Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge
DODGSON, CHARLES LUTWIDGE
(b. Daresbury, Cheshire, England, 27 January 1832;
d. Guildford, Surrey, England, 14 January 1898), mathematics, logic, political science. For the original article on Dodgson see DSB, vol. 3.
Thanks to the increasing publication and reprinting of original material and criticism since the 1950s, Dodgson’s scientific work has become better known and more widely appreciated. In addition to his contributions as a teacher, popularizer, and puzzlemaker, these publications shed a new light on his social life and his original inventions in mathematics, political science, and logic.
Scientific Acquaintances . Since the 1950s, the progressive publication of new original material (diaries, letters, various manuscripts), the reprint of many of Dodgson’s mathematical writings, and the creation of active Carrollian societies have cast a new light on both the personality of Dodgson and his scientific achievements. This new evidence refutes the legend that he was a reclusive man who lived cloistered at Christ Church. He liked meeting the celebrities of the time (actors, scientists, royalty, poets, and painters) and took numerous photographs of them. He had many adult friends (both male and female), and more surprisingly a good deal of his socalled “childfriends” were in fact adult women. Dodgson also participated in many public debates that took place in both university and society settings, and wrote letters to journals and published pamphlets on matters as various as vaccination, teaching science at the university, child actors, and vivisection.
A look at both his published work and private writings shows that Dodgson was acquainted with the scientific players of his time and their achievements. He visited Charles Babbage, met Arthur Cayley, and corresponded with Henry J. S. Smith, Isaac Todhunter, John Venn, Charles Darwin, William Spottiswoode, Francis H. Bradley, and many others. The catalog of his private library shows that he owned the major works of his time in a wide range of scientific interests. Contrary to what Norman T. Gridgeman wrote in the original DSB entry, two purely nineteenthcentury subjects (nonEuclidean geometry and symbolic logic) may illustrate Dodgson’s keeping abreast of the mathematical advances of the time in Britain, but like the majority of his contemporary British mathematicians, he ignored many advances made on the continent. For instance, Francine F. Abeles shows clearly that Dodgson knew the existence of the new nonEuclidean geometries, although he did not accept them (Abeles, 1994, p. 16). Dodgson owned copies of the main works on symbolic logic, which was a purely British subject at the time. In his Symbolic Logic, he referred to George Boole, Augustus de Morgan, William S. Jevons, John N. Keynes, Venn, and the members of Johns Hopkins University (the school of Charles Sanders Peirce). In his diaries, he mentioned Boole’s work on logic as early as 25 May 1876. But like his contemporary British colleagues he ignored the work of the German logician Gottlob Frege.
Scientific Achievements . Dodgson’s work is fully recognized in at least two areas of the mathematical sciences: the theory of determinants and the theory of voting. On the former, he invented a new rule for the evaluation of determinants by condensation in a paper that was first delivered to the Royal Society on 17 May 1866. On the latter, he published several pamphlets dealing with the issues of proportional representation, choice theory and elections, betting and rationality in tennis tournaments. Mathematicians and historians of mathematics evoke with respect Dodgson’s work in logic and geometry, but in the early 2000s there was an ongoing dispute about its importance.
As a geometer, Dodgson is essentially remembered for his defense of Euclid against the new teaching methods, which flourished at the time. Euclid’s rivals aimed to replace his Elements as a textbook for teaching geometry with other modern manuals. In Euclid and His Modern Rivals(first published in 1879 and then enlarged in 1885), Dodgson collected the main rival manuals, discussed them, and then claimed the superiority of Euclid’s
textbook. On this matter he shared the view of some of Britain’s leading mathematicians, including Cayley and de Morgan. Dodgson was, however, not completely against change: he introduced some minor modifications to Euclid in his numerous textbooks on geometry. More interesting is his New Theory of Parallels (1888), where he presented a new Euclidean parallels axiom.
Although he is generally considered a traditionalist logician merely concerned with recreational issues, Dodgson’s writings on logic contain many original inventions that reveal a high understanding of the logical advances of his time. Dodgson signed with his pseudonym (Lewis Carroll) his two books on the subject: The Game of Logic(1886) and Symbolic Logic, Part 1 (1896). These works present his new diagrammatic scheme for the representation of logical classes and propositions, which despite its numerous advantages in comparison to Venn diagrams, has been seldom used since. In 1977, William W. Bartley III published large fragments from the lost second part of Dodgson’s Symbolic Logic, which notably included an original method for solving elimination problems with the use of logical trees. More influential are Dodgson’s two contributions to the philosophical journal Mind: “A Logical Paradox” (1894) and particularly “What the Tortoise Said to Achilles” (1895). These two problems, dealing with hypotheticals, have been widely reprinted; they were commented on and discussed by leading logicians of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including Venn, Hugh McColl, Bertrand Russell, Gilbert Ryle, and Willard V. Quine.
