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Faust

Faust

A legendary occult magician of the sixteenth century, famous in literature. There is some evidence that such a person existed. Trithemius mentioned him in a letter written in 1507, in which he referred to him as a fool and a mountebank who pretended he could restore the writings of the ancients if they were wiped out of human memory, and blasphemed concerning the miracles of Christ. In 1513 Konrad Mudt, a canon of the German Church, also alluded to Faust in a letter as a charlatan.

In 1543 Johann Gast, a Protestant pastor of Basel, apparently knew Faust, and considered a horse and dog belonging to the magician to have been familiar spirits.

Johan Weyer, who opposed the excesses of witch-hunters, mentioned Faust in a work of his as a drunkard who had studied magic at Cracow. He also mentioned that in the end Satan strangled Faust after his house had been shaken by a terrific din.

From other evidence it seems likely that Faust was a wandering magician or necromancer whose picturesque character won him notoriety. No doubt the historic Faust was confused in legend with Johan Fust, the pioneer of early printing, whose multiplication of books must have been ascribed to magic. By the end of the century in which Faust flourished, he had become the model of the medieval magician, and his name was forever linked with those of Virgil, Roger Bacon, Pope Silvester II, and others.

The origins of the Faust legend are ancient. The essentials underlying the story are the pact with Satan, and the supposed vicious character of purely human learning. The idea of the pact with Satan belongs to both Jewish and Christian magico-religious belief, but is probably more truly Kabalistic. The belief can scarcely be traced further back, unless it resides in the idea that a sacrificed person takes the place of the deity to which he gives up his life.

The Faust tale soon spread over Europe and the story of Faust and his pact with the devil was celebrated in broadside ballads. The first dramatic representation of the story was Christopher Marlowe's Tragicall History of Dr. Faustus. The dramatist G. E. Lessing wrote a Faust play during the German literary revival of the eighteenth century, but it remained for Goethe to grant Faust some degree of immortality through the creation of one of the great psychological dramas of all time. Goethe differed from his predecessors in his treatment of the story in that he gave a different character to the pact between Faust and Mephistopheles, whose nature is totally at variance with the devils of the old Faust books. Goethe took the idea of Faust's final salvation from Lessing. It may be said that although in some respects Goethe adopted the letter of the old legend he did not adopt its spirit. Probably the story of Faust has given to thousands their only idea of medieval magic, and this idea has lost nothing in the hands of Goethe, who cast about the subject a much greater halo of mystery than it contained.

Sources:

Bates, Paul A., ed. Faust: Sources, Works, Criticism. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1968.

Grim, William E. The Faust Legend in Music and Literature. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988.

Palmer, Philip M., and Robert P. More. Sources of the Faust Tradition from Simon Magus to Lessing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1936. Reprint, New York: Haskell House, 1965.

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"Faust." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Faust." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Retrieved December 15, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/faust

Faust

Faust (foust), Faustus (fô´stəs, fou´–), or Johann Faust (yō´hän), fl. 16th cent., learned German doctor who traveled widely, performed magical feats, and died under mysterious circumstances. According to legend he had sold his soul to the devil (personified by Mephistopheles in many literary versions) in exchange for youth, knowledge, and magical power.

Innumerable folk tales and invented stories were attached to his name. The first printed version is the Volksbuch (1587) of Johann Spiess, which, in English translation, was the basis of Christopher Marlowe's play Dr. Faustus (c.1588). Many versions followed, ranging from popular buffoonery to highly developed art forms. Spiess and Marlowe represent Faust as a scoundrel justly punished with eternal damnation, but Lessing instead saw in him the symbol of man's heroic striving for knowledge and power and therefore as worthy of praise and salvation.

Lessing's view of Faust as seeker was continued by Goethe in one of the greatest dramatic poems ever written. He enlarged upon the old legend, adding the element of love and the saving power of woman and giving the story a philosophical treatment. Goethe first came to grips with the theme in 1774 (in what is called the Urfaust). The first part of Faust appeared in 1808; it is more suitable for the theater than the more profound and philosophic second part (1833).

