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Simon, Paul 1941–

SIMON, Paul 1941–

(Paul Kane, Jerry Landis, True Taylor)

PERSONAL

Full name, Paul Frederic Simon; born October 13, 1941, in Newark, NJ; son of Louis (a bass player and dance band leader, under the name Lee Sims, and a college professor) and Belle (a teacher) Simon; married Peggy Harper, 1970 (divorced, 1975); married Carrie Fisher (an actress and writer), August 16, 1983 (divorced, 1984); married Edie Brickell (a singer and songwriter), May 30, 1992; children: (first marriage) Harper (an actor); (third marriage) Adrian Edward, Lulu, Gabriel. Education: Queens College of the City University of New York, B.A.; also attended Brooklyn Law School.

Addresses:

Agent—Rob Light, Creative Artists Agency, 9830 Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills, CA 90212. Web

Career:

Singer, songwriter, composer, record producer, actor, and writer. Performer in the 1950s as Jerry Landis, as True Taylor, and with Tico and the Triumphs; performer with Art Garfunkel as Tom and Jerry, 1957–59, and as Simon and Garfunkel, 1964–70 and afterwards; solo performer, beginning 1965. Children's Health Fund, cofounder; fund raiser for American Foundation for AIDS Research, Fund for Detained and Imprisoned Children in South Africa, and Nature Conservancy.

Member:

American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, Alpha Epsilon Pi (life member).

Awards, Honors:

Grammy Award (with Art Garfunkel and Ron Halee), National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, record of the year, and Grammy Award nomination, song of the year, both 1968, and Grammy Award, best contemporary pop performance vocal by a duo or group, all for "Mrs. Robinson"; Grammy Award (with Dave Grusin), best original score for a motion picture or television special, 1969, for The Graduate; Grammy Award nomination, album of the year, 1968, for Bookends; Grammy awards (with Garfunkel), record of the year, song of the year, and best contemporary song, all 1970, and Britannia Award, best international pop single of the past twenty–five years, 1977, all for "Bridge over Troubled Water"; Grammy awards, album of the year (with Garfunkel) and best arrangement accompanying vocals (with others), both 1970, and Britannia Award, best international pop album of the past twenty–five years, 1977, all for Bridge over Troubled Water; Grammy Award nomination, best male pop vocal, 1973, for "There Goes Rhymin' Simon"; Grammy Award nomination, album of the year, 1973, for There Goes Rhymin' Simon; Grammy Award, best male pop vocal, 1975, for "Still Crazy after All These Years"; Grammy Award (with others), album of the year, 1975, for Still Crazy after All These Years; Grammy Award nomination, record of the year, 1976, for "50 Ways to Leave Your Lover"; Emmy Award (with others), outstanding writing for a comedy–variety or music special, 1978, and Dove Award, Gospel Music Association, both for The Paul Simon Special; honoree, Kennedy Center Honors, John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, 1979 and 2002; Grammy Award nomination, best male pop vocal, 1980, for "Late in the Evening"; Grammy Award nomination, best original score for a motion picture, 1981, for One Trick Pony; Grammy Award nomination, video of the year, 1981, for Paul Simon; Grammy Award nomination, nonclassical producer of the year, 1986; Grammy Award, record of the year, Grammy Award nominations, song of the year and best male pop vocal, 1986, and American Music Award, pop/rock favorite male vocalist, 1988, all for "Graceland"; Grammy Award, album of the year, and Critics' Pick Award, Rolling Stone, best album, both 1986, and American Music Award, pop/rock favorite album, 1988, all for Graceland; Critics' Pick awards, best songwriter and best comeback, 1987; Frederick D. Patterson Award, United Negro College Fund, 1989; Ellis Island Medal of Honor, National Ethnic Coalition of Organizations, 1990; inducted into Rock and Roll Hall of Fame with Art Garfunkel, 1990, and as a solo artist, 2001; named one of the "100 greatest entertainers," Entertainment Weekly, 1999; Grammy Award nomination, album of the year, c. 2001, for You're the One; Academy Award nomination, best original song, Golden Globe Award nomination, best original song for a motion picture, and Broadcast Film Critics Association Award nomination, best song, all 2003, for "Father and Daughter," The Wild Thornberrys Movie; Lifetime Achievement Award (with Garfunkel), National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, c. 2003; Graceland and There Goes Rhymin' Simon named among the "500 greatest albums of all time," Rolling Stone magazine, c. 2003; with Art Garfunkel, named among the greatest artists of rock and roll, Rolling Stone magazine.

CREDITS

Film Appearances:

(With Simon and Garfunkel) Monterey Pop (documentary), Criterion Collection, 1969.

Tony Lacey, Annie Hall, United Artists, 1977.

Jonah, One Trick Pony, Warner Bros., 1980.

Himself, Why Havel? (documentary), 1991.

Himself, Dave, Warner Bros., 1993.

On Tiptoe: Gentle Steps to Freedom (documentary short film; also known as On Tiptoe: The Music of Ladysmith Black Mambazo), Noma Films, 2000.

Film Song Performer:

(With Art Garfunkel) "April Come She Will," "The Big Bright Green Pleasure Machine," "Mrs. Robinson," "Scarborough Fair (Canticle)," and "The Sound of Silence," The Graduate, Embassy, 1967.

Simon's song performances (often with Art Garfunkel) have been featured in films, television broadcasts, and videos.

Television Appearances; Miniseries:

(In archive footage) Himself in "You Can Call Me Al" video, I Love the '80s Strikes Back, VH1, 2003.

Television Appearances; Movies:

Simple Simon, Mother Goose Rock 'n' Rhyme, The Disney Channel, 1990.

Television Appearances; Specials:

Host, The Paul Simon Special, NBC, 1977.

Himself, The Rutles (also known as All You Need Is Cash), BBC–2, 1978.

Music Central, syndicated, 1981.

100 Years of America's Popular Music (also known as Live from Studio 8H: 100 Years of America's Popular Music), NBC, 1981.

Simon and Garfunkel: The Concert in Central Park (also known as Simon and Garfunkel in Central Park), HBO, 1982.

Host, Simon and Garfunkel in Concert, HBO, 1983.

We Are the World (also known as We Are the World: The Video Event), 1985.

Host, A Gospel Session: Everybody Say Yeah!, Cinemax, 1987.

Graceland: The African Concert, Showtime, 1987.

1987 Power Hits New Year's Eve Countdown, syndicated, 1987.

Coca–Cola Presents Live: The Hard Rock, NBC, 1988.

Sesame Street Special (also known as Put Down the Duckie), PBS, 1988.

Saturday Night Live 15th Anniversary, NBC, 1989.

American Tribute to Vaclav Havel and a Celebration of Democracy in Czechoslovakia, PBS, 1990.

The House I Live In, PBS, 1990.

Late Night with Dave Letterman Eighth Anniversary Special, NBC, 1990.

Paul Simon: Solo, The Disney Channel, 1990.

Living in America, VH1, 1991.

Paul Simon Live in Central Park: Born at the Right Time Tour: One Night Only, HBO, 1991.

Paul Simon's Concert in the Park, 1991. Racism: Points of View, MTV, 1991.

(In archive footage) 60 Minutes: The Entertainers, CBS, 1991.

Farm Aid V, The Nashville Network, 1992.