There are some other mathematical areas where Dodgson made contributions worth noting: his Pillow Problems (1893) included twelve interesting probability problems together with a thirteenth, controversial jokeproblem in “transcendental probabilities.” He also invented five cipher systems, and published numerous arithmetic methods and problems in the Educational Times and the journal Nature. Better known are Dodgson’s contributions to recreational mathematics. His popular books and pamphlets; his numerous contributions to newspapers and journals; his private diaries, letters, and manuscripts; and even his literary works contain a rich collection of games, mathematical puzzles, and word plays. In the 1890s Dodgson planned to publish a book of original games and puzzles, but he never finished it. However, many posthumous compilations appeared and give a good idea of the richness of his work. Dodgson’s fictional works have also been widely quoted, and their main characters (Alice, the Cheshire cat, the Red Queen, the Snark, Humpty Dumpty, Tweedledee and Tweedledum) became recurrent symbols in scientific literature.
SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY
WORKS BY DODGSON
Abeles, Francine F., ed. The Mathematical Pamphlets of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and Related Pieces. New York: Lewis Carroll Society of North America, 1994.
———. The Political Pamphlets and Letters of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and Related Pieces: A Mathematical Approach. New York: Lewis Carroll Society of North America, 2001.
Bartley, William Warren, III, ed. Lewis Carroll’s Symbolic Logic. New York: Potter, 1986. A commented edition of the first and (presumed lost) second parts of Dodgson’s Symbolic Logic.
Cohen, Morton N., and Roger Lancelyn Green, eds. The Letters of Lewis Carroll. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. A voluminous collection that however contains little in the way of letters of scientific content.
Dodgson, Charles L., ed. Euclid. Books I, II. London: Macmillan, 1882.
———. Euclid and His Modern Rivals. 2nd ed. London: Macmillan, 1885. Reprinted by Dover in 1973 and 2004.
———. Curiosa Mathematica. Part I: A New Theory of Parallels. 3rd ed. London: Macmillan, 1890.
Gardner, Martin, ed. The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition. New York: Norton, 2000. A good annotated edition of Dodgson’s Alice tales, including “The Wasp in a Wig,” a suppressed episode discovered in 1974.
Lovett, Charles C. Lewis Carroll and the Press. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 1999. A descriptive bibliography of Dodgson’s contributions to periodicals.
———. Lewis Carroll among His Books: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Private Library of Charles L. Dodgson. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005.
Wakeling, Edward, ed. Lewis Carroll’s Diaries: The Private Journals of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. 9 vols. Luton, U.K.: The Lewis Carroll Society, 1993–2005. The complete version of Dodgson’s surviving diaries. Richly annotated.
———, ed. The Oxford Pamphlets, Leaflets, and Circulars of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. Charlottesville, VA: Lewis Carroll Society of North America, 1993.
Williams, Sidney Herbert, Falconer Madan, Roger Lancelyn Green, et al. The Lewis Carroll Handbook. Folkestone, Kent, U.K.: Dawson, 1979. The standard (but incomplete) bibliography of Dodgson’s works. To be used with caution.
OTHER SOURCES
Abeles, Francine F. “Determinants and Linear Systems: Charles L. Dodgson’s View.” The British Journal for the History of Science 19 (November 1986): 331–335.
———. “Lewis Carroll’s Formal Logic.” History and Philosophy of Logic 26 (February 2005): 33–46.
———. “Lewis Carroll’s Ciphers: The Literary Connections.” Advances in Applied Mathematics 34 (May 2005): 697–708. See the Erratum in Advances in Applied Mathematics 37 (July 2006): 1. The best overview to date of Dodgson’s work in cryptology.
———. “Lewis Carroll’s Visual Logic.” History and Philosophy of Logic28 (February 2007): 1–17.
Bartley, William Warren, III. “Lewis Carroll’s Lost Book on Logic.” Scientific American 227 (July 1972): 39–46.
Cohen, Morton N. Lewis Carroll: A Biography. New York: Knopf, 1995. The best biography to date.
Englebresten, George. “Two Important Logical Insights by Lewis Carroll.” In Reflections on Lewis Carroll, edited by Fernando J. Soto and Dayna McCausland. The Lewis Carroll Society of Canada, 2000.
Gardner, Martin. The Universe in a Handkerchief: Lewis Carroll’s Mathematical Recreations, Games, Puzzles, and Word Plays. New York: Copernicus, 1996. A good overview of Dodgson’s recreational work.
Jabberwocky. The journal of the Lewis Carroll Society since 1969. It became The Carrollian in 1998. Available from http://www.lewiscarrollsociety.org.uk.
Knight Letter. The magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America since 1974. Available from http://www.lewiscarroll.org.
Leach, Karoline. In the Shadow of the Dreamchild: A New Understanding of Lewis Carroll. London: Peter Owen, 1999. A very controversial book with a brilliant discussion of the Carroll myth and a much disputed new assessment of his personal and social life.
McLean, Iain, Alistair McMillan, and Burt L Monroe, eds. A Mathematical Approach to Proportional Representation: Duncan Black on Lewis Carroll. Boston: Kluwer, 1996.
Moktefi, Amirouche. “How Did Lewis Carroll Become a Logician?” Proceedings of the Canadian Society for the History and Philosophy of Mathematics 18 (2005): 136–144.
Seneta, Eugene. “Lewis Carroll as a Probabilist and Mathematician.” The Mathematical Scientist 9 (1984): 79–94.
Wilson, Robin. “Alice in Numberland: An Informal Dramatic Presentation in 8 Fits.” The College Mathematics Journal33 (November 2002): 354–377. A good overview for the general reader.
