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Handel, George Frideric

Handel, George Frideric [ Händel, Georg Friedrich] (b Halle, 1685; d London, 1759). Ger.-born composer and organist (Eng. cit. 1726). Son of a barber-surgeon who opposed mus. as his son's career though he permitted lessons from Zachau, composer and org. of Liebfrauenkirche, Halle. Handel studied law at Halle Univ., turning to full-time mus. when his father died. He went to Hamburg in 1703 where he joined the opera house under the composer Reinhard Keiser, playing 2nd vn. in the orch. His first opera Almira, written because Keiser lost interest in the lib., which Handel took over, was prod. there in 1705, being followed by 3 others. In 1706 Handel went to Italy in a prince's retinue, meeting Corelli, the Scarlattis, and other leading figures, and rapidly attaining mastery of It. style in opera, chamber mus., and vocal mus. He was acclaimed as a genius, the rival of his It. contemporaries. His opera Rodrigo was perf. in Florence in 1707 and Agrippina in Venice in 1709. The following year he was appointed court cond. in Hanover and was also invited to write an opera (Rinaldo) for London, where he quickly realized the possibilities for his own success and, after settling his affairs in Hanover, settled there permanently.

For the next 35 years Handel was immersed in the ups and downs of operatic activity in London where the It. opera seria was the dominant force. In 1712 he received a pension of £200 a year for life from Queen Anne, this being increased to £600 by King George I, his former ruler in Hanover, for whom in 1717 he comp. the famous Water Music suite. From 1717 to 1720 Handel was resident comp. to the Earl of Carnarvon (Duke of Chandos from April 1719) at his palace of Cannons in Edgware. The 11 Chandos Anthems were the chief fruit of this appointment. In 1719 Handel, in assoc. with G. Bononcini and Ariosti, was a mus. dir. of the so-called Royal Acad. of Mus. (not a coll. but a business venture to produce It. opera). Handel travelled abroad to engage singers and in the 8 years until the acad. closed because of lack of support he comp. 14 operas, among them Radamisto, Rodelinda, Admeto, and Tolomeo. In 1727, for the coronation of George II, Handel wrote 4 anthems, incl. Zadok the Priest, which has been sung at every Brit. coronation since then.

The success of Gay's The Beggar's Opera and imitative works was the prin. cause of the falling-away of support for Handel's co. He went to It. to hear operas by composers such as Porpora and Pergolesi and to engage the leading It. singers. Back in London in partnership with Heidegger at the King's Theatre, Handel wrote Lotario (1729), Partenope (1730), and Orlando (1733). In 1734 he moved to the new CG Th., for which he wrote two of his greatest operas, Ariodante (prod. Jan. 1735) and Alcina (prod. Ap. 1735), but he recognized that the popularity of It. opera was declining and began, somewhat unwillingly, to develop the genre of dramatic oratorios which is perhaps his most orig. contribution to the art of mus. Esther (1732 in rev. form) and Acis and Galatea are typical examples. Ironically, released from the conventions of opera seria, Handel's dramatic gifts found wider and more expressive outlets in the oratorio form. Scores contain stage directions and the use of ch. and orch. became more dramatic and rich. He cond. several oratorio perf. in London, 1735, playing his own org. concs. as entr'actes. Nevertheless he continued to write operas and between 1737 and 1740 comp. Berenice, Serse, Imeneo, and Deidamia.

In 1737 Handel's health cracked under the strain of his operatic labours and he had a stroke. Following his recovery, he wrote a series of oratorios, incl. Messiah, prod. Dublin, 1742. By this work his name is known throughout the world, yet it is something of an oddity in Handel's work since he was not a religious composer in the accepted sense. But its power, lyricism, sincerity, and profundity make it one of the supreme mus. creations as well as an outstanding example of devotional art. It was followed by Samson, Judas Maccabaeus, and Solomon. The success of these works made Handel the idol of the Eng., and that popularity dominated Eng. mus. for nearly 150 years after his death. Not until Handel's operas were revived in Ger. in the 1920s was the perspective corrected and the importance of that branch of his art restored. Superb as are Handel's instr. comps. such as the concerti grossi, sonatas, and suites, it is in the operas and oratorios that the nobility, expressiveness, invention, and captivation of his art are found at their highest degree of development. He did not revolutionize operatic form but he brought the novelty of his genius to the genre as he found it. The scene-painting and illustrative qualities of his orchestration are remarkable even at a period when naive and realistic effects were common currency.

