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Jakes, Thomas “T.D.” 1957

Thomas T.D. Jakes 1957

Entrepreneur, Pentecostal preacher, author

Grew Up As Bible Boy.

Began a Church from Scratch

Became a Best-Selling Author

Greatly Expanded Ministry With Media

Blessed to Be a Blessing

Message Spoke of Human Needs

Selected writings

Sources

When T.D. Jakes first stepped into the pulpit, he trembled with nervousness and anxiety. Speaking in front of crowds was initially quite difficult for him due to a pronounced speech impediment. But judging from the reaction of his congregations, Jakes preaching is very powerful, even anointed, some would say. Jakes himself deflected attention to his spiritual gifts and well-honed abilities, saying in Christianity Today, When a person flows into Gods purpose and timing for his or her life, God can take a person with less ability and use his/her to extreme capacity, just because they are willing to be available.

Grew Up As Bible Boy.

Born on June 9, 1957, and raised in Charleston, West Virginia, Jakes was called to preach at age 17. He could not have known then that his ministry would reach the entire nation and eventually effect millions of people through books, radio, television, and conferences. Jakes grew up in a community where it traditionally took a village to raise a child. Every adult in the community contributed to the childrens upbringing. At an early age, he was described as opinionated, stubborn, and driventraits that some still ascribed to the adult Jakes. He was also nicknamed Bible Boy due to his early habit of preaching to an imaginary congregation and always carrying his Bible to school. However, the nickname T.D. short for Thomas Dexteris the one that stuck. He later gained the title Bishop, which was conferred on him when the Higher Ground Assemblies elected him their regional prelate. (The Higher Ground Always Abounding Assembly is an association of almost 200 Pentecostal Churches.)

Jakes parents, Ernest and Odith, evidenced a strong work ethic and entrepreneurial spirit that would later characterize their preacher son. Odith, an economics teacher, taught all three of her children to cook, sew, and clean for themselves. Ernest, a self-made businessman, was entrepreneurial long before entrepreneurs were common among blacks. Ernest developed a janitorial business from one mop and bucket to include 42 employees who cleaned everything in the Charleston areafrom the West Virginia Capitol building to grocery stores. This entrepreneurial drive left a mark on young Jakes, who delivered newspapers, Avon, and even products from his mothers garden.

Although working full-time at a chemical plant job with Union Carbide, Jakes was also involved as the part-time music director at the Baptist Church where he grew up and as a part-time street evangelist. When the Charleston-area chemical plant closed in 1982, and his father died of kidney disease, Jakes devoted all his time to his ministry as an evangelist and church-planter in the Charleston area.

Began a Church from Scratch

His first storefront church, Greater Emanuel Temple of Faith, had ten members in 1980. In a few short years that church grew enormously. Just as importantly, it transcended racial lines bringing together an integrated congregation and overcoming the diverse elements that traditionally divided the community.

At a Glance

Born Thomas Dexter Jakes on June 9, 1957, in South Charleston, West Virginia; son of Ernest and Odith Jakes; married Serita Ann Jamison, 1981; five children. Education: Attended Center Business College, 1972; attended West Virginia State College, 1976; Friends University, BA, 1990, MA, 1990, Doctorate of Ministry, 1995.

Career: Held various positions in business and industry, 1976-62; Greater Emanuel Temple of Faith, pastor, 1982-93; The Masters Plan, radio program, producer and on-air talent, 1982-85; Bible Conference ministry, creator and minister, 1983-; author, 1993-; T.D. Jakes Ministries, a non-profit conference and television ministry, founder and minister, 1994-; When Shepherds Bleed conference, founder and organizer, 1995- Potters House, founder and leader, 1996-.

Selected awards: Gospel Heritage Award for Ministry, 1996; Stellar Foundation Excellence Award, 1996; Key to the City of Dallas for his homeless ministry, Ravens Refuge, 1997; Gospel Music Associations Dove Seal for Woman, Thou Art Loosed: The Songs of Healing and Deliverance, 1997; Grammy Award and Dove Award nomination for Live at the Potter House, 1999; Living Legend Award, National Professional Network, 2000; Named Americas Best Preacher CNN and Time, 2001; Chairmans Award, National Religious Broadcasters, 2002; Grammy and Dove Award nominations and Stellar and NAACP Image Awards for The Storm Is Over, 2002.