Amirouche Moktefi
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Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge
Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge
(b. Daresbury, Cheshire. England, 27 January 1832; d. Guildford. Surrey, England, 14 January 1898)
mathematics, logic.
Dodgson was the thirdborn of the eleven offspring of Charles Dodgson, a clergyman, and his wife and cousin, the former Frances Jane Lutwidge. All the children stuttered, and Charles Lutwidge himself is said to have spoken without impediment only to the countless nymphets whom, over decades of adulthood, he befriended, wrote wonderful letters to, entertained, and photographed (often nude) with considerable artistry. The obvious inference from this attraction to young girls seems invalid, for he was strongly undersexed. (Even in the Victorian milieu his puritanism was barely credible: for instance, he nursed a project to bowdlerize Bowdler’s Shakespeare, and he demanded assurance from one of his illustrators that none of the work would be done on Sundays.) He was never wholly at ease in the company of grownups. Friendship with the three small daughters of Dean Liddell resulted in the celebrated Alice books, published under a pseudonym that he had first used in 1856 as a writer of light verse—Lewis Carroll. Alice brought him fame, money, and the posthumous honor of becoming the mostquoted litterateur in English discursive scientific writing of the twentieth century.
In our concern here with Dodgson’s professional achievements, we must bear in mind that his vocational mathematics and his avocational nonsense commingle in a vein of logic that was his salient characteristic as a thinker. For years it was fashionable to point to the gap between mathematics and ingenious nonsense (and the other nineteenthcentury master of nonsense, Edward Lear, was most unmathematical); but today we are aware that, at least in some places, the gap is not that wide. The modern view, that Dodgson was all of a piece, is simpler to sustain. His analytical mind is reflected everywhere in his writings, whose quaintness by no means damages clarity. The pity is that his talents were inhibited by ignorance and introversion, for he made no attempt to keep abreast of contemporary advances in mathematics and logic or to discuss his ideas with other academics.
Dodgson’s pedestrian career unfolded without hitch. Graduated from Oxford in 1854, he became master of arts there three years later. Meanwhile, in 1855, he had been appointed lecturer in mathematics at his alma mater, Christ Church College, Oxford. In 1861 he was ordained in the Church of England, although he was never to perform any ecclesiastic duties. As a young man he made a trip to Russia, but later journeyings were restricted to London and quiet seaside vacations. Marriage was unthought of, and Dodgson entered into no close friendships. (Perhaps his acquaintanceship with Ellen Terry, the great actress, most nearly qualified for “close friendship.”) He took some part in the administration of his college and was proud of his finicky management of its wine cellars. A parttime inventor of trivia, he devised several aids to writing in the dark—to assuage his chronic insomnia and to help dispel the nameless “unholy thoughts” that occasionally pestered him. But generally speaking his placidity was so well rooted that he was able to make the extraordinary statement, “My life is free from all trial and trouble.”
As a lecturer Dodgson was drear; and when he gave up the chore, he noted ruefully that his first lecture had been attended by nine students and his last (twentyfive years later) by two. Away from the classroom he wrote assiduously; and his publications, in book form or pamphlet (a favorite medium), are respectably numerous. His scholarly output falls into four main groups; determinants, geometry, the mathematics of tournaments and elections, and recreational logic. He was modest enough to describe his activities as being “chiefly in the lower branches of Mathematics.”
Dodgson’s work on determinants opened with a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society for 1866, and this was expanded into a book that appeared the following year. An Elementary Treatise on Determinants is good exposition, but favorable reception was prevented by the author’s extensive use of ad hoc terms and symbols.
Dodgson’s writings on geometry became well known; it was a subject about which he was almost passionate. His initial contribution was A Syllabus of Plane Algebraic Geometry (1860), a textbook whose purpose was to develop analytic geometry along rigorous Euclidean lines. He also published pamphlets on this and related themes, in one of which he introduced an original but not particularly meritorious notation for the trigonometric ratios. His most interesting effort in this genre was a fiveact comedy entitled Euclid and His Modern Rivals, about a mathematics lecturer, Minos, in whose dreams Euclid debates his original Elements with such modernizers as Legendre and J. M. Wilson and, naturally, routs the opposition. The book is an attack on the changing method of teaching classical geometry and not, as is sometimes assumed, on nonEuclidean geometry. Indeed, Dodgson showed himself keenly aware of the infirmity of the fifth postulate (on parallels), and he has his oneiric Euclid admit that “some mysterious flaw lies at the root of the subject.” The interesting point here is that Riemann’s revolutionary geometry was well established during Dodgson’s lifetime, and an English translation of the key paper was available. This is yet another instance of Dodgson’s being out of touch with the mathematical research of his day. The Euclid drama (which is most engagingly written) apparently was used as ancillary reading in English schools for a number of years.
Least known but quite praiseworthy is Dodgson’s work on tournaments and voting theory. His interest stemmed from two sources: the organization of tennis tournaments and the mechanism of arriving at fair decisions by administrative committees. He decided that both matters needed rethinking. As usual, he did not bother to check the literature and so was unaware that the topic had come in for learned discussion in France before and during the Revolution. However, Dodgson unwittingly improved on existing ideas. His initial publication (a pamphlet, in 1873) reviews different methods of arriving at a fair majority opinion, and he sensibly advocates the use of degrees of preference in voting schedules. His whole approach is fresh and thoughtful, and he was the first to use matrix notation in the handling of multiple decisions.