For the last 7 years of his life Handel was blind, but he continued to conduct oratorio perfs. and to revise his scores with assistance from his devoted friend John Christopher Smith. His works were pubd. by the Ger. Handel Gesellschaft in a complete edn. (1859–94) of 100 vols., ed. Chrysander, and a new edn., the Hallische Handel-Ausgabe, is in progress. Prin. comps.:OPERAS: Hamburg: Almira, Nero (lost) (both 1705), Florindo e Dafne (lost) (1707); Florence: Rodrigo (1707); Venice: Agrippina (1709); London: Rinaldo (1711, rev. 1731), Il pastor fido (1712; 2nd version with ballet Terpsicore, 1734); Teseo (1712); Silla (1714); Amadigi di Gaula (1715); Radamisto (1720, rev. 1720, 1721, 1728); Muzio Scevola, Floridante (both 1721); Ottone (1722); Flavio (1723); Giulio Cesare in Egitto (1723–4); Tamerlano (1724, rev. 1731); Rodelinda, regina de'Longobardi (1725); Scipione, Alessandro (both 1726); Admeto, Riccardo I (both 1727); Siroe, Tolomeo (both 1728); Lotario (1729); Partenope (1729–30, rev. 1730, 1736); Poro (1731); Ezio, Sosarme (both 1732); Orlando (1733); Arianna (1734); Ariodante, Alcina (both 1735); Atalanta (1736); Arminio, Giustino, Berenice (all 1737); Faramondo, Serse (both 1738); Imeneo (1738–40); Deidamia (1740).ORCH.: Water Music (c.1717); Music for Royal Fireworks (1749).DRAMATIC ORATORIOS: Rome: La Resurrezione, Trionfo del Tempo (1708); Naples: Aci, Galatea e Polifemo (1709); Hamburg: Der für die Sünde der Welt gemartete und sterbende Jesus (Brockes Passion) (?1716); London: Haman and Mordecai (masque 1720, later rev. as Esther in 1732); Acis and Galatea (1718; rev. 1732 incorporating part of 1708 cantata on same subject, and 1743); Deborah (1733); Athalia (1733); Alexander's Feast (1736); Israel in Egypt (1738); Saul, Ode for St Cecilia's Day (1739); L'Allegro, il Pensieroso ed il Moderato (1740); Messiah (1741); Samson (1741–2); Joseph and his Brethren, Semele (1743); Belshazzar, Hercules (1744); Occasional Oratorio, Judas Maccabaeus (1746); Alexander Balus, Joshua (1747); Solomon, Susanna (1748); Theodora, Alceste (1749); Choice of Hercules (1750); Jephtha (1751); Triumph of Time and Truth (1757).CANTATAS AND CHAMBER DUETS: Handel comp. 100 of the former and 20 of the latter. Among the best known are Silete Venti, sop., instr. (1729); La terra è liberata (Apollo e Dafne), sop., bass, instr. (c.1708); and O numi eterni (La Lucrezia), sop., continuo (1709).CHURCH MUSIC: Gloria Patri (1707); Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate (1712–13); Dettingen Te Deum (1743); 11 Chandos Anthems (1717–18); 4 Coronation Anthems (1727: The King Shall Rejoice; Let thy hand be strengthened; My heart is inditing; Zadok the Priest); The Ways of Zion do Mourn, funeral anthem for Queen Caroline (1737).VOCAL: Birthday Ode for Queen Anne (1713); 9 German Arias (1729).INSTRUMENTAL AND CHAMBER MUSIC: 6 Concerti Grossi, str., ww., continuo, Op.3 (1734); 12 Concerti Grossi, str., optional wind, Op.6 (1739); 5 Concerti, orch. (1741); 6 organ concerti, Op.4 (1738); 6 organ concerti, Op.7 (1760); 6 organ concerti (1740); 15 chamber sonatas (fls., recorders), Op.1 (1724); 3 concerti a due cori; 2 ob. sonatas; 12 fl. sonatas; 6 trio sonatas; 9 trio sonatas, Op.2 (1722–33); 7 trio sonatas, Op.5 (1739); va. da gamba sonata; 8 suites de pièces, hpd. (1720); 8 suites de pièces (1733, these incl. the well-known Chaconne in G); 6 Fugues (1736). See also Harmonious Blacksmith.