Addresses: Office The Potters House, 6777 West Kiest Blvd., Dallas, Texas 75236.

In 1990 Jakes moved from Smithers to South Charleston, West Virginia, where his congregation grew from 100 to more than 300 members. And in 1993 he moved his Temple of Faith ministry to a renovated bank in Cross Lanes, West Virginia. There his congregation grew to more than 1,100 people of all races, including an unprecedented 40 percent Caucasian membership. In 1994 he established T.D. Jakes Ministries, a non-profit organization that produced his nation-wide television and conference ministry. From 1995 to 1996, he hosted the nationally-syndicated weekly radio and television show, Get Ready, attended by millions of listeners and viewers throughout the United States and South Africa.

In May of 1996 Jakes ministry grew once again when he and his wife, Serita, took their five children and 50-member staff to Dallas, Texas. There Jakes founded the Potters House, a multi-racial, non-denominational megachurch, which grew from 7,000 worshipers to 14,000 in two years. Potters House featured a 5,000-seat auditorium, enough space for its worship services, but its 34-acre hilltop campus in southwest Dallas seemed to be running out of space to house its multi-faceted ministries.

The hallmark of Jakes ministry has been a deep spiritual healing with life-changing effects. He has described himself as a spiritual physician, one who has discovered some medicine in the Word of God. As the physician, I am careful to always acknowledge that I am not the cure, but that I have been able to facilitate the cure because Jesus Christ lives in me.

Local civic leadership honored Jakes for his ministry to the greater Dallas/Fort Worth Metro Area by giving him and his wife the prestigious Key to the City in February of 1997. Jakes ministry has engaged the community with various outreaches to needy people: including, the Ravens Refuge, a homeless ministry; Operation Rahab, an outreach to prostitutes; a G.E.D. tutoring and literacy program; Vessels of Clay and Ladies Choice, mentoring and job-training programs; S.A.L.T., a youth ministry program; Transformation Ministry, a ministry to drug and alcohol abusers; and weight-loss programs based on faith and his cookbook, Lay Aside the Weight.

Became a Best-Selling Author

Since the 1990s, Jakes has become a prodigious and popular author, cranking out 27 nonfiction books, six of which appeared on the national religious best sellers list, and one venture into fiction with the novel Cover Girls. Altogether, his books have sold well over one million copies since 1993. That distinction placed him among the most accomplished African-American authors in history.

His most popular book, Woman, Thou Art Loosed, sold more than 800,000 copies by 1996, making it the third best-selling religious book. The success of the book catapulted Jakes into a national conference ministry with its healing message. More than 18,000 women, mostly blacks, attended a 3-day event in Tampa Bay/St. Petersburg, Florida. The book Woman, Thou Art Loosed was adapted into a musical recording by Integrity Music, which received the Gospel Music Associations coveted Dove Award and was nominated for a Grammy in 1997.

Besides his most popular Thou Art Loosed conference for women, Jakes has also sponsored a variety of seminars, including the When Shepherds Bleed summit for pastors and their spouses, the Manpower series just for men, as well as The Bible Conference (first held at Greater Temple of Faith for 880 attendees in 1983, when it was called Back to the Bible).

Numerous other books by Jakes have risen to the number one spot on various book lists, including the prestigious New York Times Bestseller List. His most recent book to top this list, Gods Leading Lady, is yet another in a long line of non-fiction books intended to assist women in gaining confidence in themselves through belief in religion. Jakes told Publishers Weekly, I wanted to provide women with tools to fortify themselves spiritually as they embark on new territories, whether in their public or private lives. This book focuses on the tremendous opportunities that are available to women today, and helps them to maximize those opportunities and live life to its fullest.

Greatly Expanded Ministry With Media

Since 1999 Jakes has continued to expand the reach of Potters House through media. He launched a state-by state campaign for business and individuals to Adopt a Prison, allowing religious programming to be beamed into prisons via satellite. He also created the Prison Satellite Network, which allowed convicts to witness live conferences and receive bible study and church service directly from people outside of the prison system.

