Skip to main content

William Bradford

William Bradford

William Bradford (1590-1657), one of the Pilgrim Fathers, was the leader of the Plymouth Colony in America. His extraordinary history, "Of Plymouth Plantation, " was not published until 1856.

On March 19, 1590, William Bradford was baptized at Austerfield, Yorkshire, England. His father, a yeoman farmer, died when William was only a year old. The boy was trained by relatives to be a farmer. He was still young when he joined a group of Separatists (Protestant radicals who separated from the established Church of England) in nearby Scrooby. For most of the rest of his life, the best source is his Of Plymouth Plantation.

Becoming a Pilgrim

In 1607 Bradford and about 120 others were attacked as nonconformists to the Church of England. They withdrew to Holland, under the religious leadership of John Robinson and William Brewster, living for a year at Amsterdam and then in Leiden, where they stayed nearly 12 years. They were very poor; Bradford worked in the textile industry. In these hard years he seems to have managed to get something of an education because he lived with the Brewsters near a university. Bradford was attracted to the ideal of a close-knit community such as the Scrooby group had established. At the age of 23 he married 16-year-old Dorothy May, who belonged to a group of Separatists that had come earlier from England.

The threat of religious wars, the difficulty of earning a decent living, the loss from the community of children who assimilated Dutch ways, the zeal for missionary activity— these forces led the Scrooby group to consider becoming "Pilgrims" by leaving Holland for America. After many delays they chose New England as their goal, and with financial support from London merchants and from Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who claimed rights to the American area they sought, the Pilgrims readied to leave for America.

Signing the Mayflower Compact

But the terms arranged for the colonists by their deacon were treacherous; the backers and the settlers were to share ownership in the land the colonists improved and the dwellings they constructed. Many of the Pilgrims' coreligionists backed out of the enterprise, and a group of "strangers" was recruited to replace them. When one of their two ships, the Speedwell, proved unseaworthy, the expedition was delayed further. Finally, in September 1620 the Mayflower departed alone, its 102 passengers almost equally divided between "saints" and "strangers." The men on board signed a compact that established government by consent of the governed, the "Mayflower Compact." John Carver (with Brewster, the oldest of the saints) was elected governor.

On landing at Cape Cod in November, a group led by Myles Standish went ashore to explore; they chose Plymouth harbor for their settlement. Meanwhile Dorothy Bradford had drowned. (In 1623 Bradford married a widow from Leiden, with whom he had three children.)

The settlers soon began to construct dwellings. The winter was harsh; one of many who died of the illness that swept the colony was Governor Carver. Bradford became governor, and under him the colonists learned to survive. Squanto, a Native American who had lived in England, taught the settlers to grow corn; and they came to know Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag tribe. A vivid report on these early adventures written by Bradford and Edward Winslow was sent to England and published as Mourt's Relation (1622); with it went clapboard and other materials gathered by the settlers to begin paying off their debts. (Unfortunately the cargo was pirated by a French privateer—a typical piece of Pilgrim bad luck.)

Bradford was responsible for the financial burdens as well as the governing of the colony until his death, though for some five years he did not officially serve as governor. These years saw the debt continue to grow (with great effort it was paid off in 1648).

Developing Plymouth Colony

The population of the colony gradually increased, and by 1623 there were 32 houses and 180 residents. Yet during Bradford's lifetime the colony, which began for religious reasons mainly, never had a satisfactory minister. John Robinson, a great pastor in Holland who had been expected to guide the saints, never reached America. One clergyman who did come, John Lyford, was an especially sharp thorn in Bradford's side. Eventually he was exiled, with the result that the London backers regarded the colonists as contentious and incapable of self-rule.

Gradually as Plymouth Colony came to encompass a number of separate settlements, Bradford's particular idea of community was lost. After 1630 the colony was overshadowed by its neighbor, the Massachusetts Bay Colony. But in fact Plymouth never amounted to much as a political power. By 1644 the entire colony's population was still a mere 300. Plymouth did make other northern colonizing efforts attractive; it supplied important material aid to the Bay Colony, and it may have helped establish its Congregational church polity as the "New England way." Bradford was admired by Governor John Winthrop of Boston, with whom he frequently met to discuss common problems.