In contrast with his mathematics, Dodgson’s work on logic was written entirely under his pseudonym, which clearly testifies to his view that the subject was essentially recreational. Traditional formal logic had long been a barren and overrated discipline; but during his lifetime a renaissance in technique and significance was taking place, and most of the pioneers were his countrymen. Although he was not ignorant of the new trends, their importance either escaped him or was discountenanced. Dodgson was attracted by the contemporary interest in the diagrammatization of the logic of classes, and he had read and appreciated Venn’s seminal contributions. In fact, he modified Venn diagrams by making their boundaries linear and by introducing colored counters that could be moved around to signify class contents—a very simple and effective device. On these foundations Dodgson published a game of logic that featured various forms (some very amusing) of the syllogism. His casual realization of the connections between symbolic logic and mathematics might have become vivid and fruitful had he been properly acquainted with what had already been done in the area. But he did not do the necessary reading—there is, for instance, no indication that he had read Boole’s Laws of Thought, although he owned a copy! Finally, Dodgson was a prolific composer of innocentlooking problems in logic and paradox, some of which were to engage the attention of professional logicians until well into the twentieth century.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
I. Original Works. The authoritative conspectus of Dodgson’s writings, which included sixteen books (six for children) and hundreds of other items, is S. H. Williams and F. Madan, A Handbook of the Literature of the Rev. C. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) (London, 1931; supp., 1935). Two outstanding books are An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (London, 1867) and Euclid and His Modern Rivals (London, 1879). His initial publication on election theory, A Discussion of the Various Procedures in Conducting Elections (Oxford, 1873), is a rare pamphlet, only one copy being known; it is at Princeton. The Morris L. Parrish Collection of Victorian Novelists, in Princeton University library, contains the biggest mass of Dodgsoniana, much of it MS. Warren Weaver, in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 98 (1954), 377–381, tells the history of this collection and gives some examples of its mathematical items. Dodgson’s two books on recreational mathematics are now available in a 1vol. paperback: Pillow Problems and a Tangled Tale (New York, 1958). Similarly, his two books on logic are bound together in the paperback Symbolic Logic, and the Game of Logic (New York, 1958).
II. Secondary Literature. Dodgson’s nephew, S. D. Collingwood, published the first biography, in the same year as his subject’s death: The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll (London, 1898). It remains a primary source book. Among many subsequent biographies and evaluations, Florence Becker Lennon’s Victoria Through the Looking Glass (New York, 1945), esp. ch. 15, is notable for its perceptive treatment of Dodgson’s serious side. R. L. Green, The Diaries of Lewis Carroll (London, 1953), is important, although many of the entries on logic and mathematics have been excised or glossed over. Two papers prepared for the centenary of Dodgson’s birth are essential reading: R. B. Braithwaite, “Lewis Carroll as Logician,” in Mathematical Gazette, 16 (1932), 174–178; and D. B. Eperson, “Lewis Carroll—Mathematician,” ibid., 17 (1933). 92–100. His work on tournaments and elections is examined in Duncan Black’s The Theory of Committees and Elections (Cambridge, 1958). Martin Gardner’s New Mathematical Diversions (New York, 1966), ch. 4, deals with Dodgson’s work on games and puzzles. The same author’s earlier books, The Annotated Alice (New York, 1960) and The Annotated Snark (New York, 1962), provide remarkable insights into the logicomathematical undercurrents in Dodgson’s fantasia.
Norman T. Gridgeman
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Carroll, Lewis (1832–1898)
Carroll, Lewis (1832–1898)
The English writer, mathematician, Oxford don, and photographer Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is best known by his pen name Lewis Carroll. The eldest son of the Anglican minister Charles Dodgson and Frances Lutwidge, Dodgson spent his early childhood in Cheshire and later in Yorkshire. Educated as a boy away from home at Richmond School and at Rugby, he matriculated in 1851 at Christ Church College, Oxford, which would prove to be his home for the remaining fortyseven years of his life. Dodgson excelled in mathematics and gained a studentship (equivalent to a fellowship at other colleges), which he kept for life, fulfilling the double requirements of remaining unmarried and taking orders in the Church of England, although he proceeded to ordination only as a deacon. He served as a mathematical lecturer at Christ Church from 1855 to 1881 and published mathematical works as C. L. Dodgson. He was also a distinguished photographer. Dodgson achieved fame as Lewis Carroll upon the publication of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in 1865 and its sequel, Through the LookingGlass, and What Alice Found There, six years later. After his two Alice books, Dodgson, as Lewis Carroll, wrote several more books for children, including The Hunting of the Snark: An Agony in Eight Fits (1876), Sylvie and Bruno (1889), and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded
(1893).
