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Pop, Iggy

Iggy Pop

Rock singer

For the Record

Solo Career Launched

Another Comeback for Pop

Stooges Sound Returned

Selected discography

Sources

Often dubbed the godfather of punk rock by critics and fans, singer lggy Pop became an immediate cult figure in the late 1960s as a member of the Stooges, a boundary-breaking rock band known for its earsplitting guitars and nihilistic attitude. Although never a major commercial draw, the Stooges influence on later generations is inestimable. After the Stooges dissolved in the early 1970s, Pop went on to create a number of striking solo albums with the aid of British pop innovator David Bowie. However, by the end of the decade it seemed to many that Pop had begun to mellow and had been eclipsed by the very decadent thrash of punk rock that the Stooges had helped inspire. By the mid-1980s, Pop impressed listeners once again with a string of albums that were still angst-ridden, if somewhat slicker than before.

Iggy Pop, born James Jewel Osterberg, grew up in a trailer park in the college town of Ann Arbor, Michigan. As a teenager, the disenchanted Pop played drums in a garage band called the lguanas, and after dropping out of the University of Michigan, in a blues band called the Prime Movers. He moved to the South Side of Chicago in 1966 to take in that citys rich blues scene but returned to Ann Arbor the following year. Christening himself Iggy Stooge, Pop then joined brothers Ron and Scott Asheton, who played guitar and drums respectively, and bassist Dave Alexander to form the Stooges.

The Stooges made their live debut on Halloween in 1967 and made no haste in raising the eyebrows of local rock fans. Aside from the New York band Velvet Underground and fellow Ann Arborites the MC5, few rock bands could have prepared listeners for the Stooges brand of potent, feedback-edged guitar crunch. Perhaps even more shocking, though, was Pops riotous onstage antics which more than matched the fury of the groups music. Screaming, diving into broken glass, and smearing his body with raw meat, Pop marked the dawn of a new chapter of disillusionment and outrage in the history of rock. Nevertheless, Pop later told Kurt Loder in Rolling Stone that I never felt like a selfdestructive person when I started out. I admit that I may have been the first performer to vent his immediate angers in this formatif I was pissed off, I sang about it. But that was only part of it.

After gaining a regional reputation, the Stooges were signed to Elektra in 1968, and a year later their selftitled debut hit record stores. Although the record sold only marginally, it developed a strong cult following but, more importantly, The Stooges was a revelation for the next generations of young musicians tired of the often banal nature of commercial rock. The Stooges would become a key influence for the first wave of punk rock

For the Record

Born James Jewel Osterberg, April 21, 1947, in Ann Arbor, MI.

Joined the Stooges in 1967, who released their self-titled debut two years later; released Funhouse in 1970; recorded last Stooges album Raw Power, 1973; traveled to Berlin, Germany with David Bowie where the two recorded Pops solo albums The Idiot and Lust For Life, 1977; Pop tours the U.S. and Europe with Blondie, 1977; signs with Arista in 1979 and records New Values; published autobiography I Need More, 1982; performed the title song for and made a cameo in the film Repo Man, 1984; returned to recording with Blah Blah Blah on A&M, 1986; recorded critically acclaimed album, Brick By Brick, 1990; released American Caesar, 1993; released Naughty Little Doggie, 1996.

Awards: Brick Video Music Awards, Best Video by a Male Vocalist and Best Rock Video for Home; Hall of Fame Award for Brick By Brick, 1990.

Addresses: Record company Virgin, 30 west 21st Street, New York, NY 10010.

groups, both in form and content. To wit, one can easily draw a direct line between the no future for you chorus of punk legends the Sex Pistols 1977 God Save The Queen and the Stooges 1969, in which Pop drones: Another year for me and you/Another year with nothing to do.

Although The Stooges was nothing short of a musical revolutionwith tracks like No Fun and I Wanna Be Your Dog later becoming standard cover fare for underground bandsits sequel, Funhouse, released in 1970, was even more impressive. Subsequently noted by many critics as one of the rawest, most energetic rock albums ever, Funhouse showed Pops vocal style to have grown from the first album, ranging from his drawling, near-monologue singing to an ear-splitting wail. From the opener Down On The Street to the finale of L.A. Blues, the album provided still more classic tunes to the underbelly of rock.