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"Handel, George Frideric." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Handel, George Frideric

George Frideric Handel

Born: February 23, 1685
Halle, Germany
Died: April 14, 1759
London, England

German-born English composer and organist

The dramatic English oratorios (lengthy choral works of a religious nature) of the German-born English composer (writer of music) and organist George Frideric Handel were the high point of the entire baroque (seventeenth-century ornate period) oratorio tradition. His Italian operas show a nobility of style and wealth of dramatic insight.

The young musician

George Frideric Handel was born on February 23, 1685, to Georg and Dorothea Händel in Halle, Germany. To study music he had to overcome his father's objections, and at the same time follow his father's insistence that he study law. But even before Handel had finished his law courses, he was devoted to pursuing a musical career. Although his father would not even allow him to have a musical instrument of his own, he managed to find ways to practice secretly. At about the age of seven he performed at the keyboard before the duke and his court at Weissenfels, Germany. As a result he became the pupil of Friedrich Wilhelm Zacchow, a composer and organist. Zacchow taught him composition as well as the organ, the violin, and the oboe, and by 1695 Handel was composing for these and other instruments. From 1696 until 1701 Handel composed many works. Unfortunately, the church cantatas (music that is written for one or more singers) and all but a few pieces of chamber music (music that is meant to be performed in a small space) that he composed at the time have disappeared.

Contact with German composer Georg Philipp Telemann, and a meeting shortly afterward with the composer Agostino Steffani, spurred Handel's operatic ambitions. In 1703 he resigned his post as organist at the Halle Domkirche and left the university, moving to Hamburg, where he joined the Goosemarket Theater as a violinist. But it was Handel's exceptional skill at the keyboard that brought him employment in the performance of operas.

First operas

Handel began his own operatic career with Almira (1704), which ran for some twenty performancesa very successful run. After several more successes, he sought richer operatic experience and left for Italy in 1706. He visited Florence, Venice, Rome, and Naples during the next three seasons, meeting almost all of the notable Italian musicians. His Italian journey resulted in two fine operas, Rodrigo (1707) and Agrippina (1709), several dramatic chamber works, and equally dramatic sacred compositions.

During a second visit to Venice, Handel met several persons interested in England who no doubt influenced his decision to try his luck as a freelance musician in London. A meeting with the manager of the King's Theatre furnished Handel with a chance to compose an opera. Within two weeks he produced the opera Rinaldo, which marked the high point of the London season in 1710 and 1711. Handel's course was set for the rest of his life.

Settling in England

As London became Handel's permanent home, he proceeded to compose a large amount of music for harpsichord, chamber ensembles, and orchestra, as well as various works for royal occasions. Handel's compositions so impressed England's Queen Anne (16651714) that she awarded him an annual salary of two hundred pounds. After Anne's death, George I (16601727) became king of England. In 1715 Handel provided music for a royal pleasure cruise for the King, his mistresses, and several barge-loads of courtiers (members of the royal court)the famous Water Music. In 1719 Handel accepted an invitation to join forces with the newly founded Royal Academy of Music. Handel's operas were numerous and well-received, but despite their success the academy did not prosper.

In 1726 Handel became a citizen of England and was appointed composer of music to the Chapel Royal. The season of 1727 saw the production of Handel's Alessandro. This marked the beginning of an intense rivalry between Faustina Bordoni and Francesca Cuzzoni, two prima donnas (leading female opera singers) whose hostility greatly harmed the cause of Italian opera in London. Other factors no doubt lent weight to the growing public disappointment, but this single event seemed to have caused opposition to Italian opera in London and introduced a succession of developments that led to its fall.

Apparently undismayed, Handel immediately formed the New Royal Academy of Music in partnership with a Swiss entrepreneur. After a whirlwind trip to Germany to audition new singers and to visit his mother, now blind and alone, Handel returned to London in time to open the new season. Thereafter his operas flowed forth on the average of two per year. In spite of the quality of these operas, Italian opera grew ever less popular in London. In April 1737 Handel suffered a stroke. He recuperated during the summer at Aix-la-Chapelle, returning to London in time to start the next season. Finally, with the miserable failure of Imeneo (1740) and Deidamia (1741), he at last gave up and wrote no more new operas.

The oratorios

Handel's ultimate failure with operas was offset by ever-increasing success with his oratorios. These provided a new vehicle, the possibilities of which he had begun to explore and experiment with nearly a decade earlier. Indeed these established a new vogue (fashion), in which Handel fared better with London audiences than he ever had with Italian opera. As if to test a possible market for dramatic compositions in English, Handel revived past operas with revisions to the oratorio style, meeting with much success. Producing oratorios was a profitable business. As a direct consequence, the oratorio became a regular feature of each season, with Handel leading the field, as he had done previously with Italian opera.

