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Lamming, George 1927–

George Lamming 1927

Novelist, essayist

Moved to England

Created Fictional Caribbean Island

Wrote Documentary about Freedom Riders

Selected writings

Novels

Essays

Sources

Among the most prominent writers of the modern Caribbean, George Lamming produced a body of fiction that was deeply rooted in his own experiences, yet also probed the deeper historical forces at work in modern Caribbean life. A native of Barbados, Lamming joined the post-World War II migration of Caribbean young people to Great Britaina migration fueled by the search for new opportunities and parallel in many respects to the Great Migration of African Americans in the early twentieth century. Lamming found recognition as a writer in England and around the world. His fiction remained focused on the Caribbean, however, and in later life he returned to the region in which his fictional creations were rooted.

Lamming was born in Carringtons Village, Barbados, on June 8, 1927. Later immortalized as Creightons Village in Lammings debut novel The Castle of My Skin, Carringtons Village was near the Barbadian capital of Bridgetown but was semi-rural in character; under the old British plantation system it had been part of a large sugar farm. Lammings childhood was shaped by his unmarried mother, who, despite difficult financial circumstances, instilled a sense of ambition in her only child. He also observed firsthand the economic upheavals that shook Barbados along with other Caribbean countries in the 1930s, as rural black farm workers began to move to the colonial-dominated cities to try to escape their grinding poverty. Lamming won a scholarship to attend Barbadoss Combermere High School, a top institution where he was taken under the wing of a faculty member, Frank Colly more, and encouraged to write poetry.

Moved to England

With Collymores help, Lamming landed a teaching position in Trinidad, at a boys school called El Colegio de Venezuela in the capital city of Port of Spain. There Lamming encountered other aspiring Caribbean writers, but at the time the Caribbean islands were isolated places with few opportunities for blacks of any profession. Lamming resolved to leave for England, and in 1950 he relocated there on the same boat as another famous Caribbean novelist-to-be, the Trinidadian writer Sam Selvon. For a short time he worked in a factory, but he soon landed a job with the arm of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) directed toward providing programming for Britains fast-shrinking empire.

Ambitious and productive, Lamming gained recognition in Britain for his poetry and short fiction, and in 1953 he published his weighty debut novel, The Castle of My Skin. That book won Lamming wide acclaim in Britain and was also published in the United States with an introduction by the groundbreaking novelist Richard Wright. Semi-autobiographical in nature, The Castle of My Skin traces the experiences of a boy identified as G. who, like Lamming, grows to maturity in a rapidly changing Barbadian village and leaves for Trinidad at age 18. G.s experiences are intercut with observations of Barbadian life, narrated from the perspective of a detached observer.

That novel inaugurated for Lamming a series of novels that realistically portrayed the experiences of Caribbean expatriates like the novelist himself, yet were also

At a Glance

Born on June 8, 1927, in Carringtons Village, Barbados.

Career: Taught at El colegio de Venezuela, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1946-50; worked in factory in England, 1950; journalist and broadcaster, British Broadcasting Corporation Colonial Service, early 1950s; published short stories and poetry in England, early 1950s; published debut novel, In the Castle of My Skin, 1953; published three more novels in seven years and became established as major novelist; numerous visiting professorships and writer-in-residence posts in North America, the Caribbean, and other regions.

Selected awards: Guggenheim fellowship, 1955; Canada Council fellowship, 1962; Langston Hughes Award, City University of New York, 1998.

Addresses: Home 14-A Highbury Place, London N5, England. Publisher Allison & Busby, 26 Grand Union Centre, Portobello Rd., London W10 5AH, England.

undergirded by intellectual devices rivaling those employed by the most Anglicized of Caribbean novelists, the Indo-Trinidadian Nobel Prize winner V.S. Naipaul. Lamming could describe the psychic scars of racism in direct and powerful terms. In The Castle of My Skin he wrote, No black boy wanted to be white, but it was also true that no black boy liked the idea of being black. Brown skin was a satisfactory compromise, and brown skin meant a mixture of white and black. There was a famous family on the island which could boast of the prettiest daughters. Their father was an old Scotch planer who had lived from time to time with some of the labourers on the sugar estate. The daughters were ravishing, and one was known throughout the island as the crystal sugar cake.