After Funhouse, the Stooges temporarily broke up, and Pop spent over a year trying to shake his growing heroin addiction for the first of many times. Relocating to London, Englandwhere the Stooges had developed a sizable followingPop met the esoteric singer David Bowie, who decided to assist Pop on his next effort. The two managed to corral all of the Stooges except for Alexander, who was replaced by Ron Asheton on bass. With new recruit James Williamson taking up lead guitar and co-writing with Pop, the newly dubbed Iggy and the Stooges recorded Raw Powerfor Columbia. At least on par with previous releases, Raw Power pushed the bands fixation on sex and death in the atomic age to new extremes, and once again provided a share of proto-punk anthems like Gimme Danger, Search and Destroy, as well as the catchy title cut. Although the album might have marked the acme of the Stooges career, within the year the group disbanded permanently and Pop returned to his heavy heroin habit.

Solo Career Launched

In 1974, Pop moved to Los Angeles to untangle a number of legal problems left in the wake of the Stooges breakup. After checking in and out of a mental hospital, during which time he and Williamson recorded what would later be issued as the slapdash album Kill City, Pop again left the U.S., this time to Berlin, Germany, with Bowie as his guide. Pop was considerably influenced by Bowie, who allegedly cajoled Pop into opting out of an early retirement. Fully collaborating with Bowie, Pop released his first two official solo albums in 1977, The Idiot and Lust For Life, revealing a persona strikingly more subdued than Iggy Stooge. Although songs like Sister Midnight, Lust For Life, and The Passenger were edgy and engaging, overall the two records had more in common, not surprisingly, with Bowies Berlininspired landscapes of European decadence than with the Stooges. Despite this shift, or perhaps because of it, The Idiot and Lust For Life became the most commercially and critical successful Iggy Pop albums.

Although Pops solo albums were a clear sign of Pops maturity as a performer and songwriter, his onstage habits of self-mutilation, exhibitionism, and audienceheckling swelled to new proportions. Touring the U.S. and Europe with Bowie as a band member and New Yorks New Wave/disco group Blondie as openers, Pop demonstrated that writing catchy tunes need not entail a compromise of energy. Rocks oldest adolescent, Iggy, wrote the book of punk and continues to do it better than most of the children he spawned, wrote Rolling Stones Kristine McKenna in response to a 1980 Los Angeles gig. Busting the evening open with a rabid version of [1960s rock group] the Animals Im Crying, he proved himself the consummate showman and the unstoppable animal boy hes always claimed to be. The 1978 live album TV Eye captured the previous years tour, but most critics agreed that its middling audio quality did not do Pop justice.

In 1979, Pop signed to the Arista label and released a trio of albums there before moving on. The first, New Values, showed the singer in fine form and even yielded a minor hit within the confines of the budding medium of college radio, Five Foot One. Unfortunately, the following releases, Soldier and the pseudo-dance record Party, were much weaker and commercially abominable. Subsequently all of Pops Arista output was deleted in the U.S. After the Arista debacle, Pop submerged himself into heroin and alcohol while living in a squalid hotel room near New York Citys Times Square. I would try to play without drugs, and Id get so depressed Id just beat up on people, Pop later admitted to Rob Tannenbaum in Rolling Stone. It was a disaster.

Pulling himself together and signing with the Animal label, Pop created the more satisfying Zombie Birdhouse in 1982, a more experimental effort that saw the singer dabbling in beat-oriented tunes with almost rapped vocals. Nevertheless, Zombie Birdhousewas to be Pops last record for the next four years, although a myriad of bootleg Stooges live albums began to surface during this hiatus. While his bootleggers were busy, Pop spent time in Switzerland with Bowie and in 1984, married a Japanese woman named Suchi. In the meantime, Pops legacy was influencing another wave of bands who pushed the drone and feedback of the Stooges to unimagined new levels, such as New York Citys Sonic Youth and Englands Spacemen 3 (who later covered The Stooges tracks I Wanna Be Your Dog and Little Doll, respectively).