Bradford the Man

Bradford's private life was distinguished by self-culture. He taught himself Greek and came to know classical poetry and philosophy as well as contemporary religious writers. He worked on his great history, Of Plymouth Plantation, from 1630 until 1646, adding little afterward. Most of the events were described in retrospect. He wrote as a believer in God's providence, but the book usually has an objective tone. Though far from being an egotist, Bradford emerges as the attractive hero of his story. The last pages reflect his recognition that the colony was not a success, and the book has been called a tragic history. Though he stopped writing his history altogether in 1650, he remained vigorous and active until his death in 1657.

Further Reading

A convenient modern edition of Bradford's history was prepared by Samuel Eliot Morison, ed., Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620-1647 (1952). Another edition was published in 1962, edited and with an introduction by Harvey Wish. The best biography is Bradford Smith, Bradford of Plymouth (1951). G. F. Willison, Saints and Strangers (1945), an account of the Pilgrims, contains much material on Bradford. Background works include Harvey Wish, Society and Thought in Early America (1950); Ruth A. Mclntyre, Debts Hopeful and Desperate: Financing the Plymouth Colony (1963); and George D. Langdon, Jr., Pilgrim Colony: A History of New Plymouth, 1620-1691 (1966). □

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-bradford

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-bradford

Bradford III, William (1719-1791)

William Bradford III (1719-1791)

Sources

Newspaper publisher

Relatives. William Bradford III was born on 19 January 1719 in Hanover Square, New York City. His grandfather, William Bradford I, had established a press in Pennsylvania, the second in America. Because of an argument with the ruling Quaker hierarchy (a rift that would plague the Bradford family for generations), he moved his print shop to New York in 1693 and founded that colonys first newspaper. In 1733 William Bradford III was apprenticed to his wealthy uncle Andrew Sowle Bradford, founder of the American Weekly Mercury in Philadelphia. Having no children of his own, Andrew looked upon William as a son and heir, providing him with fine clothes and a good education. At the age of twenty William became his uncles partner, but when he refused to an arranged marriage with a cousin, his uncle wrote him out of the will.

Interlude in England. Bradford traveled to England in 1741 in order to distance himself from the family squabble and to establish his own business connections. Through the patronage of his great-aunt Tace Sowle Rayton he was able to return to Philadelphia the next year and establish in December his own newspaper. At first he called it the Weekly Advertiser, or Philadelphia Journal but after the third issue renamed it the Pennsylvania Journal; and Weekly Advertiser. He married Rachel Budd that year, and in 1754 he opened the London Coffee-House for Merchants and Traders. As a place to conduct business transactions and exchange gossip, the coffeehouse quickly became a commercial as well as social center of town.

Middling Sort. Unlike many other newspaper publishers, Bradford had an affiliation with the middling sort and demonstrated an early interest in the rights of colonists. During the French and Indian War, his Pennsylvania Journal took a strong stance on military preparedness, and to the chagrin of Quaker leaders he helped organize militia forces in Philadelphia. In October 1757 Bradford started the American Magazine and Monthly Chronicle for the British Colonies. The magazine was popular and had one thousand subscribers, including George Washington. It focused on the current state of American affairs and noted the accomplishments of colonial painters, writers, and scientists. Unfortunately it ceased publication after only one year because the editor, William Smith, departed for England following a four-month jail sentence for libel. (Smith and his father-in-law, Judge William Moore, had criticized the Pennsylvania assembly in the local press.)