Created Fictional Caribbean Island

In tandem with descriptions of this type, however, Lamming also offered a variety of subtle literary devices intended to make specific historical or philosophical points. Some of his later novels were set in a fictional Caribbean country called San Cristobal, through which Lamming explored the new Caribbean or West Indian identity that united the peoples of the various Caribbean islandsand which Lamming found himself taking on as he continued to live in England and to travel widely around the English-speaking world in the 1950s. Lammings novel Water with Berries (1971) is an elaborate recasting of William Shakespeares play The Tempest, employing the island worlds of that work as symbols for aspects of Caribbean experience but also commenting upon its role as a text that had contributed to Britains imperialist mindset.

Some critics found that Lammings novels subordinated character development to devices like these, but many others praised his seamless integration of the personal and the historical. Lamming rapidly produced a series of major novels in the 1950s, and many observers noted that they seemed to be part of a sequence that drew on the stages of his own life and career for inspiration. His second novel, The Emigrants (1954), depicted the experiences of a group of West Indians in Britain; it accurately forecast the many social problems Britains black residents would experience in the years to come. By the time he wrote Of Age and Innocence (1958) and Season of Adventure (1960), Lamming was recognized as a major writer. Season of Adventure inaugurated two new themes in Lammings writing: the experiences of women in Caribbean cultures and the importance of Africa in Caribbean identity. Lamming himself had used the proceeds of a 1955 Guggenheim fellowship to live in West Africa for a time.

Wrote Documentary about Freedom Riders

In the 1960s, although he produced no new novels, Lamming experimented with other kinds of writing. He published a collection of essays, The Pleasures of Exile, that innovatively mixed autobiography and criticism, and thanks to a series of academic fellowships he was able to travel widely in the Caribbean and North America. Lamming became involved in the U.S. civil rights struggles of the 1960s and wrote the script for a television documentary about Alabamas Freedom Riders. A series of essays Lamming published in the late 1960s reaffirmed his commitment to the Caribbean world and to the building of new societies in the regions newly independent countries.

In 1972 Lamming published a complex historical novel of colonialism and slavery, Natives of My Person; though he was reported to be at work on other novels, Natives of My Person remains his most recent as of this writing. Lamming returned to Barbados in the late 1970s, though he continued to spend time in London and to take on university posts in places as far-flung as Denmark, Australia, and Tanzania. He has remained active as an essayist, teacher, and editor; in 2001 he published the second volume of an essay series, entitled Coming, Coming Home, that dealt with Western education and Caribbean thought. Among his many honors was the 1998 Langston Hughes Award from the City University of New York, where he served as visiting professor of creative writing. Both one of the Caribbeans great storytellers and one of the regions true intellectuals, Lamming by the centurys end was the focus of a large and growing body of critical literature.

Selected writings

Novels

In the Castle of My Skin, McGraw (U.S. ed.), 1953; reprint with new introduction by the author, Schocken, 1983.

The Emigrants, McGraw (U.S. ed.), 1954.

Of Age and Innocence, M. Joseph (London, England), 1958.

A Season of Adventure, M. Joseph (U.S. ed. University of Michigan Press, 1998), 1960.

Water with Berries, Holt, 1971.

Natives of My Person, Holt, 1972.

Essays

The Pleasures of Exile, M. Joseph (U.S. ed. University of Michigan Press, 1992), 1960.

Western Education and the Caribbean Intellectual: Coming, Coming Home, House of Nesehi (St.Martin), 1995.

Coming, Coming Home: Conversations II, House of Nesehi (St. Martin), 2001.

Sources

Books

Contemporary Novelists, St. James, 2001.

Dictionary of Literary Biography, volume 125, Gale, 1993.

Gilkes, Michael, The West Indian Novel, Twayne, 1981.

Herdeck, Donald, ed., Caribbean Writers, Three Continents Press, 1979.

Murphy, Bruce, ed., Benets Readers Encyclopedia, 3rd ed., HarperCollins, 1991.

Periodicals

Daily News (New York), May 28, 2000, p. 24.

The Independent (London, England), October 14, 2001, p. Features-24.

Jet, January 11, 1999, p. 14.

World Literature Today, Summer-Autumn 2001, p. 15.