Hurricane Relief, Showtime, 1992.

Farm Aid VI, The Nashville Network, 1993.

Paul Simon: Born at the Right Time, PBS, 1993.

Rhythm and Jam, ABC, 1993.

Willie Nelson the Big Six–O: An All–Star Birthday Celebration, CBS, 1993.

(In archive footage) The World of Jim Henson, PBS, 1994.

"We Are the World": A 10th Anniversary Tribute, The Disney Channel, 1995.

Grammy's Greatest Performances, CBS, 1999.

Saturday Night Live: 25th Anniversary (also known as Saturday Night Live: 25th Anniversary Primetime Special), NBC, 1999.

Greatest TV Moments: Sesame Street Music A–Z, VH1, 2000.

Paul Simon: You're the One—In Concert from Paris, PBS, 2000.

America: A Tribute to Heroes, multiple networks, 2001.

Muhammad Ali's All–Star 60th Birthday Celebration! (also known as Muhammad Ali's 60th Birthday Celebration), CBS, 2002.

Willie Nelson: Live and Kickin' (also known as Willie Nelson & Friends: Live and Kickin'), USA Network, 2003.

Himself, AFI's 100 Years … 100 Songs (also known as AFI's 100 Years … 100 Songs: America's Greatest Music in the Movies), CBS, 2004.

(In archive footage) Himself, 101 Most Unforgettable SNL Moments, E! Entertainment Television, 2004.

(In archive footage) Himself, Saturday Night Live: The Best of Tom Hanks, NBC, 2004.

Baileys in Tune, VH1, 2004.

(In archive footage) Himself, Saturday Night Live: The First 5 Years (documentary), NBC, 2005.

Television Appearances; Awards Presentations:

The 17th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1975.

The 19th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1977.

The Kennedy Center Honors: A Celebration of the Performing Arts, CBS, 1979.

Host, The 23rd Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1981.

The 28th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1986.

Presenter, The 19th Annual NAACP Image Awards, NBC, 1987.

The 29th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1987.

The 34th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1992.

Sports Illustrated's 20th Century Sports Awards, CBS, 1999.

An All–Star Tribute to Brian Wilson, TNT, 2001.

The 43rd Annual Grammy Awards (also known as 2000 Grammy Awards), CBS, 2001.

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum: 16th Annual Induction Ceremony, VH1, 2001.

The Kennedy Center Honors: A Celebration of the Performing Arts (also known as The 25th Anniversary Kennedy Center Honors: A Celebration of the Performing Arts), CBS, 2002.

The 45th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 2003.

The 75th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 2003.

The 2003 MTV Video Music Awards, MTV, 2003.

The 2004 MTV Video Music Awards, MTV, 2004.

Television Appearances; Episodic:

(With Art Garfunkel, as Tom and Jerry) American Bandstand (also known as Bandstand), ABC, 1958.

(With Garfunkel) Ready, Steady, Go!, Associated–Rediffusion, 1965.

(With Garfunkel) Beat–Club, 1966.

(With Garfunkel) The Ed Sullivan Show (also known as Toast of the Town), CBS, 1966.

(With Garfunkel) The Red Skelton Comedy Hour, CBS, 1966.

"Three for Tonight," The Kraft Music Hall, NBC, 1968.

(With Garfunkel) The Andy Williams Show, NBC, c. 1968.

Guest, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, NBC, 1971, 1986.

Guest or guest host, Saturday Night Live (also known as NBC's "Saturday Night," Saturday Night, Saturday Night Live '80, SNL, and SNL 25), NBC, multiple appearances, 1975–2001.

Guest, The Midnight Special, NBC, 1980.

Aplauso, 1980.

The Muppet Show, syndicated, 1981.

Guest, Late Night with David Letterman, NBC, 1986, 1987.

MTV Unplugged, MTV, 1989, 1992.

Guest, The Howard Stern Show, syndicated, 1992.

Guest, The Late Show with David Letterman, CBS, 1993, 1998, 2001, 2003.

Guest, The Rosie O'Donnell Show, syndicated, 1997.

VH1 Storytellers (also known as Storytellers), VH1, c. 1997.

Guest, "Svadharma," LateLine, NBC, 1999.

(As Paul Kane) John Dryden, "Via Dolorosa," Millennium, Fox, 1999.

Guest, Parkinson, BBC, 2000.

"Joe DiMaggio," SportsCentury, ESPN, 2000.

"New York Yankees, Part Two," SportsCentury, ESPN, 2003.

Appeared in an interview in Album Flash, Cinemax; also appeared in episodes of The Fred Astaire Show; and Weakest Link, NBC.

Television Work; Series:

Song performer, "Ten Years" (theme song), The Oprah Winfrey Show (also known as Oprah), syndicated, beginning c. 1996.

Stage Appearances:

Performer, Mike Nichols and Elaine May: Together Again on Broadway (benefit performance), Brooks Atkinson Theatre, New York City, 1992.

Stage Coproducer:

Asinamali! We Have No Money, Jack Lawrence Theatre, New York City, 1987.

RECORDINGS

Albums:

The Paul Simon Songbook, CBS, 1965.

The Early Songs of Paul Simon, Crest, 1972.

Paul Simon, Columbia, c. 1973.

There Goes Rhymin' Simon, Columbia, 1973.

Live Rhymin': Paul Simon in Concert, Columbia, 1974.

New Songs, 1975.

Shampoo (soundtrack), 1975.

Still Crazy after All These Years, Columbia, 1975.

Greatest Hits, Etc., Columbia, 1977.

One Trick Pony (original soundtrack recording), Warner Bros., 1980.

Collected Works, Columbia, 1981.

Hearts and Bones, Warner Bros., 1983.

Graceland, Warner Bros., 1986.

Greatest Hits, CBS, 1987.

Negotiations and Love Songs, 1971–1986, Warner Bros., 1988.

The Rhythm of the Saints, Warner Bros., 1990.

Born at the Right Time, Alex, 1991.

Collection, Alex, 1991.

Paul Simon's Concert in the Park, Warner Bros., 1991.

Greatest Hits, 1993.

Paul Simon and Friends, Royal Collection, 1993.

Paul Simon, 1964–1993 (boxed set), Warner Bros., 1993.

Songs from the Capeman, Warner Bros., 1997.

In Concert/Live Rhymin', DCC, 1998.

You're the One, Warner Bros., 2000.

Father and Daughter: From the Wild Thornberrys Movie, Nick Records, 2002.

The Paul Simon Collection: On My Way, Don't Know Where I'm Goin', Warner Bros., 2002.

Paul Simon: The Studio Recordings 1972–2000 (nine volume boxed set), Rhino, 2004.

Albums with Art Garfunkel; As Simon and Garfunkel:

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., Columbia, 1964.

Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, Columbia, 1966.

The Sound of Silence, Columbia, 1966.

Simon and Garfunkel, Allegro, 1967.

Bookends, Columbia, 1968.

The Graduate (original soundtrack recording), Columbia, 1968.

Bridge over Troubled Water, Columbia, 1970.

Simon and Garfunkel's Greatest Hits (also known as Greatest Hits), Columbia, 1972.

The Simon and Garfunkel Collection (boxed set), CBS, 1981.

The Concert in Central Park, Warner Bros., 1982.