Coming Crisis. The mounting tension with England caused Bradford to become even more firmly entrenched in his views on colonial rights. He was an early member of the Sons of Liberty and advocate of the creation of a continental congress. During the Stamp Act controversy Bradford, like many other printers, took great offense at the Crowns attempt to censor the press. As a result he made one of the more noticeable newspaper protests of the day. On 31 October 1765, the day before the act went into effect, the front page of the Pennsylvania Journal had black borders to make it look like a tombstone. A skull and crossbones with grave diggers tools appeared at the top while beneath the nameplate was the announcement: EXPIRING: In Hopes of a Resurrection to Life again. Bradford also signed the nonimportation resolutions circulating at that time.

War Service. Politics did not occupy Bradford to the point that he ignored his press. During this period he published more than twenty volumes on politics, religion, and literature as well as his newspaper. He also attempted, unsuccessfully, to revive the American Magazines in 1769. With the outbreak of war he joined the American army and served during the winter campaign of 17761777. Severely wounded at the Battle of Princeton, he received a promotion to colonel. Meanwhile his paper had published the first of Thomas Paines Crisis papers on 19 December 1776. During the British occupation of Philadelphia the Pennsylvania Journal suspended operations. Once enemy troops evacuated the city in June 1778, however, Bradford reopened his print shop and coffeehouse. His health had been greatly damaged by his wartime service, and he resigned his commission in 1780. His eldest son, Thomas, increasingly took on the responsibility of running the paper and continued to publish the Journal for two years after Bradford died on 25 September 1791. Isaiah Thomas wrote in The History of Printing in America (1810) that in his most solitary hours Bradford reflected with pleasure, that he had done all in his power to secure for his country a name among independent nations; and he frequently said to his children, though I bequeath you no estate, I leave you in the enjoyment of liberty. Because of his devotion to the revolutionary movement, Bradford is known as the Patriot Printer of76.

Sources

Henry Darrach, Bradford Family, 16601906 (Philadelphia, 1906);

Isaiah Thomas, The History of Printing in America. With a Biography of Printers, and an Account of Newspapers, 2 volumes (Worcester, Mass.: Isaiah Thomas, 1810);

John William Wallace, An Address Delivered at the Celebration by the New York Historical Society, May 20, 1863, of the Two Hundredth Birth Day of Mr. William Bradford, Who Introduced the Art of Printing into the Middle Colonies of British America (Albany, N.Y.: J. Munsell, 1863).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bradford III, William (1719-1791)." American Eras. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bradford III, William (1719-1791)." American Eras. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/bradford-iii-william-1719-1791

"Bradford III, William (1719-1791)." American Eras. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/bradford-iii-william-1719-1791

William Bradford

William Bradford

The American printer William Bradford (1663-1752) is often referred to as "the pioneer printer of the Middle colonies." He was involved in frequent controversies over freedom of the press.

William Bradford was born on May 20, 1663, in Leicestershire, England. His parents apprenticed him to Andrew Sowle, the foremost Quaker printer in London. The ambitious young man learned the trade, adopted Sowle's religion, and in 1685 married his master's daughter, Elizabeth. Bradford sailed to Pennsylvania in 1685. He carried a letter of recommendation from George Fox, the founder of the Quakers.

Bradford wasted little time in setting up shop. By the end of the year the first printing in the Middle colonies had appeared. It was an almanac, the Kalendarium Pennsilvaniense, by Samuel Atkins. In it Bradford asked forgiveness for some errors caused by haste and the disorders of travel. But he hoped his readers would be cheered that "after great Charge and Trouble" he had brought "that great Art and Mystery of Printing to this part of America."

The almanac got an unexpected reception. Printing in the New World was often a precarious business. Governor William Penn may have been uneasy about the establishment of a press in his colony; in any case, he took offense at one slight reference to him in the almanac. Atkins was swiftly reprimanded, and Bradford was ordered to print nothing without license from the Pennsylvania Council. In 1687 Bradford was told that nothing could be printed about the Quakers without their formal approval. In 1689 trouble arose between a new governor and the populace. The governor officially reprimanded Bradford for issuing Penn's original charter for the colony, in spite of the printer's plea that it was his business to print whatever was brought him by any party. For a time Bradford resigned his business and went to England, returning in 1690 to what he thought were better prospects. He was involved with William Rittenhouse in opening the first paper mill in British America. But trouble came again a few years later when Bradford took the minority side in a conflict among Quakers. His property was seized and he was arrested, though he escaped conviction.