Another Comeback for Pop

When Pop returned to the studio in 1986 to release the album Blah Blah Blah, he shocked many listeners once again, but this time around the shock stemmed from the commercial direction Pop had chosen. Produced by Bowie and featuring ex-Sex Pistol Steve Jones on bass, the mainstream oriented Blah Blah Blah alienated some fans who looked to Pop for abrasive, even offensive attitude. However, the majority of listeners and critics applauded the album. Blah Blah Blah is no wholesale sellout, defended Kurt Loder in Rolling Stone. Iggy still sings like a lion, and Cry For Love, the first single, illuminates his existential stance as clearly as anything on Raw Power did thirteen years ago. But in its sonic details, the album is frankly designed as a crossover move one for which Iggy has never been readier. After Blah Blah Blah, Pop increased the commercial viability of his albums with guest producers and session musicians, yet still retained his cocky, sometimes adolescent, verve. Although he had finally become a bona fide mainstream rock star, Pop became outspokenly venomous towards the contemporary entertainment business. On his 1990 effort Brick By Brick, for example, which featured star producer Don Was and heavy-metal guitarist Slash of the heavy metal group Guns N Roses, Pop lampooned the sleazy, show-biz world of Los Angeles with the song Butt Town. Despite the juvenile leanings such a title suggests, critics could not fail to see Pops maturity. As Tannenbaum wrote of Brick By Brick in the Village Voice, [t]he mixes as clear, the tempos remain consistent even during the hard-rock interludes, the arrangements are varied, and the range of expression includes a sentimental duet with Kate Pierson of the B-52s and a marital ballad set to David Lindleys bouzouki. Almost like a real adult!

Stooges Sound Returned

With American Caesar, released in 1993, Pop took a step backwards towards the sound of his earliest work, albeit while keeping his high profile as a performer. On songs like Wild America and Perforation Problems, the latter about quitting heroin, Pop once again gave listeners snapshots of the seedier side of life in the U.S. with instrumentation slanted towards his classic Stooges work. Brick By Brick showcased [Pop] as a classic rocker, with plenty of loud but clean guitars, posited Stereo Review. American Caesar lets him play in the dirt. The solos here are nasty, brutish, and short distortion and reverb rule. Iggy is definitely back, the noblest punk of them all. Mark Kemp, writing in Rolling Stone gave the album even greater praise: What elevates American Caesari rom merely a good album to a great one is that the songs are sequenced in a way that sharpens the records dynamicsmusically, stylistically, and thematically. By all appearances, this is a concept albumbut the good kind.

Pop released another album in 1996, Naughty Little Doggie, which in comparison to American Caesarwas less stinging in its music, if not its content. The lyrics are twisted, but theres a lot of longing, Pop told Jim Bessman in Billboard. Theyre about a guy in middle age who goes Jesus Christ! I havent got that long, but I still want to touch people and I dont know howor if I can get away with it! However autobiographical the album might have been, critics continued to marvel over Pops ability to indeed get away with it at almost fifty years of age. If Iggy had died ahead of schedule, he would be just another rock & roll martyr, Rolling Stones David Fricke wrote in his review of Naughty Little Doggie. Instead, the funhouse is open for business. Celebrity is great, but survival is the best revenge.

Pops survival alone was in fact incredible, if not miraculous, given his decades of heavy barbiturate, alcohol, and heroin intake. Still more impressive was the vitality his recorded work retained, as well as the influence it wielded. By the mid-1990s, Pop was embraced by a third generation of youth culture, this time in the form of the so-called American grunge scene of fuzzy guitars and flannel sweaters. And yet Pop remained as nonchalant about his laurels as ever. I think Im lucky I didnt get paid enough to drown in the syrup of success; Im still really hungry, he told Kim Neely in Rolling Stone. I could to relax more, I will say that. You know, if youre going to hold a bird, you still have to hold it with a certain tension, or it will fly away. But if you crush it, youre gonna kill it. I gotta learn how to hold the bird.

Selected discography

The Idiot, RCA, 1977.

Lust For Life, RCA, 1977.

TV Eye Live, RCA, 1978.

New Values, Arista, 1979.

Soldier, Arista, 1980.

Party, Arista, 1981.

Zombie Birdhouse, Animal, 1982.

Blah Blah Blah, A&M, 1986.

Instinct, A&M, 1988.

Brick By Brick, Virgin, 1990.

American Caesar, Virgin, 1993.

Naughty Little Doggie, Virgin, 1996.

with the Stooges:

The Stooges, Elektra, 1969.

Fun House, Elektra, 1970.

Raw Power, Columbia, 1973.

Sources

Billboard, October 26, 1991; January 27, 1996.

Rolling Stone, November 20, 1986; September 20, 1990;

September 30, 1993; October 14, 1993; February 22, 1996.