It was obvious that the new form was on its way to becoming an established feature of English concert life. During the Lenten (the period of religious fasting for Christians) season in 1735, Handel gave no less than fourteen concerts, consisting mainly of oratorios.

Handel's personal health, however, continued to falter. In 1751 total blindness set in. From that time on he was limited to revising earlier works with outside assistance, and to improvising on organ and harpsichord in public performances. Handel's accomplishment during the last creative decade of his life seems almost miraculous when the Italian cantatas, several concertos, and a variety of other works are added to his twenty major works. He died in London on April 14, 1759.

Handel's creative genius

Surveying Handel's entire creative life, one gains a sense of spontaneous (instinctive) and incredibly abundant creative flow. This is confirmed by the marvelous collections of his work preserved at the Fitzwilliam and British museums in England, which reveal not only the enormous bulk of his creative achievement but also something of his uncompromising critical judgment. There is scarcely a page without deletions; frequently, he struck out whole passages. He obviously knew the art of heavy pruning, and his works profited greatly from it.

Handel's propensity to "write like the very devil" proved invaluable, in view of the demands imposed upon his time and energies in operatic composition throughout most of his career. Time after time he found it necessary to meet crises without much time for creative gestation (generation). Handel was at heart a dramatic composer for whom setting the scene and atmosphere and depiction of character thrust all other considerations into the background.

For More Information

Anderson, M. T. Handel, Who Knew What He Liked. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick Press, 2001.

Keates, Jonathan. Handel, The Man and His Music. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985.

Lang, Paul Henry. George Frideric Handel. New York: W. W. Norton, 1966. Reprint, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1996.

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Handel, George Frideric (1685–1759)

HANDEL, GEORGE FRIDERIC (16851759)

HANDEL, GEORGE FRIDERIC (16851759), German-born musician eventually hailed as "England's national composer." He was the first great composer who broke free of church and court patronage and earned a living directly from the public; England was perhaps the only country that could provide such support in his time.

Born Georg Friedrich Händel at Halle, Lower Saxony, on 23 February 1685, he was the son of a sixty-three-year-old barber-surgeon. His early talents persuaded his father to let him study music as well as law, and he took lessons from the local organist, Friedrich Wilhelm Zachau (16631712). After a year as organist of the Calvinist Domkirche (cathedral), he traveled to Hamburg, where he gained his first experience of opera, playing violin and harpsichord under the distinguished composer Reinhardt Keiser (16731739) and later composing operas and concertos. He then traveled to the fountainhead of music, Italy, where he stayed for nearly four years (17061710), dividing his time between Florence, Rome, Venice, and Naples. There he composed and performed music in many forms, developing the extroverted, cosmopolitan manner that so clearly distinguishes him from his contemporary Johann Sebastian Bach (16851750).

In January 1710 he took up an appointment as Kapellmeister (director of music) at the court of George, elector of Hanover (soon to become George I of England). In that year he paid his first visit to London, where he was commissioned to write an opera, Rinaldo, for the Queen's Theatre in the Haymarket.

In the spring of 1712 Handel left Hanover for England, which was to be his home for the rest of his life, despite frequent visits to the Continent. He rapidly became the most sought-after composer in London. Rinaldo had been an astonishing success, and was decisive in the establishment of Italian opera as the chief entertainment of the British aristocracy. His Te Deum, performed on 7 July 1713, to celebrate the Peace of Utrecht, at once displaced Henry Purcell's as the standard piece for royal and national celebrations. After a period as private musician to the earl of Carnarvon, later duke of Chandos (17171718), at Cannons, his recently built mansion at Edgware, Handel was engaged as the chief composer in a series of London opera schemes. The most brilliant was the Royal Academy of Music (17191727), which sponsored several of his greatest operas, including Giulio Cesare (1724) and Rodelinda (1725). He enjoyed the strong support of King George II and Queen Caroline, but became a political pawn in the running feud between the king's Whig administration and the rival faction surrounding Frederick, Prince of Wales. He continued to produce operas until 1741, composing forty-two in all, but with fitful success.