In April 1693 the New York Council invited Bradford to become their public printer. His first New York production, called New-England's Spirit of Persecution Transmitted to Pennsilvania, discussed his own case. His New York business was wide and varied, including the printing of books, tracts, paper money, and the laws of the colony.

Bradford has numerous "firsts" to his credit in the history of American printing. From 1725 to 1744 he published the New York Gazette, the colony's first newspaper. After 1733 it had a rival, the Weekly Journal, published by Bradford's former apprentice and partner, John Peter Zenger. Bradford, as public printer, supported the government. Zenger was sponsored by a faction opposed to the government. When attempts were made to suppress Zenger, Bradford took a new side, against the government, in the famous freedom-of-press controversy.

Bradford's business, which included bookselling, grew lucrative. After 1723 he also did printing for New Jersey. He retired at the age of 80 and died on May 23, 1752. His son Andrew and his grandson William were also important early American printers and journalists.

Further Reading

A brief and interesting portrait of Bradford is in John T. Winterich, Early American Books and Printing (1935). The standard book on printing in the Colonies, Laurence C. Wroth, The Colonial Printer (1931; 2d ed. 1938), considers Bradford at length. For the background of freedom of the press, the most important book is Leonard W. Levy, Legacy of Suppression: Freedom of Speech and Press in Early American History (1960). □

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-bradford-0

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-bradford-0

William Bradford

William Bradford

The American journalist William Bradford (1722-1791) published an influential newspaper. Opponent of British policies, he followed words with heroic deeds during the Revolution and was known as "the patriot printer of 1776."

Born in New York City, William Bradford was the grandson of the William Bradford who introduced printing in the Middle colonies and gave New York its first newspaper. His uncle, Andrew Bradford, was responsible for Philadelphia's first newspaper. The tradition would be continued by William's own son, Thomas. The Bradfords must be recognized as one of the most influential families of printers in America for nearly 150 years. Young William learned the craft from his uncle, then visited London to improve his skills and prospects. In 1742 he returned to Philadelphia with printing equipment and stock for a bookstore. His career established, he married Rachel Budd from a prosperous New Jersey family.

Bradford carried on a profitable printing and bookselling business and issued two of the best colonial periodicals, the Pennsylvania Journal (begun in 1742), a weekly, and the American Magazine (1757), a monthly. The Journal rivaled Benjamin Franklin's Gazette. Bradford's paper, better printed and as well edited, circulated throughout the Colonies, including the West Indies.

A man of wide contacts in a prospering city, Bradford was successful in a number of ventures. In 1762 he and a partner formed the Philadelphia Insurance Company, designed to insure shipping and merchandise. The background for his other operations was the London Coffee-House for Merchants and Traders, which he opened in 1754, where men of influence met to transact business and exchange opinions. In time Bradford was able to consolidate most of his ventures in adjoining buildings. He was a powerful figure in a colony of critical importance. And he was in touch with his peers elsewhere.

Bradford's position in Philadelphia society and his interest in Pennsylvania's prosperity made him a key figure in the development of colonial opposition to Great Britain. During the French and Indian War he gained some military experience. One of the most vehement antagonists of the Stamp Act of 1765, he became a leader in the Sons of Liberty. At the same time he opposed some Americans who seemed too irresponsible, particularly William Goddard of the Maryland Journal. Bradford followed his own newspaper attacks on British policies with increasing emphasis on the importance of a continental congress. In 1774 his paper carried the famous picture of a dissected snake with the motto, "Unite or Die." He was the printer for the First Congress, and along with editors in other cities he also became a postmaster.

Bradford joined the Revolution, first with money and aid in communication, then as a soldier. Badly wounded at Princeton, after 1778 he gave himself to administrative work in the revolutionary cause. His service ruined both his health and his business. He died on Sept. 25, 1791.