Old Friends, Columbia, 1997.

The Best of Simon and Garfunkel, Columbia/Legacy, 1999.

Old Friends: Live on Stage, two volumes, Warner Bros., 2004.

Singles:

"Mother and Child Reunion," 1972.

"Kodachrome," 1973.

"Loves Me Like a Rock," 1973.

"Me and Julio down by the Schoolyard," 1973.

"50 Ways to Leave Your Lover," Columbia, c. 1976.

"Still Crazy after All These Years," 1976.

"Slip Slidin' Away," 1977.

"Late in the Evening," Warner Bros., 1980.

"Boy in the Bubble," 1986.

"Graceland," BMI, 1986.

(With Ladysmith Black Mambazo) "Homeless," 1986.

"You Can Call Me Al," 1986.

"The Obvious Child," 1990.

"Proof," 1990.

"Thelma," 1993.

"Father and Daughter," 2002.

Singles with Art Garfunkel; As Tom and Jerry:

"Don't Say Goodbye," Big, 1958.

"Hey Schoolgirl," Big, 1958.

"Our Song," Big, 1958.

Recorded the song "Red Rubber Ball."

Singles with Art Garfunkel; As Simon and Garfunkel:

"The Sound of Silence," 1965.

"Homeward Bound," 1966.

"I Am a Rock," 1966.

"Scarborough Fair (Canticle)," 1966.

"Mrs. Robinson," Columbia, 1968.

"Bridge over Troubled Water," 1970.

"My Little Town," 1975.

Recorded other singles with Art Garfunkel as Simon and Garfunkel.

Singles as Jerry Landis:

"Anna Belle," Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer, 1959.

"I Want to Be the Lipstick on Your Collar," Warwick, 1961.

"Play Me a Sad Song," Warwick, 1961.

"The Lone Teen Ranger," Amy, 1963.

Singles with Others:

(With Rico and the Triumphs) "Motorcycle," Amy, 1952.

(With USA for Africa) "We Are the World," 1985.

Recorded "What a Wonderful World" with Art Garfunkel and James Taylor. Recorded singles as True Taylor, 1958, and as Paul Kane, 1963. Also performed on albums by Al Kooper, David Sanborn, Libby Titus, Randy Newman, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, Dion, Joan Baez, the Seekers, Ray Charles, Carl Perkins, and others.

Album Work:

(Producer, arranger, and instrumentalist) Edie Brickell, Picture Perfect Morning, Geffen, 1994.

Videos:

In Concert, Warner Reprise, 1972.

Paul Simon, Pioneer Artists, 1981.

Steve Martin Live, 1986.

Himself, Ladysmith Black Mambazo: Journey of Dreams, 1988.

Graceland: The African Tour (also known as Graceland: The African Concert), Warner Bros., 1991.

Paul Simon's Concert in the Park, Warner Bros., 1991.

Born at the Right Time, Warner Reprise, 1993.

Classic Albums: Paul Simon—Graceland (also known as Graceland), 1997.

(In archive footage) Dave, Saturday Night Live Christmas, 1999.

Old Friends: Live on Stage, Warner Bros., 2004.

Music Videos:

(With USA for Africa) "We Are the World," 1985.

"Boy in the Bubble," 1986.

(With Ladysmith Black Mambazo) "Homeless," 1986.

"You Can Call Me Al," 1986.

"Graceland," c. 1986.

"The Obvious Child," 1990.

"Proof," 1990.

"Thelma," 1993.

"Father and Daughter," 2002.

Other music videos include "Me and Julio down by the Schoolyard."

WRITINGS

Film Music:

Score (with Dave Grusin) and songs "April Come She Will," "The Big Bright Green Pleasure Machine," "Mrs. Robinson," "Scarborough Fair (Canticle)," and "The Sound of Silence," The Graduate, Embassy, 1967.

Score, Shampoo, Columbia, 1975.

Score and songs, One Trick Pony, Warner Bros., 1980.

Score and song "Father and Daughter," The Wild Thornberrys Movie (animated), Paramount, 2002.

Several of Simon's songs have been featured in films, television broadcasts, and videos; these include "Mrs. Robinson," "Scarborough Fair (Canticle)," and "The Sound of Silence."

Screenplays:

One Trick Pony, Warner Bros., 1980.

Television Music; Series:

"Ten Years" (theme song), The Oprah Winfrey Show (also known as Oprah), syndicated, beginning c. 1996.

Television Music; Specials:

Songs, The Paul Simon Special, NBC, 1977.

"American Tune" (title music), The Statue of Liberty, PBS, 1985.

Songs, A Gospel Session: Everybody Say Yeah!, Cinemax, 1987.

Stage Music:

(With others) Songs, Rock 'n Roll! The First 5,000 Years, St. James Theatre, New York City, 1982.

Book and lyrics (with Derek Walcott) and composer, The Capeman (musical), Marquis Theatre, New York City, 1998.

Songs, The Graduate, Plymouth Theatre, New York City, 2002–2003.

Albums:

The Paul Simon Songbook, CBS, 1965.

The Early Songs of Paul Simon, Crest, 1972.

Paul Simon, Columbia, c. 1973.

There Goes Rhymin' Simon, Columbia, 1973.

Live Rhymin': Paul Simon in Concert, Columbia, 1974.

New Songs, 1975.

Shampoo (soundtrack), 1975.

Still Crazy after All These Years, Columbia, 1975.

Greatest Hits, Etc., Columbia, 1977.

One Trick Pony (original soundtrack recording), Warner Bros., 1980.

Collected Works, Columbia, 1981.

Hearts and Bones, Warner Bros., 1983.

Graceland, Warner Bros., 1986.

Greatest Hits, CBS, 1987.

Negotiations and Love Songs, 1971–1986, Warner Bros., 1988.

The Rhythm of the Saints, Warner Bros., 1990.

Born at the Right Time, Alex, 1991.

Collection, Alex, 1991.

Paul Simon's Concert in the Park, Warner Bros., 1991.

Greatest Hits, 1993.

Paul Simon and Friends, Royal Collection, 1993.

Paul Simon, 1964–1993 (boxed set), Warner Bros., 1993.

Songs from the Capeman, Warner Bros., 1997.

In Concert/Live Rhymin', DCC, 1998.

You're the One, Warner Bros., 2000.

Father and Daughter: From the Wild Thornberrys Movie, Nick Records, 2002.

The Paul Simon Collection: On My Way, Don't Know Where I'm Goin', Warner Bros., 2002.

Paul Simon: The Studio Recordings 1972–2000 (nine volume boxed set), Rhino, 2004.

Albums Recorded with Art Garfunkel; As Simon and Garfunkel:

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., Columbia, 1964.

Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme, Columbia, 1966.

The Sound of Silence, Columbia, 1966.

Simon and Garfunkel, Allegro, 1967.

Bookends, Columbia, 1968.

The Graduate (original soundtrack recording), Columbia, 1968.

Bridge over Troubled Water, Columbia, 1970.

Simon and Garfunkel's Greatest Hits (also known as Greatest Hits), Columbia, 1972.

The Simon and Garfunkel Collection (boxed set), CBS, 1981.

The Concert in Central Park, Warner Bros., 1982.

Old Friends, Columbia, 1997.

The Best of Simon and Garfunkel, Columbia/Legacy, 1999.