Although Dodgson has been described often as a retiring Oxford don who only liked the company of children, Dodgson's surviving diaries and letters attest to the strong adult, as well as child, friendships that he cultivated. His adult life followed a steady routine. Dodgson spent term times at Christ Church, where he kept busy with college and mathematical affairs. During holidays he visited the family home, and he spent summers at the seaside. Dodgson made several trips to London every year. While there, he led a busy social life, avidly attending the theatre and art exhibitions and visiting with friends. He also traveled widely around England, again visiting friends and acquaintances. In 1856 Dodgson took up photography, still a nascent technology, and for the next twentyfour years of his life, until he stopped taking pictures in 1880, it played a major role in his social activities. He specialized in portraiture, taking pictures of any adult and child acquaintances whom he could persuade to sit for his camera.
Dodgson was one of a number of Victorian men, such as John Ruskin and George MacDonald, who turned to girlhood for creative inspiration and for emotional solace. Some scholars have suggested that Dodgson's fascination with girlhood stemmed from feelings of nostalgia for his domestic childhood home after being sent away to the masculine environment of school. In the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries, shifting ideas concerning the relationship between childhood and sexuality have led scholars to debate whether or not Dodgson was in fact sexually interested in young girls. This speculation is fueled, in part, by the uncertain number of photographs he took later in his life of children in the nude. As he grew older, however, Dodgson's "childfriends," as he often termed them, tended more and more to be young women in their teens and twenties.
The Alice Books
The Alice books are seminal to the history of children's literature, for they liberated the genre from the didactic and moral children's books fashionable at the time. Replete with wit, humor, nonsense verse, and parodies of the illogical conventions of everyday life, the books were immediately popular upon publication, amusing and delighting both children and adults. They have never gone out of print, have been translated into many languages, and have been dramatized and filmed countless times since their first appearance on the London stage in 1886.
The character of Alice originated in Dodgson's close friendship with Lorina, Alice, and Edith Liddell, the eldest daughters of Henry George Liddell, the dean of Christ Church. Dodgson first narrated the adventures of his heroine Alice during a boating trip with the Liddells. Following the trip, Dodgson wrote and illustrated the manuscript Alice's Adventures Under Ground, which he gave to Alice Liddell as a Christmas gift. The book chronicles sevenyearold Alice's dream of entering a world populated with bizarre characters, from the March Hare and the Mad Hatter, to the Queen of Hearts and the White Rabbit. Alice went against the grain of previous literary child heroes and heroines. In her, Dodgson created a modern child. She is "curiouser and curiouser" and, throughout her adventures, progresses through many moods, sometimes cheerful, sometimes peevish, as she attempts to make sense of the nonsensical world in which she finds herself.
Dodgson's portraits of children also hold a place in the history of childhood. Rooted in the sentimental bonds of friendship between Dodgson and particular children he knew and entertained, such as the Liddells, both his children's books and his photography depict childhood as playful, informal, intimate, and, above all, separate from adult experience. Dodgson's model has proved relevant throughout the twentieth century and into the twentyfirst.
See also: Photographs of Children .
bibliography
Cohen, Morton N., ed., with the assistance of Roger Lancelyn Green. 1979. The Letters of Lewis Carroll, 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, Morton N. 1995. Lewis Carroll: A Biography. New York: A. A. Knopf.
Kincaid, James R. 1992. ChildLoving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture. New York: Routledge.
Knoepflmacher, U. C. 1998. Ventures into Childland: Victorians, Fairy Tales, and Femininity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Leach, Karoline. 1999. In the Shadow of the Dreamchild: A New Understanding of Lewis Carroll. London: Peter Owen.
Mavor, Carol. 1995. Pleasures Taken: Performances of Sexuality and Loss in Victorian Photographs. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Robson, Catherine. 2000. Men in Wonderland: The Lost Girlhood of the Victorian Gentleman. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Smith, Lindsay. 1999. The Politics of Focus: Women, Children, and NineteenthCentury Photography. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Taylor, Roger, and Edward Wakeling. 2002. Lewis Carroll: Photographer. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Waggoner, Diane. 2002. "Photographing Childhood: Lewis Carroll and Alice." In Picturing Children, ed. Marilyn R. Brown. Aldershot, UK, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Wakeling, Edward. 1993–2000. Lewis Carroll's Diaries, the Private Journals of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, 6 vols. Luton, UK: Lewis Carroll Society.
Diane Waggoner
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Carroll, Lewis
Lewis Carroll
Born: January 27, 1832
Daresbury, Cheshire, England
Died: January 14, 1898
Guildford, Surrey, England
English church official, author, and mathematician
The English church official Lewis Carroll was the author of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, famous adventure stories for children that adults also enjoy. He was also a noted mathematician and photographer.
Early life and education
Lewis Carroll was born Charles Lutwidge Dodgson on January 27, 1832, the eldest son and third of eleven children born to Frances Jane Lutwidge and the Reverend Charles Dodgson. Carroll had a happy childhood. His mother was patient and gentle, and his father, despite his religious duties, tutored all of his children and raised them to be good people. Carroll frequently made up games and wrote stories and poems, some of which were similar to his later published works, for his seven sisters and three brothers.
Although his years at Rugby School (1846–49) were unhappy, he was recognized as a good student, and in 1850 he was admitted to further study at Christ Church, Oxford, England. He graduated in 1854, and in 1855 he became mathematical lecturer (more like a tutor) at the college. This permanent appointment, which not only recognized his academic skills but also paid him a decent sum, required Carroll to take holy orders in the Anglican Church and to remain unmarried. He agreed to these requirements and was made a deacon in 1861.