The many subsequent Faust novels and dramas, among them those of Klinger, Chamisso, Grabbe, and Lenau, could not rival the power and fame of Goethe's work. A recent variant of the Faust legend is Thomas Mann's novel Doktor Faustus (1947, tr. 1948). Goethe's Faust inspired innumerable composers of operas, oratorios, stage music, and symphonic works, including Berlioz, Gounod, Schumann, Liszt, and Boito. Spohr's and Busoni's Faust operas are based on other literary models.

See H. G. Meek, Johann Faust (1930); P. M. Palmer and R. P. More, Sources of the Faust Tradition (1936).

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"Faust." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 15 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Faust

Faust

The legend of Faust is well known in Germany and western Europe. The hero of the tale, a German magician named Faust, or Faustus, agreed to sell his soul to the devil in exchange for youth, knowledge, earthly pleasures, and magical powers.

The legend is based on a historical figure, a wandering German scholar who lived between about 1480 and 1540. Contemporary accounts describe him as a magician with an evil reputation who was associated with black magic. Although a relatively minor figure, he inspired many stories that developed into the Faust legend.

To acquire greater wisdom, power, and pleasure, Faust turned away from God and made a pact with the devil, Mephistopheles. But in selling his soul, he gained eternal damnation. Faust's tale serves as a warning for those seeking to fulfill their earthly desires without the help of God.

The legend became the basis for Doctor Faustus, a 1604 play by English writer Christopher Marlowe; Faust, a two-part drama by German poet Johann von Goethe, published in 1808 and 1832; and Doctor Faustus, a 1947 novel by German author Thomas Mann. The story has also inspired musical works, including the operas The Damnation of Faust (1846) by Hector Berlioz and Faust (1859) by Charles Gounod.

See also Devils and Demons; Hell.

* See Names and Places at the end of this volume for further information.

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Faust

Faust

Krautrock group

An Upraised Fist

An X-Rayed Fist

Fists Full of Dollars?

Selected discography

Sources

Faust, renowned as the grandfather of all Krautrock bands, emerged in a cloud of mystery from the European student movement and the nascent German rock scene of the late 1960s. Its origins are not merely obscure, they are contradictory. According to the standard line put down over the years, the band was the brainchild of a journalist who single-mindedly constructed a group on order for a record company, a German Überband that was meant to establish the countrys music amid the superstar American and British groups that had taken over international pop music in the late sixties.

If one buys this version, Faust was little more than the Euro-Monkees. That interpretation, however, is belied by the fierce independence Faust showed right from the get-go, the perversely strange and beautiful music that no journalist could have conceived, and a determination to make music on its own terms. So where did they really come from? There were two bands, it seems, in 1969 Hamburg. Or at least two groups of musicians, for they were not gigging at all, they were just hanging out together jamming. One group, Nukleus, included Jean-HervéPeron, Rudolf Sosna and Gunther Wüsthoff; the other called itself Campy-lognatus Citelli and counted among its ten or so members Joachim Irmler and Werner Zappi Dier-maier. The musicians in Nukleus were interested primarily in songs, while Campylognatus Citelli was experimenting with the effects of pure sound. Somehow they joined forces, introduced by Zappis girlfriend.

An Upraised Fist

They did not commit to a new band all at oncethere was first a short wait-and-see period to check each other out. But the five musiciansIrmler, Peron, Sosna, Wüsthoff and Diermaiersoon realized that their varying musical orientationspure song vs. pure soundcomplemented each other well. And if nothing else, they agreed wholeheartedly that they werent interested in music that imitated the English and American blues-based rock bands then so popular in Germany. First of all, we arent blacks who express their suffering through the blues, Irmler told German Rock Newss Carsten Agthe. But we didnt have a thousand things pounded into our heads for nothing at school. We felt we should find a way to express all that.

The name they chose was an integral part of their German identity. On the one hand, it was the name of the most significant, famous work in German literature, whose like-named hero sells his soul to the devil for knowledge, but is redeemed in the end by the love of a good woman. On the other hand, the word means fist, which linked the band to the radical workers movement in twentieth century Germany, whose most important signal of solidarity was an upraised fist. That made clear the bands own radical politicsand aesthetics.