Continuing on the success of the musical adaptation of Woman, Thou Art Loosed, Jakes produced Sacred Love Songs, an album that found many fans in the Gospel genre and was named the top Gospel Album of the year by Billboard magazine in 1999. A third album, The Storm is Over followed in 2001 with a new company founded by Jakes in collaboration with EMI Gospel, Dexterity Sounds. The Storm is Over received not only Dove and Grammy award nominations, but also NAACP Image and Stellar Gospel awards for Best Gospel Album in the Contemporary genre. In 2002 Jakes continued to produce music with Potters House and other companies including an album of music inspired by his book Gods Leading Ladies, and an album of Christmas songs entitled Follow the Star.

In addition to music, Jakes has also turned to the stage and screen to spread his message. 1999 saw the first theatrical staging of Woman, Thou Art Loosed, which quickly garnered the top Gospel Play Honors. A year later, he co-wrote Behind Closed Doors, which was produced by Touchdown Concepts, and like Women, Thou Art Loosed, was praised with Gospel Play Honors. By 2001 a televised version of Woman, Thou Art Loosed was broadcast into a billion homes around the world, bringing even the most remote of locations into the media web which Jakes had spun.

Blessed to Be a Blessing

When asked how he would define the rapid growth of his ministry Jakes said, My assignment is to open the door of the Church for hurting people and refocus what the Church was meant to be in our society. The Church has become stereotyped as a spiritual club for elitists and yuppies who portray themselves as persons who have arrived. I believe the Church was meant to be a hospital for hurting people.

Despite his obvious success, or maybe because of it, the ministry of T.D. Jakes has not been universally accepted or appreciated. The Gazette criticized him for profiting from his revival/seminar ministry, leading the reader to infer that he was only in it for the money. Calculating $20 per person for the Tampa engagement, the Gazette noted thats $360,000 for three days workmore than Jakes might have earned in a lifetime at his chemical plant job. Such riches have allowed Jakes to buy a million-dollar mansion. As Jakes told Christianity Today, I dont live in a mobile home. Theres nothing wrong with being blessed and successful.

While he seemed abundantly blessed with the grace to sit on many different platforms, there were some people in the evangelical community who would not sit with him for either racial or doctrinal issues. Yet Jakes remained undaunted in his hope for the church, As we come into healing and restoration, I would like to see the church rise up undaunted and be uncompromising in terms of our loyalty and covenant with one another.

Message Spoke of Human Needs

Jakes has delivered his message from the pulpit with Pentecostal fervor and poetic lyrics (e.g., stop merely looking to the White house, and start turning back to the Church House.). His fervent messages typically focus on the restoration, reconciliation, and healing of hurting people. Contemporary illustrations, Bible stories, soulful praise, and joyful dancing are also common to his worship services.

His message of healing and restoration remained in demand by clergy and laity alike, and transcended every cultural and denominational barrier. According to Ken Walker of Charisma magazine, Jakes message is about Gods supernatural ability, bestowed by a Lord who is color-blind and cares about each person. He [Jakes] delivers the Word in such a lightening-rod fashion that he makes you believe that all things really are possible with God.

T. D. Jakes has earned renown for his deep commitment to bringing wholeness to men and woman. Compassionate in his understanding of human nature, Jakes sensed and has spoken to the basic human need for fulfillment and destiny. With the energy and drive of 50 men, Jakes has catapulted into the mainstream of speaking conferences and book sales nationwide. He met speaking engagements almost every dayoften twice a dayto packed auditoriums and convention centers. His ability to captivate large audiences and hold their attention has been considered to be his distinctive speaking gift.

Though a black charismatic figure with Pentecostal theology, Jakes has been admired by people of all colors and most denominations. Many have long regarded him as a pastor to pastors and as a true father to the fatherless. His insights, many borrowed from his own life of peaks and valleys, have stirred within most readers, listeners, and viewers of his ministry a strong desire to fulfill their destiny, believing that all things are possible with God.