Old Friends: Live on Stage, two volumes, Warner Bros., 2004.

Singles:

"Mother and Child Reunion," 1972.

"Kodachrome," 1973.

"Loves Me Like a Rock," 1973.

"Me and Julio down by the Schoolyard," 1973.

"50 Ways to Leave Your Lover," Columbia, c. 1976.

"Still Crazy after All These Years," 1976.

"Slip Slidin' Away," 1977.

"Late in the Evening," Warner Bros., 1980.

"Boy in the Bubble," 1986.

"Graceland," BMI, 1986.

(With Ladysmith Black Mambazo) "Homeless," 1986.

"You Can Call Me Al," 1986.

"The Obvious Child," 1990.

"Proof," 1990.

"Thelma," 1993.

"Father and Daughter," 2002.

Singles Recorded with Art Garfunkel; As Tom and Jerry:

"Don't Say Goodbye," Big, 1958.

"Hey Schoolgirl," Big, 1958.

"Our Song," Big, 1958.

Recorded the song "Red Rubber Ball."

Singles Recorded with Art Garfunkel; As Simon and Garfunkel:

"The Sound of Silence," 1965.

"Homeward Bound," 1966.

"I Am a Rock," 1966.

"Scarborough Fair (Canticle)," 1966.

"Mrs. Robinson," Columbia, 1968.

"Bridge over Troubled Water," 1970.

"My Little Town," 1975.

Recorded other singles with Art Garfunkel as Simon and Garfunkel.

Singles as Jerry Landis:

"Anna Belle," Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer, 1959.

"I Want to Be the Lipstick on Your Collar," Warwick, 1961.

"Play Me a Sad Song," Warwick, 1961.

"The Lone Teen Ranger," Amy, 1963.

Singles with Others:

(With Rico and the Triumphs) "Motorcycle," Amy, 1952.

Other Simon songs, such as "The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin' Groovy)," appear on the albums of others.

Writings for Children:

At the Zoo, illustrated by Valerie Michaut, Doubleday, 1991.

OTHER SOURCES

Books:

Humphries, Patrick, The Boy in the Bubble: A Biography of Paul Simon, New English Library, 1990.

Luftig, Stacey, The Paul Simon Companion: Four Decades of Commentary, Schirmer Books/Prentice Hall International, 1997.

Kingston, Victoria, Simon & Garfunkel: The Biography, Fromm International, 1998.

Perone, James E., Paul Simon: A Bio–Bibliography, Greenwood Press, 2000.

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, St. James Press, 2000.

Periodicals:

Entertainment Weekly, October 3, 1997, p. 28; November 21, 1997, p. 131; December 12, 1997, pp. 34–40; November 1, 1999, p. 127.

Independent, November 3, 1993, p. 21.

Life, November, 1993, p. 86.

Liner Notes, Volume 8, issue 1, pp. 12–13.

Musician, January, 1994.

Newsweek, January 14, 1991; October 11, 1993.

Progressive, June, 1998, p. 36.

Time, November 12, 1990; June 12, 1995.

Washington Post, August 20, 2002, pp. C1, C4; December 8, 2002, pp. G1, G4–G5.

Electronic:

Paul Simon Official Site, http://www.paulsimon.com, January 7, 2005.

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Simon, Paul

Paul Simon

Singer, songwriter, guitarist

For the Record

Words and Music

Going Solo

Graceland

Selected discography

Sources

Newsweeks Jeff Gilesin a 1993 profile celebrating Paul Simons three-disc career retrospectivereferred to the veteran performer as the only songwriter of his generation still curious, bent on change and utterly awake. Tony Scherman of Life seconded this view: Few longtime pop-music idols have steered their careers so gracefully into the present. Simons recipe for long-term career vitality, it would seem, contains equal parts insatiable passion for musical growth and lingering insecurity.

After turning his partnership with singer Art Garfunkel into a hit pop act, Simon went on to become one of the premier solo singer-songwriters of the 1970s. Though he experienced a slump of sorts in the ensuing decade, he came roaring back with Graceland, which garnered critical raves and multi-platinum sales. Even then, however, he was forced to fend off claims of musical imperialism for his use of South African song forms and employment of African musicians; his subsequent album relied on Brazilian music in a similar way and received the same criticism.

For the Record

Born October 13, 1941, in Newark, NJ; son of Louis (a former musician and college professor) and Belle (a schoolteacher) Simon; married Peggy Harper, 1969 (divorced, 1975); married Carrie Fisher (an actress), 1983 (divorced, 1983); married Edie Brickell (a singer-songwriter), 1992; children: (first marriage) Harper, (third marriage) Adrian. Education: B.A. in English, Queens College; attended Brooklyn Law School.

With Art Garfunkel, performed as Tom and Jerry, 1957-59, recording Hey Schoolgirl, Big, 1958; recorded as Jerry Landis and Tico & the Triumphs, among other names, for labels including MGM and Warwick, and recorded demos for music publishers, 1959-63; reunited with Garfunkel and, as Simon and Garfunkel, signed with Columbia and released debut album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., 1964; released solo album The Paul Simon Songbook, 1965; with Garfunkel, provided songs for soundtrack to film The Graduate, 1968; split from Garfunkel and released solo album Paul Simon, 1972; appeared in film Annie Hall, 1977; performed at Inaugural Eve Gala for President Jimmy Carter, 1977; wrote, starred in, and provided songs for soundtrack of film One-Trick Pony, 1980; signed with Warner Bros. and released Hearts and Bones, 1983; appeared on MTV Unplugged, 1992; collaborated with poet Derek Walcott on musical Capeman, 1990s.

Selected awards: With Garfunkel, Grammy awards for best album and best performance by a pop vocal group, 1969, for The Graduate; Grammy awards for best album, for Bridge over Troubled Water, and for best single and best performance by a pop vocal group, for Bridge over Troubled Water, all 1970; inducted into Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, 1990. As solo artist, Grammy awards for best album, 1975, for Still Crazy after All These Years, and 1987, for Graceland. Emmy Award, 1977, for television special Paul Simon.

Addresses: Record company Warner Bros., 75 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY 10019; 3300 Warner Blvd., Burbank, CA 91510.

Yet Simon has steadfastly defended all of his work, arguing that foreign musical territory has both helped him grow and built enduring international relationships. Still, his artistic and commercial growth have not seemed to alleviate the insecurity that keeps him on edge. Hes particularly vulnerable when hes writing, noted Simons friend Lome Michaels, best known as producer of the TV program Saturday Night Live. Sometimes hell play you a song and youll go, Thats great! and he seems genuinely surprised you like it. Hes pretty rough on himself.

Words and Music

A quintessential Manhattanite in adulthoodhis urbane lyrics are rivaled in sophistication only by his nuanced melodiesSimon was born in Newark, New Jersey, and grew up in Queens, New York. His mother was a schoolteacher; his father worked as a jazz bassist for many years before becoming a college professor. The anti-Semitic tenor of the late 1940s moved the elder Simon to disguise his Jewish surname: He used the name Lou Sims, Simon told Life. Further reminiscing about his father, he revealed, When I was five or six, he would bring me to Mannys [music store] on 48th Street, where he bought his bass strings and rosin. So I knew a world that was pre-rock and roll. Ultimately, however, his father became bored with the musicians life and entered academia, receiving a doctorate in semanticsthe study of language. The older I get, Simon ventured, the more I realize that my thing is so much like my fathers. Im his kid, more and more interested in words.