On-line

Contemporary Authors Online, reproduced in Biography Resource Center, http:/www.galenet.com/servlet/BioRC">http:/www.galenet.com/servlet/BioRC

James M. Manheim

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"Lamming, George 1927–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Lamming, George (Eric)

LAMMING, George (Eric)

Nationality: Barbadian. Born: Carrington Village, 8 June 1927. Education: Roebuck Boys' School; Combermere School. Career: Teacher in Trinidad, 1946-50; moved to England, 1950; host of book review programme, BBC West Indian Service, London, 1951. Writer-in-residence, University of the West Indies, Kingston, 1967-68. Coeditor of Barbados and Guyana independence issues of New World Quarterly, Kingston, 1965 and 1967. Awards: Guggenheim fellowship, 1954; Kenyon Review fellowship, 1954; Maugham award, 1957; Canada Council fellowship, 1962. D. Litt.: University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados, 1980. Address: 14-A Highbury Place, London N.5., England.

Publications

Novels

In the Castle of My Skin. London, Joseph, and New York, McGraw Hill, 1953.

The Emigrants. London, Joseph, 1954: New York, McGraw Hill, 1955.

Of Age and Innocence. London, Joseph, 1958; New York, Schocken, 1981.

Season of Adventure. London, Joseph, 1960; Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Water with Berries. London, Longman, 1971; New York, Holt Rinehart, 1972.

Natives of My Person. London, Longman, and New York, Holt Rinehart, 1972.

Uncollected Short Stories

"David's Walk," in Life and Letters (London), November 1948.

"Of Thorns and Thistles" and "A Wedding in Spring," in West Indian Stories, edited by Andrew Salkey. London, Faber, 1960.

"Birds of a Feather," in Stories from the Caribbean, edited by Andrew Salkey. London, Elek, 1965; as Island Voices, New York, Liveright, 1970.

"Birthday Weather," in Caribbean Literature, edited by G.R. Coulthard. London, University of London Press, 1966.

Other

The Pleasures of Exile. London, Joseph, 1960; Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1992.

Influencia del Africa en las literaturas antillanas, with Henry Bangou and René Depestre. Montevideo, Uruguay, I.L.A.C., 1972.

The Most Important People, with Kathleen Drayton. Bridgetown, Barbados, Drayton, 1981.

Western Education and the Caribbean Intellectual: Coming, Coming, Coming Home. New York, House of Nehesi, 1995.

Coming, Coming Home: Conversations II: Monographs. Philipsburg, St. Martin, House of Nehesi, 1995.

Editor, Cannon Shot and Glass Beads: Modern Black Writing. London, Pan, 1974.

Editor, On the Canvas of the World. Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago Institute of the West Indies, 1999.

*

Bibliographies:

George Lamming: A Select Bibliography, Cave Hill, Barbados, University of the West Indies Main Library, 1980.

Critical Studies:

The Novels of George Lamming by Sandra Pouchet Paquet, London, Heinemann, 1982; Anancy in the Great House: Ways of Reading West Indian Fiction by Joyce Jonas, New York and London, Greenwood Press, 1990; Caliban in Exile: The Outsider in Caribbean Fiction by Margaret Paul Joseph, New York and London, Greenwood Press, 1992; Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History by Supriya Nair. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1996.

Theatrical Activities:

Director: Play Meet Me at Golden Hill, Barbados, 1974.

* * *

The critical reception of George Lamming's first four novels fell short of their real merits and originality. It is often said that Lamming demands too much of the reader; it might be truer to say that the reader demands too little of Lamming. West Indian fiction has often been distinguished by a certain energy and rhetorical glow but not, except in the work of Lamming and Wilson Harris, by much complexity of form or texture. Right from his first book, In the Castle of My Skin, Lamming made it clear that the real complexity of West Indian experience demanded some adequate response of its writers. He has since elaborated this view in an important essay called "The Negro Writer and His World," where he wrote: "To speak of his [the Negro Writer's] situation is to speak of a general need to find a center as well as a circumference which embraces some reality whose meaning satisfies his intellect and may prove pleasing to his senses. But a man's life assumes meaning first in relation to other men " In the Castle of My Skin may at first appear to be an autobiography of childhood, but it soon becomes apparent that the book is also the collective autobiography of a Barbadian village moving through the break-up of the old plantation system dominated by the Great House and into the new age of nationalism, industrial unrest and colonial repression. The four boys who stand at the center of the book are given a more or less equal importance though it is "George" who ultimately registers the meaning of their disparate experiences as they are driven asunder by education, travel, and emerging social distinctions.