Selected writings

Woman, Thou Art Loosed, Treasure House, 1993.

Can You Stand to Be Blessed? Destiny Image, 1995.

Help Me, Ive Fallen, Pneuma Life, 1995.

Harvest, Pneuma Life, 1995.

Naked and Not Ashamed, Treasure House, 1995.

Loose That Man And Let Him Go, Albury Pub, 1995.

Daddy Loves His Girls, Creation House, 1996.

Help! Im Raising My Children Alone, Creation House, 1996.

When Shepherds Bleed, Pnuema Life, 1997.

Lay Aside the Weight, Albury Pub, 1997.

The Lady, Her Lover and Her Lord, Putnam, 1998.

His Lady, Penguin/Putnam, 1999.

Maximize The Moment, Penguin/Putnam, 2000

The Great Investment, Penguin/Putnam, 2001.

Gods Leading Lady, Penguin/Putnam, 2002.

Cover Girls, Warner Faith, 2003.

Sources

Books

Melton, Lucas, and Stone Melton, Prime-Time Religion, Oryx Press, 1997.

Periodicals

Christianity Today, January 12, 1998, p. 56.

Ebony, October 2002, pp. 24-5.

Economist, May 31, 1997, p. 28.

Essence, August 2003, p. 116.

Publishers Weekly, May 6, 2002, p. 54-5.

On-line

Bishop T.D. Jakes-Published Works, The Potters House, www.thepotterhouse.org/BJ_published.html (October 13, 2003).

Bishop T.D. Jakes-Selected Honors, The Potters House, www.thepotterhouse.org/BJ_honors.html (October 13, 2003).

Bishop T.D. Jakes-Timeline, The Potters House, www.thepotterhouse.org/BJ_timeline.html (October 13, 2003).

The News-Gazette Online, www.news-gazette.com (October 13, 2003).

The Potters Touch-T.D. Jakes Ministries, www.tdjakes.org (October 13, 2003).

Dietrich Gruen and Ralph G. Zerbonia

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Jakes, Thomas “T.D.” 1957–

Thomas T.D. Jakes 1957

Entrepreneur, Pentecostal preacher, author

Grew up as Bible Boy

Began a Church from Scratch

Given Key to the City of Dallas

Became a Best Selling Author

Blessed to Be a Blessing

Sources

When Jakes first climbed onto the pulpit, he trembled with nervousness and anxiety. Speaking in front of crowds was initially quite difficult for him due to a pronounced speech impediment. But judging from the reaction of his congregations, T.D. Jakes preaching is very powerful, even anointed, some would say. T.D. Jakes himself deflects attention to his spiritual gifts and well-honed abilities, saying, When a person flows into Gods purpose and timing for his or her life, God can take a person with less ability and use his/her to extreme capacity, just because they are willing to be available,he said in web page.

Grew up as Bible Boy

Born and raised in Charleston, West Virginia, T. D. Jakes says he was called to preach at age 17. He could not have known then that his ministry would go national and eventually effect millions of people through books, radio, television, and conferences. T. D. Jakes grew up in a community where it traditionally took a village to raise a child. Every adult in the community contributed to the childrens upbringing, at least that was what was claimed for young Thomas Jakes. At an early age, he was described as opinionated, stubborn, and driventraits that some ascribe to him still today. He was also nicknamed Bible Boydue to his early habit of preaching to an imaginary congregation and always carrying his Bible to school. However, the nickname T.D. is the one that stuck with young Thomas. More recently, he also wears, almost as a first name, the title Bishop, which was conferred on him when the Higher Ground Assemblies elected him their regional prelate. (The Higher Ground Always Abounding Assembly is a nine-year old association of almost 200 Pentecostal Churches.)

Jakes parents, Ernest and Odith, evidenced a strong work ethic and entrepreneurial spirit that would later characterize their preacher son. Odith, an economics teacher, taught all three of her children to cook, sew, and clean for themselves. Ernest, a self-made businessman, was entrepreneurial long before entrepreneurs were common among blacks. Ernest developed a janitorial business from one mop and bucket to include 42 employees who cleaned everything in the Charleston area-from the West Virginia Capitol building to grocery stores. This entrepreneurial drive left a mark on young

At a Glance

Born Thomas Jakes on June 9, 1957, in South Charleston, West Virginia; son of Ernest and Odith Jakes (father deceased); married Serita Ann Jamison, 1981; father of five children. Education: attended Center Business College, 1972, and West Virginia State College, 1976; B.A., MA., Friends University, 1990, and Doctorate of Ministry, 1995.