What caught his fancy at first, however, was a soundthe sound of early rock and roll. During the 1950s he and his pal Arthur Garfunkel formed a duet called Tom and Jerrycamouflaging their Jewish names just as Simons father hadand became stars while still in high school, thanks to the hit single Hey Schoolgirl. Though Tom and Jerry saw no further chart action, Simon soon found himself working with another promising young singer-songwriter. Carole King and I made a lot of demosCarole Klein, from Brooklyn, he recollected in Life. Shed play piano and drums, I could play bass and guitar, and we sang all the parts. Thats where I learned how to stack [overlay] voices and do overdubshow to make records. One moment we were making demos; the next she was making $150,000 a year writing Number One hits. It was very demoralizing to me.

Simon recorded a number of solo singles as Jerry Landis and saw some of them recorded by other acts. He attended Queens College while Garfunkel was at Columbia. He then tried Brooklyn Law School. Finally, the two decided to work together again and began performing in local clubs.

By the dawn of the 1960s, ethnic including ethnic-sounding nameswas in vogue and folk music was catching the national ear; the duo became Simon and Garfunkel. Their first album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., fared poorly, and Simon went to England for a time to play the folk scene there. But on its re-release in 1966following a retooled pop version of their single The Sounds of Silence that featured drumsthe record became a hit. Merging the evocative, lyrically dense folk-rock popularized by Bob Dylan with their own radio-friendly pop hooks, Simon and Garfunkel would send a score of singles up the charts, including The Sounds of Silence, The Boxer, Mrs. Robinson, The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin Groovy), the traditional Scarborough Fair/Canticle, and Bridge over Troubled Waters. They won five Grammy awards in 1969 and 1970. Their vocal harmonies were peerless, but their partnership became rocky; Simon felt his musical ambition was hampered by Garfunkels conservatism and acting aspirations. The pair split in 1971. They would reunite occasionally, howeveras on Simons My Little Town, various Garfunkel projects, and a couple of extremely successful live engagementsand in 1990 would be inducted jointly into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Going Solo

Going solo was my decision, Simon pointed out in a Time magazine profile. But I was nervous about it. He was met with profound skepticism from industry types who were loath to part with the duos proven formula, yet he persevered. I thought, if Simon and Garfunkel is all about the voices and not the songs, so much for my career, he remembered in Newsweek. But if its about the songs as well as the voices, then I was going to be fine.

He neednt have worried; he proceeded to score hits throughout the 1970s, including Mother and Child Reunion, Me and Julio down by the Schoolyard, Kodachrome, Slip Slidin Away, Loves Me Like a Rock, 50 Ways to Leave Your Lover, and many others. His 1975 disc, Still Crazy after All These Years, took a best album Grammy; in 1977 he won an Emmy award for a TV special. Noted modern composer Phillip Glass, interviewed in Life, called Simon a great artist, adding, Yeswhy not? The only music that counts is the music we love, the records in our collections that keep coming to the top. And for a quarter century now, Paul has generated a tremendous amount of music we love.

But Simons ambitions werent limited to songwriting. He was a frequent host of Saturday Night Live, once lampooning his sincere image by donning a turkey suit for a Thanksgiving episode and crooning his way, deadpan, through Still Crazy. His friend Woody Allen cast himcomicallyas a slick L.A. show biz figure in the 1977 film Annie Hall, and 1980 saw the release of One-Trick Pony, a semi-autobiographical feature written by and starring Simon. Of course, he also wrote and performed the songs on the soundtrack.

As the 1980s dawned, Simon reunited with Garfunkel for a concert in New Yorks Central Park, the recording of which sold vigorously upon its release in 1981. His personal life was less rosy; he divorced his first wife, Peggy Harper, in 1975, then married actress-writer Carrie Fisher in 1983. That union foundered within a year. The dissolution of this marriage coincided with Simons least commercially successful album (and his first for Warner Bros.), Hearts and Bones. Many prophesied the end of his career.

Graceland

Yet in 1986, Simonafter traveling to South Africa and working with a large group of musicians there and at homeemerged with Graceland, a pop album at once epic and personal. The record filtered a panoply of styles, including South African township jive, zydeco, and rock, through Simons distinctive lyrical perspective. It garnered rave reviews; Lifes Scherman quoted a New York Times critic who called it an album-length song cycle that far transcends the normal pop record for complexity and richness.

Among the guest artists on the record were the South African vocal group Ladysmith Black Mambazo, L.A. rockers Los Lobos, pop diva Linda Ronstadt, and guitar experimentalist Adrian Belew. The title song refers to the Memphis, Tennessee, home of rock idol Elvis Presley as though it were a haven for the weary faithful: I have reason to believe, Simon sings, we all will be received in Graceland. The album snagged a Grammy for best album; the single You Can Call Me Al was among the hits that took Graceland past the ten million sales mark. Simon later wrote a piece for Musician magazine about the process of writing Al: At its best, he concluded, songwriting for me means peeling back layers. Its discovery, and thats the truth.

Simons path to musical discovery, however, was also something of a mine field. Many political activists objected to his work in South Africa, since that country at the time was in thrall to a system of racial inequality known as apartheid and was thus being boycotted by artists around the world. They argued that Simon, as a rich white musician, was exploiting oppressed Third World musicians and doing nothing about their plight. Even worse, these critics maintained, he used their musical styles merely to sing about his own life. His attempts to explain himself rarely assuaged such attacks. I suppose someone could say,Well, thats very nice for you, Paul Simon, and congratulations. But theres a whole suffering continent there. Which is valid, he reflected in Life. But my answer is,Was I supposed to solve things in a song? Furthermore, the bridges that Simon built with African musicians have had their own impact; the leader of Ladysmith Black Mambazo gave him the Zulu name Vutlendela, the man who opened the door.

Simons work on Graceland altered his songwriting process. A new emphasis on rhythm was particularly evident, and this continued on his 1990 follow-up, The Rhythm of the Saints. Born of his work with Brazilian musicians and requiring $1 million and 2 years to complete, Rhythm was a trickier beast than Graceland; though it sold some four million copies, it was less than a smashing success when compared to its predecessor. The world hasnt gotten it yet, he averred to Scherman some three years after the albums release. Its taking a while for people to realize that its more interesting than Graceland. More interesting, perhaps, but less sunny: There are aspects of my personal life and my familys personal life that are more grave than they were four years ago, he noted in a Time interview. And thats in there. It was on my mind, it had to be in there.

By 1993, the various strands of Simons career began to look less like detours and more like parts of a cohesive musical vision. This was demonstrated in part by the valedictory three-disc boxed set Paul Simon, 1964/1993 and a performance on the popular acoustic showcase MTV Unplugged, but also by a series of mammoth stage shows billed as The Concert Event of a Lifetime and featuring Garfunkel, Ladysmith, a coterie of Brazilian musicians, and even a cameo by comedian Steve Martin. Audiences at these concerts saw Simon run through everything from Feelin Groovy to revamped material from Graceland and Rhythm. The perceptive among them also saw the elements in his early work that prefigured his Third World wandering. Simon, observed composer-producer Quincy Jones to Newsweek, is smart enough to understand the African motor, which has driven pop music for so long.