So Faust already existed on some level when journalist Uwe Nettelbeck entered the picture around 1970. Nettelbeck was from the German far-left scene. He had written on film and music for radical magazines, and his opinions and taste were highly respected. An executive at Polydor Records approached him about putting together a German group that could compete with Anglo-American bands. Somehow, Nettelbeck heard of Faust. Faust was glad for the encounter. They had already made up their minds to record for a big label which would give them access to a good studio and equipment and a place of their own where they could experiment with their music.

Nettelbeck arranged for a Faust demo which impressed Polydor enough for the label to OK the deal. When Nettelbeck took the news to Faust, they made a set of demands: They wanted a studio of their own, a year without any pressure to get some worthwhile music together, and complete artistic independence. Although Faust had not yet proven themselves a success, Polydor agreed on all counts. It paid to convert an old schoolhouse in Wümme near Hamburg into a studio. The label also paid for an engineer, Kurt Graupner, who lived in Wümme for extended periods of time. Graupner became a key figure in Faust. He designed and built their black boxeseffects boxes that were far in advance of anything then available commercially. Graupners boxes enabled each member of Faust to electronically modify the sound of their

For the Record

Members include Werner Diermaier, drums; Hans-Joachim Irmler, organ; Arnulf Meifert, drums; Jean-Hervé Peron, bass; Rudolf Sosna, guitar, keyboards; Gunter Wusthoff, saxophone, synthesizer.

Members of two groups of jamming musicians, Campy-lognatus Citelli and Nukleus, joined to form Faust, 1969; Uwe Nettelbeck obtains recording contract for Faust with Polydor Records, 1971; released first LP, Faust, 1971; recorded with Tony Conrad and Slapphappy, 1972; dropped by Polydor and picked up by Virgin Records, 1973; Faust IV released, 1973; Virgin refused to release tapes of Munich session or to pay for session, 1974; Faust stopped recording but continued to play occasional gigs, 1975-1987; Recommended Records began re-releasing Faust recordings, 1979; U.S. tour, 1994; Jean-Hervé Peron kicked out of band, 1999; Raviwando released, 1999.

Addresses: Record company ReR Megacorp, 79 Beu-lah Rd. Thornton Heath, Surrey, CR7 8JG, U.K.; website: http://megacorp.u-net.com;email: megacorp @dial.pipex.com.

own instrument or that of other band members in real time. They could be used to record or live in concert.

An X-Rayed Fist

With nearly no effort expended, Faust had landed their ideal situation. They had a year to find themselves in a private studio. For the first six months, they did very little except play their instruments, make tapes, smoke pot, sleep in, and have daily breakfast in the huge, drained swimming pool behind their studio. Although he was under constant pressure from Polydor to produce a record, Nettelbeck held up his end of the deal and did not interfere. It took what seemed ages before anything serious was produced, Nettelbeck later told Chris Cutler in the booklet to Faust: The Wümme Years. He eventually reminded them that the label expected a record at the end of a year, and for the last six months the band worked on one slowly.

But Faust did work hard on the record, night after night, and slowly side one took shape. Opening with fragments of the Stones I Cant Get No Satisfaction and the Beatles All You Need Is Love emerging briefly from a cloud of electronic noise, Faust followed playing music that sounded like Karlheinz Stockhausen encountering Captain Beefheart. And then they ran out of ideas. We worked very hard on this, it was the whole of side one, and then we just ran out of steam, Irmler told Cutler. When the train came to a halt and we had no idea what to put on the second side, the inspiration came to mewe already have the second side! He was thinking of the endless hours of tapes they made playing at the beginning of the long, leisurely year. The other band members told Irmler to do what he wanted. So working with Graupner, he stitched material from several sessions together, which became the second side of the album. The record that finally appeared in German record stores was called simply Faust, but it became known among fans as the Clear Album. Everything was transparentthe clear vinyl record, the inner sleeve and the album jacket, which also bore a superimposed image of black X-rayed fist.