Photography and early publication
Among adults Carroll was reserved, but he did not avoid their company as some reports have stated. He attended the theater frequently and was absorbed by photography and writing. After taking up photography in 1856, he soon found that his favorite subjects were children and famous people, including English poet Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809–1892), Italian painter and poet D. G. Rossetti (1828–1882), and English painter John Millais (1829–1896). Helmut Gernsheim wrote of Carroll's photographs of children, "He achieves an excellence which in its way can find no peer." Though photography was mostly a hobby, Carroll spent a great deal of time on it until 1880.
In the mid1850s Carroll also began writing both humorous and mathematical works. In 1856 he created the pseudonym (assumed writing name) "Lewis Carroll" by translating his first and middle names into Latin, reversing their order, then translating them back into English. His mathematical writing, however, appeared under his real name.
Alice books
In 1856 Carroll met Alice Liddell, the fouryearold daughter of the head of Christ Church. During the next few years Carroll often made up stories for Alice and her sisters. In July 1862, while on a picnic with the Liddell girls, Carroll recounted the adventures of a little girl who fell into a rabbit hole. Alice asked him to write the story out for her. He did so, calling it Alice's Adventures under Ground. After some changes, this work was published in 1865 as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland with illustrations by John Tenniel.
Encouraged by the book's success, Carroll wrote a second volume, Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There (1872). Based on the chess games Carroll played with the Liddell children, it included material he had written before he knew them. The first section of "Jabberwocky," for example, was written in 1855. More of Carroll's famous Wonderland characters—such as Humpty Dumpty, the White Knight, and Tweedledum and Tweedledee—appear in this work than in Alice in Wonderland.
Unlike most of the children's books of the day, Alice and Through the Looking Glass did not attempt to convey obvious moral lessons. Nor did they contain what critics have tried to insist are there—hidden meanings relating to religion or politics. They are delightful adventure stories in which a normal, healthy, clearheaded little girl reacts to the "reality" of the adult world. Their appeal to adults as well as to children lies in Alice's intelligent response to ridiculous language and action.
Later publications
Carroll published several other nonsense works, including The Hunting of the Snark (1876), Sylvie and Bruno (1889), and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893). He also wrote a number of pamphlets poking fun at university affairs, which appeared under a fake name or without any name at all, and he composed several works on mathematics under his true name. In 1881 Carroll gave up his lecturing to devote all of his time to writing. From 1882 to 1892, however, he was curator of the common room (manager of the staff club) at Christ Church. After a short illness, he died on January 14, 1898.
Assessment of the man
The Reverend C. L. Dodgson was a reserved, fussy bachelor who refused to get wrapped up in the political and religious storms that troubled England during his lifetime. Lewis Carroll, however, was a delightful, lovable companion to the children for whom he created his nonsense stories and poems. Biographers and historians have long been confused that one man could have two completely different sides.
One solution is that he had two personalities: "Lewis Carroll" and "the Reverend Mr. Dodgson," with the problems that go along with having a split personality. There were peculiar things about him—he stammered ever since he was a child, he was extremely fussy about his possessions, and he walked as much as twenty miles a day. But another solution seems more nearly correct: "Dodgson" and "Carroll" were parts of one personality. This personality, because of happiness in childhood and unhappiness in the years thereafter, could blossom only in a world that resembled the happy one he knew while growing up.
For More Information
Cohen, Morton N. Lewis Carroll: A Biography. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1995.
Greene, Carol. Lewis Carroll, Author of Alice in Wonderland. Chicago: Children's Press, 1992.
Stoffel, Stephanie Lovett. Lewis Carroll in Wonderland: The Life and Times of Alice and Her Creator. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1997.
Thomas, Donald S. Lewis Carroll: A Biography. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1999.
Wood, James P. The Snark Was a Boojum: A Life of Lewis Carroll. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.
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Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
The English cleric Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (18321898), who wrote under the name Lewis Carroll, was the author of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. He was also a noted mathematician and photographer.
Born on Jan. 27, 1832, Lewis Carroll passed a happy childhood in the rectories of his father, the Reverend Charles Dodgson. For his nine sisters and two brothers he frequently made up games and wrote stories and poems, some of which foreshadow the delights of Alice. Although his school years at Rugby (18461849) were unhappy, he was recognized as a good scholar, and in 1850 he was admitted to Christ Church, Oxford. He graduated in 1854, and in 1855 he became mathematical lecturer at the college. This permanent appointment, which not only recognized his academic superiority but also made him financially secure, carried the stipulations that Carroll take orders in the Anglican Church and remain unmarried. He complied with these requirements and was ordained a deacon in 1861.
Photography and Early Publication
Among adults Carroll was reserved, but he was not a recluse. He attended the theater frequently and was absorbed by photography and writing. Beginning photography in 1856, he soon found that his favorite subjects were children and famous people; among the latter he photographed Alfred Lord Tennyson, D. G. Rossetti, and John Millais. Of Carroll's photographs of children Helmut Gernsheim wrote, "He achievers an excellence which in its way can find no peer." Though photography was a recreation, Carroll practiced it almost obsessively until 1880.