Stereo Review, November 1993.

Village Voice, July 19, 1988; August 14, 1990; September 17, 1996.

Shaun Frentner

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Pop, Iggy

Iggy Pop

Singer, songwriter, drummer

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

Iggy had gone beyond performanceto the I point where it really was some kind of psychodrama, said John Sinclair. Id just watch him and Id think, Wow, this guy will stop at nothing. This isnt just a showhes out of his mind.

Indeed, thats the exact reaction Iggy Pop hoped to get out of his audiences as they witnessed a show by his band, The Psychedelic Stooges. Resembling the freak show in a circus, Iggy often reverted to tactics such as smearing peanut butter and feces on himself, rolling around on stage in broken glass and even diving head first into the crowd. All of this a good seven years before the punk movement and about 1, 000 light years away from the Pat Boone school of rock and roll.

Born James Osterberg in 1947 in Ypsilanti, Michigan, he first became musically involved in high school, playing in a local band, the Iguanas. He left them for a rival band, the Prime Movers, before he took off to Chicago to play blues drums. Upon moving back to the Ann Arbor area, he switched his name to Iggy Pop and formed The Psychedelic Stooges. With Dave Alexander on bass and brothers Ron and Scott Ashton on guitar and drums respectively, Iggy held down the vocals and insanity positions. They played their first gig on March 3, 1968, opening for Blood Sweat & Tears at Detroits Grande Ballroom.

The music in Michigan at that time was quite different from what was popular on the national scene. The Motown sound was dying down but bands like the MC5, Frost, and the Amboy Dukes were highpowered and revolutionary. By 1969 Elektra records realized the potential and signed both the Stooges and MC5 to contracts. Former Velvet Underground member John Cale produced their first album, The Stooges. With songs like No Fun and I Wanna Be Your Dog it was obvious the band was about as far from flower-power as one could get.

The Stooges continued to play around the Midwest, and in 1970 they entered the studio to record their follow-up LP, Funhouse. Robert Christgaus review in his Record Guide noted: Now I regret all the times Ive used words like power and energy to describe rock and roll, because this is what such rhetoric should have been saved for. Shall I compare it to an atom bomb? a wreckers ball? a hydro electric plant? Language wasnt designed for the job.

The live show was beyond pathetic by now; later, in 1979, Iggy would reflect in Rolling Stone, I hated the audience, at times, for things they made you do. Why did they come see me? A band cannot survive for long playing with such abandon and, sure enough, the Stooges collapsed shortly after. Their last performance

For the Record

Born James Jewel Osterberg, 1947, in Ypsilanti, Mich.; son of James (a schoolteacher) and Louella (a schoolteacher) Osterberg; married; wifes name, Paulette; children: Eric. Education: Attended University of Michigan.

Played in various high school bands in the Ypslanti/Ann Arbor, Mich., area, including the Iguanas and the Prime Movers, c. 1964-65; played drums in blues bands in Chicago, 111., c. 1966-67; assumed stage name Iggy Pop and formed the Psychedelic Stooges, 1968, lead singer in Psychedelic Stooges, 1968-70, and 1972-76; solo featured artist 1976.

Awards: Won Rolling Stone Critics Poll Comeback of the Year Award (But Back From Where?), 1977.

Address: c/o 250 W. 57th. St. #603, New York, NY 10107

was at the Goose Lake [Michigan] Festival before 100, 000 fans. Iggy took a year off to kick a heroin habit, enduring three weeks of cold turkey in the process. Iggys power and Iggys curse, wrote Chris Holdenfield in Rolling Stone, is that he has always lived out his show, unlike those who make a production out of the pose, Alice Cooper, Kiss or Bowie.

In 1972 British pop star David Bowie regrouped the Stooges, with James Williamson now on guitar and Ron Ashton moving to bass. Bowie took the band to London to produce, or overproduce, their third LP, Raw Power. Even with Bowie mixing the sound as thin as possible, Its a toss-up as to whether this disc or the earlier Funhouse takes the throne as Highest Energy Album Ever Made, wrote the editors of Rock Revolution, but theres absolutely no competition. All other Heavy Metal was and is farina next to them.