Bradford was an example of the prosperous colonial figures with their own economic interests and intercolonial contacts, whose spirits grew steadily toward revolution, and who frequently gave the cause a rather moderate character.

Further Reading

The fullest source on Bradford is John W. Wallace, An Old Philadelphian: Colonel William Bradford (1884). Besides an extensive, though uncritical, biography, it includes sketches by associates and gleanings from his press. For background on newspapers and the Revolution, as well as information on Bradford, a helpful book is Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr., Prelude to Independence: The Newspaper War on Britain (1957). Also useful is Carl and Jessica Bridenbaugh, Rebels and Gentlemen: Philadelphia in the Age of Franklin (1942). □

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-bradford-1

"William Bradford." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/william-bradford-1

Bradford, William (1590–1657, governor of Plymouth Colony)

William Bradford, 1590–1657, governor of Plymouth Colony, b. Austerfield, Yorkshire, England. As a young man he joined the separatist congregation at Scrooby and in 1609 emigrated with others to Holland, where, at Leiden, he acquired a wide acquaintance with theological literature. Bradford came to New England on the Mayflower in 1620 and in 1621, on the death of John Carver, was chosen leader of the Pilgrims. He remained governor for most of his life, being reelected 30 times; during the five years in which he chose not to serve, he was elected assistant. Bradford, though firm, used his large powers with discretion, and there were few complaints about his leadership. He maintained friendly relations with the Native Americans and struggled hard to establish fishing, trade, and agriculture. He stressed the obligations of the colonists to their London backers and was one of the eight colonial "undertakers" who in 1627 assumed Plymouth Colony's debt to the merchants adventurers. Given a monopoly of fishing and trading privileges, they finally discharged the debt in 1648. Bradford was more tolerant of other religious beliefs than were the Puritan leaders of Boston (although he was by no means consistent in this respect), and he was largely responsible for keeping Plymouth independent of the Massachusetts Bay colony. His famous History of Plimoth Plantation, not published in full until 1856, forms the basis for all accounts of the Plymouth Colony. The editions of W. T. Davis (1908), W. C. Ford (1912), and Samuel Eliot Morison (1952) are the best.

See also G. F. Willison, Saints and Strangers (1945); biography by B. Smith (1951).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bradford, William (1590–1657, governor of Plymouth Colony)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bradford, William (1590–1657, governor of Plymouth Colony)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william-1590-1657-governor-plymouth-colony

"Bradford, William (1590–1657, governor of Plymouth Colony)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william-1590-1657-governor-plymouth-colony

Bradford, William (1722–91, American Revolutionary printer and patriot)

William Bradford, 1722–91, American Revolutionary printer and patriot; grandson of William Bradford (1663–1752). He learned printing from his uncle, Andrew Bradford, in Philadelphia, and in 1742 he set up his own shop. He established the successful anti-British Weekly Advertiser, which competed for many years with Benjamin Franklin's newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette. He also printed a number of books and published (1757–58) the American Magazine and Monthly Chronicle. In 1754 he established the London Coffee House in Philadelphia; this became the seat of the merchants' exchange. Bradford opposed the Stamp Act and took an active part in opposition to British measures, becoming a leader of the Sons of Liberty. He advocated and became official printer to the First Continental Congress. Sacrificing his business, he became a major in the Continental Army and took part in the campaign in New Jersey. At Princeton he was badly wounded and his health shattered. His son, Thomas Bradford (1745–1838), carried on the business and published the Merchants' Daily Advertiser.