In the mid1850s Carroll also began to write both humorous and mathematical works. In 1856 he created the pseudonym "Lewis Carroll" by translating his first and middle names into Latin, reversing their order, and translating them back into English. His mathematical writing, however, appeared under his real name.
Alice Books
In 1856 Carroll met Alice Liddell, the 4yearold daughter of the dean of Christ Church. During the next few years Carroll frequently made up stories for Alice and her sisters. On July 4, 1862, while picnicking with the Liddell girls, Carroll recounted the adventures of a little girl who fell into a rabbit hole. Alice asked that he write the tale for her. He did so, calling it Alice's Adventures under Ground. After revisions, this work was published in 1865 as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland with illustrations by John Tenniel.
Encouraged by its success, Carroll wrote a sequel, Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There (1872). Based on the chess games Carroll played with the Liddell children, it included material he had written before he knew them. The first stanza of "Jabberwocky," for example, was written in 1855. More of Carroll's famous Wonderland characters, such as Humpty Dumpty, the White Knight, and Tweedledum and Tweedledee, appear in this work than in Alice in Wonderland.
Unlike most of the children's books of the day, Alice and its sequel do not contain obvious moralizing. Nor are they what critics have tried to make them—allegories of religion or politics. They are delightful adventure stories in which a normal, healthy, clearheaded little girl reacts to the "reality" of the adult world. Their appeal to adults as well as to children lies in Alice's intelligent response to absurdities of language and action.
Later Publications
Carroll published several other nonsense works, including The Hunting of the Snark (1876), Sylvie and Bruno (1889), and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893). He also wrote a number of pamphlets satirizing university affairs, which appeared anonymously or under other pseudonyms, and several works on mathematics under his true name.
In 1881 Carroll gave up his lectureship to devote all his time to writing. However, from 1882 to 1892 he was curator of the common room (manager of the faculty club) at Christ Church. After a short illness, he died on Jan. 14, 1898.
Assessment of the Man
The Reverend C. L. Dodgson was a reserved, fussy, conservative bachelor who remained aloof from the economic, political, and religious storms that troubled Victorian England. Lewis Carroll, however, was a delightful, lovable companion to the children for whom he created his engrossing nonsense stories and poems. That both men were one has long puzzled biographers and psychologists.
One solution is that he was two personalities, "Lewis Carroll" and "the Reverend Mr. Dodgson," with the psychological difficulties that accompany a split personality. He did have peculiarities—he stammered from childhood, was extremely fussy about his possessions, and walked as much as 20 miles a day. But another solution seems more nearly correct: "Dodgson" and "Carroll" were facets of one personality. This personality, because of happiness in childhood and unhappiness in the formative years thereafter, could act in the adult world only within the limits of formality and could blossom only in a world that resembled the one he knew as a child.
Further Reading
Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll (1898), and The Diaries of Lewis Carroll, edited by Roger Lancelyn Green (2 vols., 1954), are dull but necessary. The sanest and most informative book on Carroll is James P. Wood, The Snark Was a Boojum: A Life of Lewis Carroll (1966), written for young people. Florence Becker Lennon, The Life of Lewis Carroll (1945; new ed. 1962), is contentious. Phyllis Greenacre, Swift and Carroll: A Psychoanalytic Study of Two Lives (1955), is too psychologically oriented. Alexander Taylor, The White Knight (1952), goes into too many explanations. Roger Lancelyn Green, The Story of Lewis Carroll (1950) and Lewis Carroll (1960), concentrates too heavily on Carroll's revisions and other bibliographical matters. Besides Wood, only Derek Hudson in Lewis Carroll (1954) maintains the steadiness and clarity of vision necessary when writing of Carroll. Helmut Gernsheim, Lewis Carroll, Photographer (1949), is an exciting demonstration of Carroll's ability with a camera. □
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Carroll, Lewis
Lewis Carroll, pseud. of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, 1832–98, English writer, mathematician, and amateur photographer, b. near Daresbury, Cheshire (now in Halton). Educated at Christ Church College, Oxford, he was nominated to a studentship (life fellowship) in 1852, and he remained at Oxford for the rest of his life. Although his fellowship was clerical, Carroll never proceeded higher than his ordination as a deacon in 1861. Shy and afflicted with a stammer, he felt himself unsuited to the demanding life of a minister. He did, however, lecture in mathematics at Christ Church from 1855 until 1881. Among his mathematical works, now almost forgotten, is Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879).
Carroll is chiefly remembered as the author of the famous children's books Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking Glass (1872), both published under his pseudonym and both illustrated by Sir John Tenniel. He developed these stories from tales he told to the children of H. G. Liddell, the dean of Christ Church College, one of whom was named Alice. Many of his characters—the Mad Hatter, the March Hare, the White Rabbit, the Red Queen, and the White Queen—have become familiar figures in literature and conversation. Although numerous satiric and symbolic meanings have been read into Alice's adventures, the works can be read and valued as simple exercises in fantasy. Carroll himself said that in the books he meant only nonsense. He also wrote humorous verses, the most popular of them being The Hunting of the Snark (1876). His later stories for children, Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893), though containing interesting experiments in construction, are widely regarded as failures.
Carroll remained a bachelor all his life. Partly because of his stammer he found association with adults difficult and was most at ease in the company of children, especially little girls, with whom he was clearly obsessed. Early in 1856 he took up photography as a hobby; his photographs of children are still considered remarkable.