The album had not yet been released when Nettel-becks Polydor contact suggested the group perform a show at the Hamburg Musikhalle in the autumn of 1971. Nettelbeck was concernedthe music on Faust could not be performed live. But he agreed. Faust took the stage at 8 p.m. The front rows of the hall were full of record company executives from around the world, in Europe for a company convention. However when Faust played their first notes not a sound was heard. The complicated surround sound the band tried to patch quickly together had failed. Some color TVs Faust had on stage were turned on for the audience while the problem was worked on; eventually though the audience was sent to a nearby bar and told to come back at 11 p.m. Even then things didnt work perfectly and the concert morphed instead into a happening with the audience on stage performing with the band. Polydor considered it a fiasco. Irmler later told Cutler it was the only true concert we ever did.

To make matters worse, with early sales well under 1,000, Fausf flopped resoundingly in Germany. Luckily, it quickly caught the fancy of the English music scene. The BBCs John Peel began playing the record regularly. Faust arrived in the United Kingdom with other weird-sounding German groups, such as Amon Duul, Can, Kraftwerk, and Tangerine Dream, and found themselves part of movement dubbed Krautrock. Faust eventually sold some 20, 000 copies in its first year or so, quite respectable numbers, except Polydor expected Faust to be the next Beatles, a group that could sell hundreds of thousands of records. In the wake of lousy sales and the disastrous Hamburg debut concert, Fausts days with Polydor seemed numbered. In desperation, Nettelbeck called a New Musical Express journalist, who happened to be a big fan of the group, and asked him to write a major story in praise of Faust. He did, and it impressed Polydor enough to keep the label from pulling the plug on the band.

Faust was aware of their perilous position with the record company. The next record, 1972s So Far, was more structured, with plenty of nearly real songs, such as the opener, Its a Rainy Day, Sunshine Girlone of Fausts most popular pieceswhich owed a heavy debt to the Velvet Underground. Faust went on to make a third album for Polydor, Beyond the Dream Syndicate with Tony Conrad. But by that time the label was sure they would never be the Beatles. It began offering creative input. Seeing their precious independence on the block, Faust realized it was time to find a new record company.

Fists Full of Dollars?

Faust ended up at a newcomer label, Virgin Records. Their first release on Virgin, The Faust Tapes, was a collection of songs and outtakes recorded at Wümme between 1971 and 1973. It turned out to be Fausts most popular record yet in Englandnot least because it was sold at the budget price of only 48 pence. The first LP they recorded for the label wasnt nearly as successful. Forced to record in a strange, even hostile environment, far away from their personal studio in Wümme, the creative juices seemed to freeze. Making matters worse, band members were at an impasse with Virgins head. Eventually two group members, on their own, put together the tapes that would become the new Faust record, Faust IV. A tour of the United Kingdom followed, but with only half the band. It looked like Faust was disintegrating.

Indeed, the members went their separate ways for a time. When we stopped after the Virgin albums, I really had to stop everything, Irmler said in an interview at radio station KUSF. Because of the money. They wanted a bigger influence in our music. But one of the other big laws of the Faust music was, that nobody should be allowed to say anything about music except the musicians. And it happened that the president of Virgin Records wanted a little bit of influence in the Faust music and he promised us big money.

Irmler took a break from the band. But later, his interest in music was renewed and he booked some time at a studio in Munich. The band worked there for a week and a half every evening until sunrise. A music emerged that continued the idea of the first album but intensified it and brought it more to the point, Irmler told Cutler, very dense but nevertheless incredibly loose. Virgin was contractually obliged to release one more album. But when Faust sent the tapes from Munich, the label refused to accept them. Worse, it refused to pay the studio bill and the mothers of Irmler and Sosna paid the large bill.

With that, Faust seemed to disappear. In the late 1970s, Recommended Records re-released some of the first Faust albums, and later released Munich & Elsewhere/Return of a Legend, an LP of music from the Munich session. In 1988, Recommended Records brought out The Last Album. The latter records were released together on the CD 71 Minutes. During the 1980s, Faust laid low, playing only occasional gigs. They resurfaced at the end of the decade. New records and tours of Europe and the United States followed, led sometimes by Peron, sometimes by Irmler. Never again did the full original line-up play together. In 1999 the band released the album Ravvivando on its own label. By that time, Sosna was dead and Peron had been kicked out of the band. Irmler could still boast to Agthe Our latest album is more subtle than anything we did back then.