The collective quality already evident in this, the most personal of all Lamming's books, is more strongly present in The Emigrants. Here the portrait is of one boatload of the black emigrants (the title is significant, for it stresses what they leave as well as what they find) who flocked from the Caribbean to Britain between 1950 and 1962. On the boat the emigrants discover a new identity as "West Indians," only to lose it again as they fly centrifugally apart under the stresses of life in an alien culture.

The Emigrants is the saddest of all Lamming's books, because there is almost no focus of hope amid so much disillusionment and despair. By contrast both Of Age and Innocence and Season of Adventure are powerfully positive books in which what is shed is a set of values adhering to the older generation, those who are unable to match the pace and tendency of the times. Of Age and Innocence is set in San Cristobal, a fictional Caribbean island colony rapidly approaching independence. The dominant generation of islanders is unable to break away from its class and racial identities to work together for a new society which will redeem the past of slavery and colonialism, but it is throughout juxtaposed to the generation of its children, who struggle towards that meaning which the nationalist leader Shepherd has glimpsed and then lost again.

I had always lived in the shadow of a meaning which others had placed on my presence in the world, and I had played no part at all in making that meaning, like a chair which is wholly at the mercy of the idea guiding the hand of the man who builds it. But like the chair, I have played no part at all in making that meaning which others use to define me completely.

Shepherd is destroyed by the forces of the past, but the children look out through the flames of destruction which end the novel towards a future they have already presaged in their games. At the center of Season of Adventure stands another unawakened character, the "big-shot coloured" girl Fola, whose father is a West Indian police officer imbued with all the old ideas of order, dominance, and segregation. A visit to a Voduñ ceremony awakens her to the real capacity of her nature for self-discovery and self-renewal. This awakening by ancestral drums is in itself a cliché of Caribbean literature, but here it escapes banality by the intensity of Lamming's lyrical style and the bizarre violence of much of the action. Season of Adventure is in some ways the finest of his novels, just as The Emigrants is certainly the weakest. Yet the hesitancy which overtakes the drums at the end of the novel, in the very moment of their triumph as the expression of popular values, is analogous to the problem of language Lamming faces in projecting a West Indian culture which will be truly united, consistent and free: "But remember the order of the drums for it is the language which every nation needs if its promises and its myths are to become a fact."

After a silence of more than ten years, Lamming published two new novels within a year. These were powerfully contrasted in style and theme. Water with Berries is superficially a naturalistic novel about three West Indian artists living difficult and ever more lonely lives in modern London. Gradually, however (and the quotation of Caliban in the title gives a clue), the reader becomes aware that this is a study of what happens when Caliban comes to Prospero's original home. The revenges of history work themselves out through characters who are helpless to prevent completing the bizarre and violent patterns of the past. Each of the friends is an aspect of Caliban and each passes through an extreme personal crisis at the novel's end. But Derek, erect upon the stage before a howling audience, having completed the rape of Miranda at last, or Teeton, erect upon a northern island after destroying his last links with the racial past, have at least sketched the possibilities of freedom from these tyrannies of history.

Natives of My Person is more of an extended reverie upon certain dominant themes in Atlantic mythologythe demonic captain, the slave-ship, the imprisoned Amerindian prince, the crew variously haunted by tragedy and terrorwhich are treated like themes in music. The style is deliberately wrought from the timbers of seventeenth-century maritime prose, in which this mythology finds its roots. Hence the novel voyages freely in the dimension of space-time, deriving its structure simply from the musical resolution of its dominant themes. This is a work of great beauty, originality, and difficulty, which may finally prove to be Lamming's most important achievement.

Gerald Moore

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Lamming, George

Lamming, George (1927– ) Caribbean novelist and poet. His native Barbados forms the background to his first novel, In The Castle of My Skin (1953). The Emigrants (1954) describes the problems facing West Indians in England, where he settled in the 1950s. Later novels include Water with Berries (1971) and Natives of My Person (1972).

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