Again the band burnt out, this time for good. A posthumously released album (recorded on a cassette), Metallic K.O., captured the Stooges last performance ever (at the Michigan Palace). Its obvious from listening that Iggy was completely losing it by that time. The back of the album jacket blatantly states in hugh quotes OPEN UP AND BLEED. Iggy badgers the audience with the foulest language and songs like Cock in My Pocket.

Iggy spent the next two years wandering around the streets of Los Angeles. Under his mothers insurance he was checked into the UCLA mental hospital for treatment. He was visited by Bowie, the only member of the music community to do so. Bowie made a deal with Iggy to clean up his act so he could join him on his upcoming tour, Station To Station.I saw David entertaining and running his life, Iggy told Charles Young in Rolling Stone. I thought, Now theres a man. I can do it too. He moved to Berlin in the spring of 1976, shortly after Bowie.

The two collaborated on Iggys comeback effort, 1977s The Idiot. Bowie co-wrote the songs and played keyboards on the ensuing tour (along with Hunt Sales-drums, Tony Sales-bass and Ricky Gardiner-guitar). The sound was a far cry from the Stooges. It was stripped down and hauntingly different from anything else. The Idiot is the most savage indictment of rock posturing ever recorded, John Swenson wrote, reflecting on Iggy winning the 1977 Rolling Stone Critics Poll Comeback of the Year Award (But back from where?).

With basically the same band (with the addition of Carlos Alomar) Iggy quickly followed up with Lust For Life, again recorded in Berlin and styled after The Idiot. The live performances showed a healthier Iggy, more in control, but like Lou Reed, wrote Billy Altman, Iggy is most likely headed on a course just left of center, bizarre enough to attract those inclined toward something different but safe enough not to scare them away.

Iggy has released six more solo albums, all with his trademark deadpan vocals, moans, and shrieks, but nothing as powerful as the Stooges. He continues to provide entertaining concerts and to influence younger musicians, but as Sid Vicious might have testified, the Ig was a hard act to follow. Hes a willful, bratty child, a cruelly shrewd man and a total hamin short, a classic American hero, according to Kristine McKenna in Rolling Stone, right up there with Abraham Lincoin. High praise for a man who used to wear his Skippy.

Selected discography

With the Stooges

The Stooges, Elektra, 1969.

Funhouse, Elektra, 1970.

Raw Power, Columbia, 1973.

Metallic K.O., Skydog, 1976.

Solo albums

The Idiot, RCA, 1977.

Lust for Life, RCA, 1977.

T.V. Eye, RCA, 1978.

New Values, Arista, 1979.

Soldier, Arista, 1980.

Zombie Birdhouse, Animal, 1982.

Blah-Blah-Blah, A&M, 1986.

Instinct, A&M, 1988.

Sources

Books

Christgau, Robert, Christgaus Record Guide, Ticknor & Fields, 1981.

Dalton, David, and Lenny Kaye, Rock 100, Grosset & Dunlap, 1977.

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock, Harmony, 1977.

Nilsen, Per, and Dorothy Sherman, The Wild One: The True Story of Iggy Pop, Omnibus Press, 1988.

Rock Revolution, by the editors of Creem magazine, Popular Library, 1976.

The Rolling Stone Record Guide, edited by Dave Marsh and John Swenson, Randon House/Rolling Stone Press, 1979.

Periodicals

Fun, November, 1988.

Rolling Stone, May 5, 1977; May 19, 1977; December 29, 1977; January 12, 1978; October 4, 1979; May 27, 1980.

Calen D. Stone

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Pop, Iggy

IGGY POP

Born: James Newell Osterberg; Muskegon, Michigan, 21 April 1947

Genre: Rock

Best-selling album since 1990: Brick by Brick (1990)


Singer Iggy Pop's "no holds barred" performing style in the late 1960s with his band Iggy and the Stooges was a precursor to punk rock; most critics credit him with originating the genre, which arrived over a half decade later. It is remarkable that Iggy survived the rowdy ferocity of his early days. Sometimes forgotten in the zaniness surrounding his persona is that Iggy is a witty, intelligent songwriter and a skillful manipulator of live audiences. He has also acted in a variety of film and television roles.