Faust had an influence on contemporary rock music. Theyve been called the founders of industrial music. It is hard to imagine avant-garde groups such as Throbbing Gristle, Caberet Voltaire or Einstürzende Neubau-tengroups which themselves had a decisive impact on the sound of popular music in the 1980s and 1990sexisting in a world where Faust had never played. A plausible argument could also be made that Faust had a decisive influence on ambient and punk music as well. However, all the members of Faust have been modest about their roles as trendsetters. We are avant-garde not as a style but just as an accident, not by purpose, Netteelbeck told Karl Dallas at the Faust website. Just because some things we are doing nobody else is doing, it puts us in a position to be avant-garde but thats just accidentally. I dont rate such terms very high. Its just music.

Selected discography

Faust, Polydor, 1971; re-released, Recommended 1979; included in Faust: The Wümme Years, Recommended Records,2000.

So Far, Polydor, 1972; LP reissue, Recommended, 1979; CD reissue, Polydor, 1991; CD reissue, Cuneiform/Recommended, 1991; included in Faust: The Wümme Years, Recommended Records, 2000.

Outside the Dream Syndicate, Caroline, 1972; CD reissue, Table of the Elements, 1995.

Faust Tapes, Virgin, 1973; LP reissue, Recommended, 1980;

CD reissue, Cuneiform/Recommended REF2CD, 1991;

included in Faust: The Wümme Years, Recommended, 2000.

Faust IV, Virgin, 1973; LP reissue, Virgin, 1993.

Munich and Elsewhere/Return of a Legend, Recommended,

1986; CD reissue on 71 Minutes of, Recommended, 1989; included in Faust: The Wümme Years, Recommended, 2000.

The Last LP, Recommended, 1989; CD reissue on 71 Minutes of, Recommended, 1989; included in Faust: The Wümme Years, Recommended, 2000.

71 Minutes of, Recommended, 1989.

Concerts 1: Live in Hamburg, Table of the Elements, 1990.

Concerts 2: Live in London, Table of the Elements, 1992.

Rien, Table of the Elements, 1996.

Untitled, Private Release, 1996.

YOU_KNOW_faUSt, Klangbad, 1996.

Ravivvando, FRAV, 1999.

Faust: The Wümme Years (5-CD box set), Recommended, 2000.

Sources

German Rock News, http://germanrock.de/f/faust/interview.htm (March 12, 2001).

Interview with Ira of the Rising Sun, http://www.goethe.de/uk/

saf/radiogoethe/faustin.htm (March 12, 2001).

Faust Website, http://www.sparc.spb.su/Avz/music/Faust/index.htm (March 12, 2001).

Additional information was obtained from the Faust: The Wümme Years CD booklet.

Gerald E. Brennan

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Faust

Faust.
1. Opera in 5 acts by Gounod to lib. by Barbier and Carré based on Carré's Faust et Marguérite and Goethe's Faust, Part I, 1808, 1832 (in Nerval's Fr. trans.). Prod. Paris 1859, London 1863, Philadelphia 1863, NY Met 1883 (inaugural opera).

2. Singspiel in 2 acts by Spohr to lib. by J. K. Bernard not based on Goethe, comp. 1813, prod. Prague 1816; rev. 1852 as 3-act opera, prod. London 1852 and 1984.

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Faust

Faust. Initially a reprobate man who made a pact with the devil and met a commensurate end. However, he became (through the Enlightenment and into the 19th cent.) a heroic figure who sets his face against the supposed limitations of humanity.

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Faust

Faust (d. c.1540), German astronomer and necromancer. Reputed to have sold his soul to the Devil, he became the subject of dramas by Marlowe and Goethe, an opera by Gounod, and a novel by Thomas Mann.

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Faust

FaustFaust, frowst, joust, oust, roust

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