Life on the home front had stabilized a bit in the meantime. Simon married singer-songwriter Edie Brickell, and the two had a child in 1993. He built a studio in his Manhattan home and continued exploring new ground. Im at the peak of my career, he insisted to Scherman. In terms of creativity, in terms of fame, in terms of drawing power, in terms ofyou just name anything. Simon next undertook a collaboration with acclaimed poet Derek Walcott on a musical, The Cape Man. Due in 1996 and based on a true story of a teenager who murdered two 16 year-olds while wearing a nurses cape, it was clear from various interviews that this new project tapped some old insecurities. Nonetheless, venturing into uncharted territory has been a key source of Simons continued vitality as an artist. The thing that happens to musicians in middle age, he mused to David Gates of Newsweek, especially if youve had a lot of success, a lot of attention, is that there comes a point where you either rediscover why you love music or it just becomes slick. For over 30 years, Simon has transformed his discoveries into musical treasures.

Selected discography

Simon and Garfunkel; on Columbia, except where noted

(As Tom and Jerry) Hey Schoolgirl, Big, 1958.

(As Tom and Jerry) Dont Say Goodbye, Big, 1958.

(As Tom and Jerry) Our Song, Big, 1958.

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. (includes The Sounds of Silence), 1964, reissued, 1966.

The Sounds of Silence (includes The Sounds of Silence and I Am a Rock), 1966.

Parsley, Sage, Rosemary & Thyme (includes Scarborough Fair/Canticle and 59th Street Bridge Song [Feelin Groovy]), 1966.

The Graduate (soundtrack; includes Mrs. Robinson), 1968.

Bookends, 1968.

Bridge over Troubled Waters (includes Bridge over Troubled Waters and The Boxer), 1970.

Concert in Central Park, Warner Bros., 1981.

Solo releases

(As Jerry Landis) Anna Belle, MGM, 1959.

(As Jerry Landis) I Want to Be the Lipstick on Your Collar, Warwick, 1961.

(As Jerry Landis) Play Me a Sad Song, Warwick, 1961.

(As Tico & the Triumphs), Motorcycle, Amy, 1962.

(As Jerry Landis) The Lone Teen Ranger, Amy, 1963.

The Paul Simon Songbook, Columbia, 1965.

Paul Simon (includes Mother and Child Reunion and Me and Julio down by the Schoolyard), Columbia, 1972, reissued, Warner Bros., 1988.

There Goes Rhymin Simon (includes Kodachrome), Columbia, 1973, reissued, Warner Bros., 1988.

Live Rhymin: Paul Simon in Concert, Columbia, 1974, reissued, Warner Bros., 1988.

Still Crazy after All These Years (includes Still Crazy after All These Years, 50 Ways to Leave Your Lover, Slip Slidirï Away, and My Little Town), Columbia, 1975.

Greatest Hits, Etc., Columbia, 1978.

One-Trick Pony (soundtrack), WEA, 1980.

Hearts and Bones, Warner Bros., 1983.

Grace/and (includes Graceland and You Can Call Me Al), Warner Bros., 1986.

Negotiations and Love Songs, 1971-1986, Warner Bros., 1988.

The Rhythm of the Saints, Warner Bros., 1990.

Paul Simon, 1964/1993, Warner Bros., 1993.

Sources

Books

Rees, Dafydd, and Luke Crampton, Rock Movers & Shakers, Billboard, 1991.

Periodicals

Life, November 1993.

Musician, January 1994.

Newsweek, January 14, 1991; October 11, 1993.

Time, November 12, 1990; June 12, 1995.

Additional information for this profile was obtained from Warner Bros, publicity materials, 1993.

Simon Glickman

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Simon, Paul

Paul Simon

Singer, songwriter, guitarist

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

Paul Simon has emerged in the 1980s as a rocker for all ages, one figure from the 60s entering midlife not as a jejune nostalgia act but thriving both financially and artistically, wrote Jim Jerome in People magazine. Simon, one of the most successful folk-rockers of the 1960s, has indeed been able to sustain his success through two ensuing decades and through a number of fleeting pop music fads. As a member of Simon and Garfunkel, and later a solo performer, the singer/songwriter seems to have stayed in style precisely because he creates the stylefrom folk-influenced rock ballads to rollicking gospel and rhythm & blues numbers to jazz- and reggae-fueled tunes.

A New Yorker contributor noted that Simons collected body of works form one of the most original and moving bodies of pop music in America. Addressing himself to the lyrics Simon has written, Saturday Review essayist Bruce Pollock claimed: Simons songs mirrored the alienation, malaise, and despair of the [1960s] era, but did so melodiously, with a good beat, so you could dance to them. Like the rest of us, Paul Simon has finally passed through adolescence, long considered a terminal condition not only of rock n roll but also of the generation that came to majority in the Sixties. That generation became hooked on rock music as a way of receiving its essential data. And today these same listeners, older and somewhat wiser, continue to respond to Simon [who has] arrived at a more mature perspective and [is] able to mirror in [his] works something beyond pop platitudes.

Simon grew up in the Forest Hills section of Queens, New York. The son of two schoolteachers, he describes himself as a happy child who was very interested in sports. He found popular music at the same moment that rock and roll was finding itselfin the early 1950s. At the same time he became friends with a gangly youth just his age, Art Garfunkel, who lived in his neighborhood. Together the boys would listen to the radio for hours, fascinated by Elvis Presley and Bill Haley and The Comets. They also began singing together, accompanied by Simons simple guitar chords. Even before they turned sixteen, Simon and Garfunkel were performing together at local sock hops; a producer from Big Records heard them and offered them a recording contract.

At the tender age of fifteen, Simon and Garfunkel, then called Tom and Jerry, had their first successa single called Hey! Schoolgirl. They were invited to sing on American Bandstand and several other rock and roll television shows of the time. Simon remembers those days with mixed feelings. I must have been very angry, probably about not growing [tall], he told People.

For the Record

Born October 13, 1941, in Newark, N.J.; son of Louis (a college professor) and Belle (a schoolteacher) Simon; married Peggy Harper, 1969 (divorced, 1975); married Carrie Fisher (an actress), 1983 (divorced, 1983); children: (first marriage) Harper (son). Education: Received B. A. from Queens College; attended Brooklyn Law School.

Singer and songwriter, 1956. Performed with Art Garfunkel as Tom and Jerry, 1957-59; performed with Garfunkel as Simon and Garfunkel, 1964-71; solo performer, 1971. Has appeared in numerous cable television concerts and in several commercial television specials, including Simon and Garfunkel, CBS-TV, 1969, and Paul Simon, NBC-TV, 1977. Producer of and actor in film One Trick Pony, 1980.

Awards: Winner of Grammy Awards, including (with Garfunkel) for best album, 1969, for The Graduate; (with Garfunkel) for best performance by a pop vocal group, 1969; (with Garfunkel) for best album, 1970, for Bridge Over Troubled Water; (with Garfunkel) for best single, 1970, for Bridge Over Troubled Water; (with Garfunkel) for best performance by a pop vocal group, 1970, for Bridge Over Troubled Water; for best album, 1975, for Still Crazy After All These Years; and for best album, 1987, for Graceland; winner of Emmy Award, 1977, for musical special, Paul Simon. Holder of nine platinum and fourteen gold records.