Looking for a more stable source of support, Handel chanced on the oratorio. A pirated version of his Esther, written for Cannons in 1718, was mounted at a London tavern in 1733. Always a keen businessman, Handel competed, putting on a rival performance at the opera house with additional music. The bishop of London would not allow acting or costumes to represent a sacred subject, but Esther was still conceived as a drama, and was sung on stage against a scenic backdrop. It allowed plenty of scope for Handel's dramatic genius, as expressed in the operatic forms of recitative and aria. The public liked the use of the English language, the biblical stories familiar to all, and the choruses in the English ceremonial style they knew and loved.

Handel developed this formula in such masterpieces as Saul (1739), Samson (1744), Solomon (1748), and Jephtha (1751). He varied it by choosing mythological subjects in Semele (1744) and Hercules (1745), and, on the other hand, by using librettos compiled directly from the Bible in Israel in Egypt (1738) and Messiah (1742). In his later performances of Messiah at the Foundling Hospital chapel he took the first step that moved his oratorios away from the theater toward the church. The gigantic Handel Commemorations at Westminster Abbey (17841791) presented his works as monuments of the religious sublime, playing down the subtle interplay of human character that had always been an important inspiration of his greatest dramatic music.

Handel's ceremonial music epitomizes the grandeur and brilliance of the baroque. The Royal Fireworks Music and Water Music have proved to be the most durable occasional music ever written. He also contributed fine orchestral concertos, chamber works, keyboard music, and organ voluntaries, and was responsible for a new form, the organ concerto, originally played between the acts of his oratorios.

See also Music ; Opera .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dean, Winton. Handel's Dramatic Masques and Oratorios. London, 1959.

Lang, Paul Henry. George Frideric Handel. New York, 1966.

Smith, Ruth. Handel's Oratorios and Eighteenth-Century Thought. Cambridge, U.K., 1995.

Nicholas Temperley

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Handel, George Frideric

George Frideric Handel (hăn´dəl), 1685–1759, English composer, b. Halle, Germany. Handel was one of the greatest masters of baroque music, most widely celebrated for his majestic oratorio Messiah. Of German descent, he was originally named Georg Friedrich Handel.

Son of a barber-surgeon, he early displayed musical talent and was sent to Friedrich Zachow, an organist and composer at Halle, for three years of training. After studying law at the Univ. of Halle (1703), he joined the opera orchestra at Hamburg. There his first two operas, Almira and Nero, were produced in 1705. The following four years were spent in Italy, where his operas Rodrigo (1707?) and Agrippina (1709) were staged, the latter very successfully. In Italy he met Alessandro Scarlatti and other masters and absorbed the Italian style and forms.

In 1710 Handel became musical director to the elector of Hanover but obtained leave to visit England in 1711, when his Rinaldo was produced in London. He returned to England in 1712 and took up permanent residence there. His employer, the elector, became George I of England in 1714. It was for the king that Handel composed his celebrated orchestral Water Music (1717).

In 1719 an opera company, the Royal Academy of Music, was formed under the musical direction of Handel, Attilio Ariosti, and Giovanni Battista Bononcini, all of whom composed operas for it. The company was dissolved in 1728, but Handel continued trying to present Italian opera in London until 1741, when his last opera, Deidamia, failed. Handel's 46 operas include much of his finest music; among them are Julius Caesar (1724), Atalanta (1736), Berenice (1737), and Serse (1738), which contains the tenor aria now known as Largo.

Handel's Messiah was presented in Dublin in 1742. An essentially contemplative work, it stands apart from the rest of his 32 oratorios, which are dramatically conceived, and its immense popularity has resulted in the erroneous conception of Handel as primarily a church composer. Other outstanding oratorios are Acis and Galatea (1720), Esther (1732), Israel in Egypt (1736–37), Saul (1739), and Judas Maccabeus (1747).

He also composed about 100 Italian solo cantatas; numerous orchestral works, including the Twelve Grand Concertos, Op. 6 (1739); two books of harpsichord suites (1720, 1733); three sets of six organ concertos (1738, 1743, 1760, the last published posthumously); and the anthem "Zadok, the Priest" (1727) for the coronation of George II, which has been used for all subsequent coronations. While composer to the duke of Chandos (1715–19), he wrote the 11 Chandos Anthems.

Handel's sight became impaired in 1751, and by 1753 he was totally blind, but he continued to conduct performances of his works on occasion. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. Handel's musical style exemplifies the vigor and grandeur of the late German baroque and at the same time has English and Italian qualities of directness, clarity, and charm. He strongly influenced English composers for a century after his death, and, following a period of relative neglect, he has again come to be recognized as one of music's great figures.