Iggy Pop grew up in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and was named after his father, James Osterberg. Both of his parents were schoolteachers. He aspired to be a blues drummer and moved to Chicago as a teenager to be closer to the blues scene. In 1967 he returned to Ann Arbor and tracked down his high school classmates, bassist Dave Alexander, guitarist Ron Asheton, and his brother, drummer Scott Asheton. Osterberg changed his name to Iggy Pop and became the lead singer. They named the band the Psychedelic Stooges, later shortened to the Stooges. While other 1960s groups were singing about love, peace, and harmony, the Stooges quickly made a name for themselves by disharmoniously blasting songs about violence, death, destruction, drugs, and life's malaise. Their stage anarchy included ear-splittingly loud guitars and Iggy's thrashing around on stage while smearing raw meat or peanut butter (some rock observers claim feces) over his body. The thin and emaciated singer showed no hesitancy in diving headfirst into the audience, hurling himself on to shattered glass, or fist fighting with audience members.

After recording two albums, rampant drug use forced the Stooges to disband in 1970. In an effort to beat his own addiction to heroin, Iggy moved to London where he met rocker David Bowie. Bowie produced the Stooges' third and last release, Raw Power (1973). All three albums are considered rock classics by critics, and another release, Metallic K.O. (1976), a recording of their last concert appearance, was released after the band was already in the annals of rock history. The Stooges disbanded in 1974 and Iggy moved to Los Angeles, California, where his mother discovered him wandering the streets in search of a drug fix. She helped place him in a mental institution. Bowie, who was having his own drug struggles, found Iggy and the two musical malcontents decided to move to Germany in an effort to help each other get clean of drugs.

Bowie produced and wrote material for Iggy's next album. He replaced Iggy's earlier grunge with a more refined synthesized rock sound for Iggy's next two releases, The Idiot (1977) and Lust for Life (1977). Despite recurring drug and alcohol problems, this kick-started Iggy's career and he went on to achieve recording success throughout the 1980s. In light of the vile punk rock and heavy metal that came after the Stooges, Iggy, for the first time in his career, began to sound closer to the mainstream.

He built on that trend into the 1990s with the successful album Brick by Brick (1990), which showcases Iggy as a straightforward song interpreter. The album turns introspective and reflects on issues within Iggy's control instead of his characteristic helpless rage. He sings about a determination to do better in "I Won't Crap Out" and is undoubtedly influenced by his own history of homeless wandering when he sings "Home." In moments when he is not screaming, Iggy's voice possesses a clear and appealing sound.

After the raw, edgy releases, American Caesar (1993) and Naughty Little Doggy (1996), Iggy collaborated with the jazz trio Medeski, Martin & Wood on Avenue B (1999). The album is the farthest departure in Iggy's career. Four of the thirteen songs are meditatively spoken monologues over classical orchestration and the rest are ballads such as the wistful title track or the straight-faced humor in "Nazi Girlfriend."

Fans who attend Iggy's concerts to see him wriggle, writhe, and scream might be surprised to know that his songs have been used in both beer and athletic shoe advertisements. Iggy has also forged a career as an actor and has appeared in numerous films, including The Color of Money (1986), The Crow (1993), Dead Man (1995), City of Angels (1998), and roles on television shows such as The Adventures of Pete and Pete and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. He also wrote the score to the cult movie favorite Repo Man (1983). His album Beat 'Em Up (2001) made longtime fans happy by returning to the seminal sound of his pre-punk days. Iggy reunited with the Stooges for a concert in California in the spring of 2003.

It is doubtful that many rock superstars anticipate growing old while in the throes of fame, and it is interesting to witness the variety of ways that superstars from the 1960s and 1970s have dealt with middle age and beyond. Iggy Pop, whose physical shape and size have changed little through the years, continues growing to new musical heights.

SELECTIVE DISCOGRAPHY:

The Idiot (RCA, 1977); Lust for Life (RCA, 1977); TV Eye (RCA, 1978); New Values (Arista, 1979); Soldier (Arista, 1980); Zombie Birdhouse (Animal, 1982); Blah Blah Blah (A&M, 1986); Instinct (A&M, 1988); Brick by Brick (Virgin, 1990); American Caesar (Virgin, 1993); Naughty Little Doggie (Virgin, 1996); Avenue B (Virgin, 1999); Beat 'Em Up (Virgin, 2001). With the Stooges: The Stooges (Elektra, 1969); Fun House (Elektra, 1970); Raw Power (Columbia, 1973); Metallic K.O. (Skydog, 1976).

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

J. Ambrose, Iggy Pop: The Biography (New York, 2002).

donald lowe

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