Addresses: Home 88 Central Park West, New York NY 10022. Officec/o Warner Bros. Records, 3300 Warner Blvd., Burbank CA 91510.

I was doing well. When I was fifteen Artie and I played on American Bandstand.I batted first on the baseball team. I had a school jacket with letters and everything on it. I was popular. But I was a real angry guy. I spent a lot of time by myself playing guitar.

Tom and Jerry did not follow up their first hit song with others. Instead, Simon and Garfunkel went their separate ways, Simon to studies at Queens College and Garfunkel to Columbia University. They were reunited in the early 1960s, while Simon was unenthusiastically reading law at Brooklyn Law School. Simon had never given up music entirely; in fact, he had been working as a backup player and producer in several New York recording studios. He and Garfunkel began to perform original folk tunes at outdoor concerts and small clubs, and soon they had attracted a regional following. In 1964 they earned a recording contract with the Columbia label.

Their first album, Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., attracted little attention. In late 1965, more than a year after the albums debut, Columbiawithout Simons knowledgeoverdubbed a rock accompanyment to one of the albums songs, The Sounds of Silence. Released as a single, the remixed version of the song shot to the number one spot on the Billboard Top 100 chart. A string of hits followed for the duo, including I Am a Rock, Mrs. Robinson, Scarborough Fair/Canticle, and The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin Groovy), most of which are still staples of classic rock radio stations.

According to Dave Marsh in the Rolling Stone Record Guide, Simon and Garfunkels socially relevant but gentle folk rock quietly bridged the Sixties generation gap. Marsh adds that Simons elliptical, imagistic writing soon became very big on the rock-lyrics-are-poetry circuit, but he was really an expert popular-song craftsman, influenced by both folk and rock but owing allegiance to neither. Simon was largely responsible for the duos songs, providing the lyrics and most of the music, but it was Garfunkelwhose clear tenor voice and gentle appearance charmed audienceswho frequently received credit for the groups success. This conundrum became painfully clear when Simon and Garfunkel released their best-known hit, Bridge over Troubled Water, in 1970. The song and album of the same title sold more than nine million copies in two years, but even that level of achievement failed to save the relationship. After many years of heated arguments, Simon and Garfunkel split in 1971 to pursue solo careers.

Critics issued dire predictions about Simons viability as a solo performer, underestimating his talent for incorporating various musical styles into his repertory while continuing to issue his poetic and introspective lyrics. His first solo album, Paul Simon, included a hit single, Mother and Child Reunion, that carried a reggae beat and an unusually optimistic message. Every Simon album since then has had at least one memorable single, and all show Simons enthusiasm for experimentation. His solo hits include the gospel-sounding Love Me Like a Rock, the calypso Late in the Evening, Fifty Ways To Leave Your Lover, One Trick Pony, American Tune, and Call Me Al. Almost thirty years to the day after his first recorded hit, Simon released the album Graceland, a frankly experimental collage of music featuring performers from South Africa and a spirited African beat. The album won Simon another Grammy Award and was one of the best sellers of 1987. Marsh finds Simons solo albums in general among the greatest popular music anyone in the current era has attempted.

No one shows more facility at assessing Paul Simons music than the artist himself. He explained how he works in Rolling Stone: What I feel is, you take basic rock & roll as your primary vocabulary. I dont mean heavy metal, I mean the Fiftiesdoo-wop, Presley, Chuck Berry, Buddy Holly, the Drifters, that kind of urban R & B and rockabilly. Now, from there I expand to other textures and rhythms. I expand the harmonic concept [to include Brazilian music and modern jazz]that harmonic way of approaching things, and also the use of different time signatures. So, Ill take the basic rock thing and expand it into different areas musically, and then Ill contract it back to the rock thing. Always coming back to the basicsto either gospel, or rockbut goin away so it doesnt sound like everything.

Lyrically, what I do is in a sense parallel to the music. I try to combine ordinary speech patternsa vernacular way of speaking with poetic imagery. I try to balance that between striking visual images and ordinary speech. And ordinary speech can be used with the extended harmonic thing to create a sense of irony or contrast, while I can use a strong visual or poetic image with a basic rock & roll thing to undercut. Simon has also never apologized for the somber tone of his lyricsnoticeable since his earliest songs. Im investigating all the time, asking what is the problem, what is it. he told Esquire.Part of my personality keeps pushing at what hurts, what hurts.

Simons personal life has often offered fuel for his introspective lyrics. Twice married and divorced, he admits to having difficulties sustaining close relationships. He has reconciled with Garfunkel to the extent that they occasionally play and record together (they shared a late 1970s hit My Little Town, for instance), but he prefers solitude or the company of his teenaged son, Harper. Simon lives in New York City, and, since he has retained rights to all of his songs, is very wealthy. He told People: Entertainers are paid disproportionately high sums of money for their contribution to society. I used to feel guilty, but now I accept that gratefully. When someone tells me, Youve given me a lot of pleasure in my life, it all seems like a gratifying, very pure way of earning money. Undaunted by the fact that he will soon turn fifty, Simon plans to continue composing and performing music as long as he has an audience who wants to hear him. If Im healthy, he told People, Ill still be doing what Ive done since I was 13writing songs. Its as exhilarating now as ever. I get a very satisfied feeling that I never get in any other part of my life.

Selected discography

Simon and Garfunkel albums

Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M., Columbia, 1966.

The Sounds of Silence, Columbia, 1966.

Parsley Sage Rosemary & Thyme, Columbia, 1966.

Bookends, Columbia, 1968.

The Graduate (soundtrack), Columbia, 1968.

Bridge over Troubled Waters, Columbia, 1970.

Simon and Garfunkels Greatest Hits, Columbia, 1972.

Concert in Central Park, Warner Brothers, 1981.

Solo albums

Paul Simon, Columbia, 1972; reissued, Warner Bros., 1988.

There Goes Rhymin Simon, Columbia, 1973; reissed, Warner Bros., 1988.

Live Rhymin: Paul Simon in Concert, Columbia, 1974; reissued, Warner Bros., 1988.

Still Crazy after All These Years, Columbia, 1975.

One Trick Pony, WEA, 1980.

Hearts and Bones, Warner Bros., 1983.

Graceland, Warner Bros., 1986.

Sources

Books

The Rolling Stone Record Guide, edited by Dave Marsh, Random House/Rolling Stone Press, 1979.

Simon, George T., The Best of the Music Makers, Doubleday, 1979.

Periodicals

Esquire, June, 1987.

High Fidelity, May, 1982.

New Yorker, September 2, 1967; April 29, 1972.

New York Post, May 26, 1973.

New York Times, February 27, 1972.

New York Times Magazine, October 13, 1968.

People, September 5, 1983; November 3, 1980; October 6, 1986.

Rolling Stone, May 28, 1970; October 30, 1980; July 2, 1987.

Saturday Review, June 12, 1976.

Time, January 31, 1972.

Anne Janette Johnson

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Paul Simon

Paul Simon

Paul Simon (born 1928) was a newspaper publisher, state legislator, lieutenant governor, and U.S. representative and senator, serving a total of 22 years in Congress. He was a "self-made" man who rose from being a "boy-wonder" in journalism and politics to a candidate for president of the United States.