Career: Held positions in business and industry, 1976-82; pastor, Greater Emanuel Temple of Faith, which began in Montgomery, WV, and was moved to Smithers, WV, 1982-89; produced local radio ministry, The Masters Plan, 1982-85; created his Bible Conference ministry, 1983; moved his ministry to South Charleston, WV, 1990; his first book Woman, Thou Art Loosed was published, 1993; launched the Manpower conference series, 1993; began the nationally syndicated television show, Get Ready, 1993; moved the Temple of Faith ministry to Cross Lanes, WV, where it became multi-racial, 1993; established T.D. Jakes Ministries, a non-profit conference and television ministry, 1994; launched three-day When Shepherds Bleed conference for pastors and their spouses, 1995; moved his family and 50 staff to Dallas, TX, to establish the Potters House, 1996.

Selected awards: Gospel Heritage Award for Ministry, 1996; Stellar Foundation Excellence Award, 1996; Key to the City of Dallas for his homeless ministry, Ravens Refuge, 1997; Gospel Music Associations Dove Seal for Woman, Thou Art Loosed: The Songs of Healing and Deliverance,1997.

Addresses: Office -P.O. Box 5390, 6777 W. Kiest Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75208.

Thomas, who delivered newspapers, Avon, and even products from his mothers garden.

Although working full-time at a chemical plant job with Union Carbide, T.D. Jakes was very involved as the part-time music director at the Baptist Church where he grew up and as a part-time street evangelist. When the Charleston-area chemical plant closed in 1982, and his father died of kidney disease, T. D. Jakes devoted all his time to his ministry as an evangelist and church-planter in the Charleston area.

Began a Church from Scratch

His first storefront church, Greater Emanuel Temple of Faith, had ten members in 1980. In a few short years that church grew enormously. Just as importantly, it transcended racial lines bringing together an integrated congregation and overcoming the diverse elements that traditionally divided the community.

In 1990, Jakes moved from Smithers to South Charleston, West Virginia, where his congregation grew from 100 to more than 300 members. And in 1993, he moved his Temple of Faith ministry to a renovated bank in Cross Lanes, West Virginia. There his congregation grew to more than 400 people of all races, including an unprecedented 40 percent Caucasian membership. In 1994, he established T.D. Jakes Ministries, a nonprofit organization that produces his nation-wide television and conference ministry. From 1995 to 1996, he hosted the nationally-syndicated weekly radio and television show, Get Ready, attended by millions of listeners and viewers throughout the United States and South Africa.

In May of 1996 Jakes ministry grew once again when he and his wife, Serita, took their five children and 50-member staff to Dallas, Texas. There Jakes founded the Potters House, a multi-racial, non-denominational megachurch, which has grown from 7,000 worshipers to 14,000 in two years. Potters House has a 5000-seat auditorium, enough space for its worship services, but its 34-acre hilltop campus in southwest Dallas seems to be running out of space to house its multi-faceted ministries.

Given Key to the City of Dallas

The hallmark of Bishop Jakes ministry is a deep spiritual healing with life-changing effects. He describes himself as a spiritual physician, one who has discovered some medicine in the Word of God.As the physician, I am careful to always acknowledge that I am not the cure, but that I have been able to facilitate the cure because Jesus Christ lives in me.

Local civic leadership honored Bishop Jakes for his ministry to the greater Dallas/Fort Worth Metro Area by giving him and his wife the prestigious Key to the City in February of 1997. Bishop Jakes ministry engages the community with various out reaches to needy people: including, the Ravens Refuge (a homeless ministry); Operation Rahab (an outreach to prostitutes); a G. E. D. tutoring and literacy program; Vessels of Clay and Ladies Choice (mentoring and job-training programs); S.A.L.T. (a youth ministry program); Transformation Ministry (a ministry to drug and alcohol abusers); and weight-loss programs (based on faith and his new cookbook, Lay Aside the Weight).