Bibliography

See his letters and writings, ed. by E. H. Müller (1937); J. Mainwaring, Memoirs of the Life of the Late George Frideric Handel (1760); biographies by H. Weinstock (2d ed. 1959), P. H. Lang (1966), P. H. Young (rev. ed. 1963, repr. 1975), and D. Burrows (1995); H. C. Robbins Landon, Handel and His World (1984); W. Dean, Handel and the Opera Seria (1970), Handel's Dramatic Oratorios and Masques (1959, repr. 1989) and, with J. M. Knapp, Handel's Operas, 1704–1726 (1987).

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Handel, George Frideric

Handel, George Frideric (1685–1759). German-born composer who took English nationality. Initially cathedral organist in his native Halle, Handel played violin and harpsichord at the Hamburg opera-house, where his first two operas were produced in 1705. In 1706–10 he travelled around Italy, assimilating the latest musical styles, meeting leading composers, and writing some fine church music, including ‘Dixit Dominus’ (1707), over 100 Italian cantatas, two oratorios, and two operas.

In 1710 Handel was appointed Kapellmeister to the elector of Hanover (later George I of England), although within a few months he was in London. Here the colourful arias and magnificent stage effects of his opera Rinaldo (1711) created a sensation, and by 1712 he had settled permanently in England, acting 1717–19 as resident composer to the future duke of Chandos at Cannons (near Edgware). Handel's first love was the theatre, and the Royal Academy of Music (1720–8), formed to promote Italian opera, commissioned several masterpieces including Giulio Cesare and Tamerlano (1724).

Although Handel continued composing operas until 1741, increasing financial pressures and poor audiences encouraged him to turn to a new dramatic medium, the English oratorio. Esther (1732) initiated a series of oratorios, operatic in concept and performed in theatres but using English texts and singers and incorporating frequent choruses. The oratorio gradually displaced opera in the public's interest, forming the basis after Handel's death for a lasting English choral tradition centring especially on Messiah (1742).

Handel wrote in every contemporary genre, also creating the organ concerto to display his own virtuosity in the intervals of oratorio performances and publishing two fine sets of concerti grossi. His music, drawing elements from various national styles, was enormously influential, both in England and abroad; ‘Zadok the Priest’, for example, has been sung at every English coronation since 1727. Nevertheless, some of his best music, especially for the stage, is still shamefully neglected.

Eric Cross

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Handel, George Frideric

Handel, George Frideric (1685–1759) English composer, b. Germany. In 1712, after some success as an operatic composer in Italy, he moved to England. He wrote (c.1717) the Water Music to serenade George I's procession down the River Thames. In 1720, he became the first director of the Royal Academy of Music, London. From 1729 to 1734, he wrote a series of operas for the King's Theatre, London, including Orlando (1733). From 1739, Handel concentrated on creating a new form, the oratorio, producing such masterpieces as Saul (1739), Messiah (1742) and Judas Maccabaeus (1747). In 1749, he composed Music for the Royal Fireworks.

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Handel

Handeladdle, paddle, saddle, skedaddle, staddle, straddle •candle, Coromandel, dandle, Handel, handle, mishandle, Randall, sandal, scandal, vandal •manhandle, panhandle •packsaddle • side-saddle •backpedal, heddle, medal, meddle, pedal, peddle, treadle •Grendel, Kendall, Lendl, Mendel, Rendell, sendal, Wendell •cradle, ladle •beadle, bipedal, credal, needle, wheedle •diddle, fiddle, griddle, kiddle, Liddell, middle, piddle, riddle, twiddle •brindle, dwindle, kindle, spindle, swindle, Tyndale •paradiddle, taradiddle •pyramidal • apsidal •bridal, bridle, fratricidal, genocidal, germicidal, homicidal, idle, idol, infanticidal, insecticidal, intertidal, matricidal, parricidal, patricidal, pesticidal, regicidal, sidle, suicidal, tidal, tyrannicidal, uxoricidal •coddle, doddle, model, noddle, swaddle, toddle, twaddle, waddle •fondle, rondel •mollycoddle •caudal, chordal, dawdle •poundal, roundel •Gödel, modal, yodel •crinoidal •boodle, caboodle, canoodle, doodle, feudal, noodle, poodle, strudel, udal •befuddle, cuddle, fuddle, huddle, muddle, puddle, ruddle •bundle, trundle •prebendal • synodal •antipodal, tripodal •citadel •curdle, engirdle, girdle, hurdle •dirndl

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"Handel." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Handel." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved June 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/handel