, the National Woman Suffrage Association, to push for a constitutional amendment granting women the vote. Stanton served as president of the organization from 1890 to 1892, and continued to lecture and write on behalf of the broad-ranging reforms that were needed to improve womens lives, including woman suffrage, educational opportunities, dress reform, divorce, and opposition to oppression of organized religion. She retained her commitment to the larger picture that had convinced her to help initiate a movement for womens rights in 1848.

Sources

Lois W. Banner, Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A Radical for Womans Rights (Boston: Little, Brown, 1980);

Elizabeth Griffith, In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth cady Stanton (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984).

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Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

The writer and reformer Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) was perhaps the most gifted and versatile feminist leader in American history.

Elizabeth Cady was born in Johnstown, N.Y., on Nov. 12, 1815. The daughter of a judge, she became a feminist while still a child after hearing her father inform abused women that they had no legal alternative but to endure mistreatment by their husbands and fathers. She had the best education then available to women. While completing her studies at the Troy Female Seminary, she experienced a nervous collapse on hearing the great revivalist James Finney preach; henceforth she had an intense hostility toward organized religion.

In 1840 Elizabeth Cady married the abolitionist leader Henry B. Stanton. Although he sympathized with her ambitions, he was not wealthy, and she remained home with her five children for many years. All the same, she was able to do some writing and speaking for the feminist cause. In 1848 she organized America's first woman's-rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, N.Y., where the Stantons resided. She also composed a declaration of principles, which described the history of mankind as one of "repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her." Despite opposition, she persuaded the convention to approve a resolution calling for women's suffrage.

During the Civil War, Stanton and her friend and ally Susan B. Anthony created the National Woman's Loyal League to build support for what became the 13th Amendment to the Constitution. Once the slaves were free, the two worked to ensure that women would be enfranchised along with the freedmen. However, their work was seen as a threat to the black franchise. If the struggle to enfranchise black males was associated with votes for women, it was thought, neither black men nor women of any color would get the vote. But this opposition only made the Stantonites more stubborn. Their campaign finally divided the women's suffrage movement into two camps: their own New York-based band of uncompromising radicals, the National Woman Suffrage Association, and a more conservative group, the American Woman Suffrage Association, which was centered in Boston and accepted the primacy of black suffrage. There were several ideological differences between the two organizations, and a good deal of personal animosity developed. By 1890, however, these were overcome, and the two organizations merged into the National American Woman Suffrage Association, with Stanton as president.

Although Stanton remained active into old age, she was less concerned with suffrage and more interested in divorce reform and other matters during her last years. A fluent and witty writer, she collaborated with Anthony and Matilda Gage on the first three volumes of the massive History of Woman Suffrage and edited The Woman's Bible. Mrs. Stanton also wrote articles on a variety of subjects for the best contemporary magazines. She died on Oct. 26, 1902, in New York City.

Further Reading

Mrs. Stanton's autobiography, Eighty Years and More (1898), is engaging; it should be supplemented by Harriet Stanton Blatch and Theodore Stanton, eds., Elizabeth Cady Stanton as Revealed in Her Letters, Diary and Reminiscences (2 vols., 1922). Volumes 1-3 of the History of Woman Suffrage (1881-1888), which she edited with Susan B. Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage, contain important material, as does volume 4 (1903), edited by Susan B. Anthony and Ida Husted Harper. A good biography is Alma Lutz, Created Equal: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1815-1902 (1940). □

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Stanton, Elizabeth Cady

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1815–1902, American reformer, a leader of the woman-suffrage movement, b. Johnstown, N.Y. She was educated at the Troy Female Seminary (now Emma Willard School) in Troy, N.Y. In 1840 she married Henry Brewster Stanton, a journalist and abolitionist, and attended with him the international slavery convention in London. The woman delegates were excluded from the floor of the convention; the indignation this aroused in Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott was an important factor in their efforts to organize women to win greater equality. With several others they called the first women's rights convention in the United States in 1848 at Seneca Falls, N.Y. Stanton insisted that a suffrage clause be included in the bill of rights for women that was drawn up at the convention.

Elizabeth Stanton was a brilliant orator and an able journalist, and as a writer and lecturer she strove for legal, political, and industrial equality of women and for liberal divorce laws. From 1852, despite occasional disagreements, she was intimately associated with Susan B. Anthony in leading the women's movement. She was president of the National Woman Suffrage Association (1869–90) and of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (1890–92). With Anthony as publisher she and Parker Pillsbury edited (1868–70) the Revolution, a militant feminist magazine. She compiled with Susan B. Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage the first three volumes of History of Woman Suffrage (1881–86) and wrote Eighty Years and More (1898).

See Elizabeth Cady Stanton as Revealed in Her Letters, Diary and Reminiscences (ed. by T. Stanton and H. S. Blatch, 1922); The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, ed. by A. D. Gordon (6 vol., 1997–2013); biographies by W. E. Wise (1960) and E. Griffith (1985).

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Stanton, Elizabeth Cady

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady (1815–1902) US social reformer. Born Elizabeth Cady, she was a lifelong worker for women's rights. She organized the Seneca Falls Convention (1848), the first public assembly in the USA for female suffrage, and was later president of the Woman Suffrage Association.

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"Stanton, Elizabeth Cady." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Stanton, Elizabeth Cady." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/stanton-elizabeth-cady