See J. W. Wallace, An Old Philadelphian (1884).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bradford, William (1722–91, American Revolutionary printer and patriot)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bradford, William (1722–91, American Revolutionary printer and patriot)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william-1722-91-american-revolutionary-printer-and-patriot

"Bradford, William (1722–91, American Revolutionary printer and patriot)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william-1722-91-american-revolutionary-printer-and-patriot

Bradford, William (1663–1752, British printer in the American colonies)

William Bradford, 1663–1752, British pioneer printer in the American colonies. Born in Leicestershire, England, he served an apprenticeship under a London printer before emigrating in 1685 to Philadelphia, where he set up the first press. He added a bookstore in 1688 and was in 1690 one of the founders of the first paper mill in the colonies. He was arrested for printing a pamphlet critical of the Quaker government; his trial, at which no verdict was reached, was probably the first in the United States involving freedom of the press. Bradford moved (c.1693) to New York City where he became royal printer and issued some 400 items in the next 50 years, including the first American Book of Common Prayer (1710), some of the earliest of American almanacs and many pamphlets and political writings. In 1725 he began publication of the royalist New York Gazette, the first New York newspaper. Many of his descendants, including Andrew Bradford and William Bradford, became printers.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bradford, William (1663–1752, British printer in the American colonies)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bradford, William (1663–1752, British printer in the American colonies)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william-1663-1752-british-printer-american-colonies

"Bradford, William (1663–1752, British printer in the American colonies)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william-1663-1752-british-printer-american-colonies

Bradford, William

BRADFORD, WILLIAM

William Bradford was born September 14, 1755, in Philadelphia. He graduated from Princeton University with a bachelor of arts degree in 1772 and a master of arts degree in 1775.

Before beginning his legal career Bradford served in the Revolutionary War from 1776 to 1779, fought in numerous battles, including Valley Forge, and emerged with the rank of colonel in the Continental army. After his tour of duty, he was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar and established a legal practice in Yorktown, Pennsylvania.

Bradford served as Pennsylvania attorney general for an eleven-year period, from 1780 to 1791. He entered the judiciary in the latter year and presided as judge of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court for three years.

In 1794 Bradford was selected by President george washington to serve as U.S. Attorney General for one year, the second man to hold this post. He died August 23, 1795, and was buried in Burlington, New Jersey.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bradford, William." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bradford, William." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william-0

"Bradford, William." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william-0

Bradford, William

BRADFORD, WILLIAM

William Bradford, born November 4, 1729, in Plympton, Massachusetts, was a student of both law and medicine. After practicing medicine in

Warren, Rhode Island, Bradford was admitted to the bar in 1767 and established his legal practice in Bristol, Rhode Island.

From 1764 to 1765 Bradford was a member of the Rhode Island House of Representatives, and served as speaker. He continued his career in that state, serving on the Rhode Island Committee of Correspondence in 1773, and acting as deputy governor of Rhode Island from 1775 to 1778.

Bradford was elected senator from Rhode Island in 1793, serving in the U.S. Senate until 1797, and acting as president pro tem in that same year.

He died July 6, 1808, in Bristol.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bradford, William." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bradford, William." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william

"Bradford, William." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william

Bradford, William

Bradford, William (1845–1919). English architect, he specialized in breweries, designing or altering over seventy of them, including Hole's Castle Brewery, Newark-on-Trent, Notts. (1882—a rich French-Renaissance composition of stone, enlivened by vermiculation, and with a large clock tower), and the Hook Norton Brewery, Oxon. (c.1870—an extraordinary building of brick, ironstone, cast iron, timber, and weather-boarding). The firm continued under his sons, W. Stovin and J. W. Bradford, and designed several lavishly ornamented public-houses.

Bibliography

L. Pearson (1999);
Peter Swallow

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bradford, William." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bradford, William." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bradford-william

"Bradford, William." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bradford-william

Bradford, William

Bradford, William (1590–1657) American colonial governor and signatory of the Mayflower Compact. He emigrated to America as one of the Pilgrims on the Mayflower (1620), being one of the organizers of the voyage. He was elected governor of Plymouth Colony in 1621, and re-elected for 30 years thereafter. He helped draw up a body of laws for the colony in 1636, and wrote a History of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–46.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bradford, William." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bradford, William." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william

"Bradford, William." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved May 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bradford-william