Bibliography
See his complete works (ed. by A. Woolcott, 1939) and many recent editions; M. Gardner, ed., The Annotated Alice (1960, repr. 1970); S. Collingwood, Life and Letters (1898, repr. 1968); E. Wakeling, Lewis Carroll, Photographer (2002); biography by M. N. Cohen (1995), mathematical biography by R. Wilson (2008); studies by B. Clark (1988), R. Kelly (1990), and J. Wullschläger (1995); critical essays ed. by H. Bloom (1987).
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CARROLL, Lewis
CARROLL, Lewis [1832–98]. Pen name of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson. English mathematician and writer, born at Daresbury, Cheshire, and educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford, where he spent the rest of his life. His most famous book, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865), developed from a story he told one afternoon to the three daughters of the Greek scholar H. G. Liddell, Dean of Christ Church. Alice, named after one of them, continued her adventures in Through the LookingGlass (1871). Carroll wrote other books for children, including a long poem ‘The Hunting of the Snark’ (1876). He published several mathematical works, but was not distinguished academically. He never married, and found pleasure in the company of little girls, with whom he lost his shyness. He was also an inventor of puzzles, games, ciphers, and mnemonics, and an amateur pioneer in photography. Carroll was a master of fantasy and his stories have their own logic. Young readers seem untroubled by such tensions and anxieties as forgetting one's name and calls for beheading offenders, while the adult reader enjoys the commentary on human absurdities and the manipulation of language. Carroll used the PUN and coined NEOLOGISMS, including what he called ‘portmanteau words’ like chortle (combining chuckle and snort). See BLEND. He played games with idioms, using such expressions as ‘beating time’ (to music) in a literal sense. He reshaped such animals of fable or rhetoric as the Gryphon, March Hare, and Cheshire Cat, and invented such new ones as the Bandersnatch and the Boojum. As a parodist, he made NONSENSE poems out of wellknown moral verses. His success as a children's author was aided by the illustrations of John Tenniel. Analysts of his works have made theological and psychoanalytical interpretations of his fantasies; students of language may find his genius more evident in HumptyDumpty's comment on people and words: ‘The question is, which is to be master–that's all.’ See BLEND, DOUBLET, HUMOUR, JOKE, NONSENSE.
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Carroll, Lewis
Carroll, Lewis
British Mathematician, Writer, and Photographer 1832–1898
Lewis Carroll is the pen name of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, who was born in Darebury, England, in 1832 and died in Guildford, England, in 1898. He taught mathematics at Christ Church College of Oxford University for most of his life and wrote a number of mathematics texts. His fame, however, rests in being the author of children's stories and poems, including Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking Glass (1872).
Dodgson's father was an Anglican minister who had excelled in mathematics at Christ Church College. As a child, Dodgson invented games and stories to entertain his ten brothers and sisters. He attended Richmond School and Rugby School before entering Christ Church College in 1851. He did particularly well in mathematics and classics and, after graduating in 1854 with first honors in mathematics, immediately became an instructor in mathematics at Christ Church, remaining in that position until 1881.
Dodgson was the author of a number of mathematics articles and books, including Notes on the First Two Books of Euclid (1860); Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879); A Syllabus of Plane Algebraic Geometry (1860); Curiosa Mathematica, Part I (1888) and Part II (1894); and Symbolic Logic, Part I (1896) and Part II (unpublished until 1977).
Dodgson, or Carroll, is best remembered for the children's books that resulted from his efforts to entertain the children of the Dean of Christ Church, Henry George Liddell. One of Liddell's daughters, Alice, is immortalized as the heroine of one of the most popular children's books ever to be written.
J. William Moncrief
Bibliography
Narins, Brigham, ed. World of Mathematics. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001.
Internet Resources
"Charles Lutwidge Dodgson." The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive. University of St Andrews. <http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/Dodgson.html>.
Lewis Carroll, Logician and Mathematician. <http://www.lewiscarroll.org>.
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Carroll, Lewis
Carroll, Lewis, pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832–98). Author and mathematician. Brought up in a country parsonage, excelling in mathematical and classical studies at Oxford, Dodgson was appointed lecturer in mathematics at Christ Church (1855–81), and ordained deacon (1861) according to the terms of his fellowship endowment; feeling unsuited to parish work, he remained unpriested, hence unmarried. Shyness and a stammer were forgotten in the company of children, whom he amused with stories, puzzles, and riddles; some of these, invented for Dean Liddell's daughters, were recast and immortalized in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel Through the LookingGlass (1871), which continue to delight children of all ages. The pseudonym derived from retranslation of the Latin form of his first names (Carolus Ludovicus) reversed. Dodgson, ingenious and extremely methodical, also published mathematical works, verse, and pamphlets on university affairs, all combining logic and humour, and was a fine photographer.
A. S. Hargreaves
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Carroll, Lewis
Carroll, Lewis (1832–98) ( Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) British mathematician, photographer and children's writer. An Oxford don, much of his output consisted of mathematical textbooks. He is remembered for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking Glass (1872). Along with his poem The Hunting of the Snark (1876), they have attracted much serious scholarly criticism.
http://www.lewiscarroll.org
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Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson: see Carroll, Lewis.
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