Paul Simon was born November 29, 1928, in Eugene, Oregon. His parents, the Rev. Martin Paul and Ruth (Troemel) Simon, had only recently returned to the United States from Lutheran missionary work in China so that their child could be born in America.

Simon grew up in Eugene and entered the University of Oregon at age 16 to study journalism. In 1946 he transferred to Dana College in Blair, Nebraska, after his parents moved to Illinois to publish a religious periodical.

At age 19, Simon became the youngest editor-publisher in America. In 1948 he dropped out of college to purchase the Troy Tribune, a defunct weekly newspaper in a small southern Illinois town. He resurrected the paper and before long he made his reputation as a crusading journalist by exposing vice and syndicate gambling connections with local government officials. Simon eventually built a chain of 14 weekly newspapers. He sold them in 1966 to devote full time to public service, teaching, and writing.

Simon served a two year hitch as an enlisted soldier in the U.S. Army between 1951 and 1953. He was assigned to the Counter Intelligence Corps and spent most of his tour of duty along the former "Iron Curtain" in Europe. (The term, "Iron Curtain" referred to the political and ideological barrier between Western Europe and the Soviet Bloc nations, which continued from the end of World War II in 1945, until 1990).

Returning from service in the armed forces, Simon, a Democrat, was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives in 1954 at the young age of 25. He was reelected in 1956, 1958, and 1960.

On April 21, 1960, he married Jeanne Hurley, an attorney and state legislator. They became the first husband and wife team to serve in the Illinois General Assembly. He and his wife wrote a book, Protestant-Catholic Marriages Can Succeed (1967), to discuss interfaith marriages such as theirs. They had two children, Sheila and Martin.

Simon ran successfully for the Illinois Senate in 1962 and was reelected in 1966. He was respected as a reformer and hard worker, as seen by the record number of awards he garnered. The Independent Voters of Illinois, for example, granted him the "Best Legislator" award during each session he served.

The next stage of public service was reached in 1968. Simon became the lieutenant governor of Illinois. He was the first—and only—lieutenant governor to be elected with a governor of another political party. After his election, the Illinois constitution was changed to provide for the joint election of governor and lieutenant governor, thus assuring that the two office-holders would be members of the same party.

Simon entered the Democratic primary for governor in 1972. He lost by a narrow margin. It was his only loss at the polls. Out of public office, Simon turned to teaching. He taught history and government at Sangamon State University in Springfield, Illinois, and lectured at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy Institute of Politics.

Urged to return to public service, he focused on the national level. Simon ran for the U.S. House of Representatives from a large southern Illinois district. He was first elected in 1974 and then re-elected four times. Serving on the House Education and Labor Committee, he became one of the leading advocates of teacher and educational quality. He was a strong supporter of arms control talks and civil rights.

In 1984 Simon upset three-term Republican incumbent Charles Percy to win a seat in the U.S. Senate. As a senator, he worked on legislation to achieve arms control, to support health care for the elderly, and to promote human rights and a balanced budget. He strove to combat adult illiteracy and wrote about that in one of his many books, The Tongue-Tied American (1980). His legislative priority was a public works program that would guarantee a job to anyone who wanted to work. His eleventh book, Let's Put America Back To Work (1986), outlined his ideas for the locally run, project-oriented public programs.

On May 18, 1987, Simon announced that he would seek the nomination for president in the 1988 elections. At 58, he was the oldest announced candidate in the Democratic Party race and the one with the most electoral experience. Simon was distinguishable from the other announced contenders in both his appearance and issue stands. Dressed in the bow tie and horned-rimmed glasses that are his trademark, Simon sought to get across his image as a modern day Harry S. Truman and standard-bearer for traditional Democratic Party liberal ideas.

On the day he announced his candidacy, Simon declared his unwillingness to bend to any prevailing political winds. He stated: "I stand here as a Democrat, not as a neo-anything, as one who is not running away from the Democratic tradition of caring and daring and dreaming." He emphasized willingness to use the tools of government in programs for employment, education, farmers, housing, and long-term care for senior citizens. But Simon did not fare well in the Democratic caucuses and primaries, winning only his home state of Illinois.

For the next decade, Simon maintained keen interest in the politics of elections and their financing. In 1995, along with former governor William Stratton, a Republican, Simon led the newly-created Illinois Campaign Finance Task Force. Simon retired in early 1997 after serving 22 years in Congress. He intended to return to teaching at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois, and to head a public policy institute there.

Further Reading

No biography has been written about Paul Simon. However, he has authored many works which give an understanding of his interests and positions. Simon was a newspaper columnist for 40 years and the author of 11 books, including: Lincoln's Preparation for Greatness (1965), with which he acquired a reputation as a Lincoln scholar and admirer; The Politics of World Hunger (1973), written with his brother, Arthur Simon, a Lutheran minister, to highlight the problem and press for public aid programs; The Once and Future Democrats: Strategies for Change (1981); and The Glass House: Politics and Morality in the Nation's Capital (1984), in which he explained the institutional and moral problems facing members of Congress. He also wrote: Lovejoy: Martyr to Freedom (1984), a book about Elijah Lovejoy, an abolitionist; A Hungry World (1966); You Want To Change the World? So Change It (1971); and Advice and Consent: Clarence Thomas, Robert Bork, and the Intriguing History of the Supreme Court's Nomination Battles (1992). □

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Simon, Paul

Paul Simon, 1941–, American singer, songwriter, and guitarist, b. Newark, N.J. A polished and intelligent folk-rock lyricist and performer, he first gained fame as half of Simon and Garfunkel. Not long after their highly successful album Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), Simon split with Garfunkel and pursued a solo career, releasing the album Paul Simon in 1972. In his solo work, Simon has used a startling variety of national and international styles, mingling them with an idiosyncratic and highly personal content. His folk-inflected and often introspective songs of the 1970s are typified by the album Still Crazy after All These Years (1975). Simon broadened his themes in Graceland (1986), one of the most popular albums of the decade, which featured several African musicians, including the South African choral group Ladysmith Black Mambazo. His next album, The Rhythm of the Saints (1990), explored Afro-Brazilian music. After the failure of his Latin-themed Broadway musical The Capeman (1997, written with Derek Walcott), Simon toured (1999) with Bob Dylan. Later albums include You're the One (2000) and Surprise (2006).

See biography, P. Humphries, Paul Simon: Still Crazy after All These Years (1989); M. S. Cohen, Simon and Garfunkel (1977); J. Morella and P. Barey, Simon and Garfunkel (1991); S. Luftig, ed. Paul Simon Companion: Four Decades of Commentary (1997); S. Steinberg, dir., American Masters, Paul Simon (video documentary, 1993).

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"Simon, Paul." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/simon-paul

Simon, Paul

Simon, Paul (1942– ) US singer-songwriter. With Art Garfunkel (1941– ), he formed the pop duo Simon and Garfunkel, whose album Sound of Silence (1966) sold more than a million copies. Other recordings include Scarborough Fair (1966), Bookends (1968), and Bridge over Troubled Water (1970), soon after which the duo split up. Simon's successful solo records include Still Crazy After All These Years (1975) and Graceland (1986).

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"Simon, Paul." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Simon, Paul." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/simon-paul

"Simon, Paul." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/simon-paul