Bishop Jakes hosts the television program, Get Ready, which is nationally broadcast three times weekly on Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) and Black Entertainment Television (BET). The show also reaches an international audience, including the Caribbean, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.

Became a Best Selling Author

In the 1990s, Bishop Jakes has become a prodigious and popular author, cranking out 15 books, six of which appeared on the national religious best sellers list (see Sources, below). Altogether, his books have sold well over one million copies since 1993. That distinction places him among the most accomplished African American authors in history.

His most popular book, Woman, Thou Art Loosed, sold more than 800,000 copies by 1996, making it the third best-selling religious. The success of the book catapulted Bishop Jakes into a national conference ministry with its healing message. More than 18,000 women, mostly blacks, attended a 3-day event in Tampa Bay/St. Petersburg, Florida. The book Woman, Thou Art Loosed was adapted into a musical recording by Integrity Music, which received the Gospel Music Associations coveted Dove Award in 1997.

Besides his most popular Thou Art Loosed conference for women, Jakes also sponsors a variety of seminars, including the When Shepherds Bleed summit for pastors and their spouses, the Manpower series just for men, as well as the The Bible Conference (first held at Greater Temple of Faith for 880 attendees in 1983, when it was called Back to the Bible).

When asked how he would define his rapidly growing ministry Jakes said, My assignment is to open the door of the Church for hurting people and refocus what the Church was meant to be in our society. The Church has become stereotyped as a spiritual club for elitists and yuppies who portray themselves as persons who have arrived. I believe the Church was meant to be a hospital for hurting people.

Blessed to Be a Blessing

Despite his obvious success, or maybe because of it, the ministry of T.D. Jakes is not universally accepted or appreciated. The Gazette OnLine criticized him for profiting from his revival/seminar ministry, leading the reader to infer that he was only in it for the money. Calculating $20 per person for the Tampa engagement, thats $360,000 for three days workmore than Jakes might have earned in a lifetime at his chemical plant job. Such riches have allowed Jakes to buy a million-dollar mansion. As he told Christianity Today, I dont live in a mobile home. Theres nothing wrong with being blessed and successful.

While he seems abundantly blessed with the grace to sit on many different platforms, there are some people in the evangelical community who will not sit with him for either racial or doctrinal issues. Yet Jakes remains undaunted in his hope for the church, As we come into healing and restoration, I would like to see the church rise up undaunted and be uncompromising in terms of our loyalty and covenant with one another.

The message that Jakes delivers from the pulpit he does with Pentecostal fervor and poetic lyrics (e.g., stop merely looking to the White house, and start turning back to the Church House). His fervent messages typically focus on the restoration, reconciliation and healing of hurting people. Contemporary illustrations, Bible stories, soulful praise, and joyful dancing are also common to his worship services.

His anointed message of healing and restoration is still in demand by clergy and laity alike, and transcends every cultural and denominational barrier. According to Ken Walker of Charisma magazine as cited in Jakes web page, Jakes message is about Gods supernatural ability, bestowed by a Lord who is color-blind and cares about each person.He (Jakes) delivers the Word in such a lightening-rod fashion that he makes you believe that all things really are possible with God.

Bishop T. D. Jakes is renown for his deep commitment to bringing wholeness to men and woman. Compassionate in his understanding of human nature, Jakes senses and speaks to the basic human need for fulfillment and destiny. With the energy and drive of 50 men, Jakes has catapulted into the mainstream of speaking conferences and book sales nationwide. He speaks almost every dayoften twice a dayto packed auditoriums and convention centers. His ability to captivate large audiences and hold their attention, is considered to be his distinctive speaking gift.

Though a Black charismatic figure with Pentecostal theology, T. D. Jakes is admired by people of all colors and most denominations. Many regard him as a pastor to pastors and as a true father to the fatherless. His insights, many borrowed from his own life of peaks and valleys, will stir within most readers, listeners, and viewers of his ministry a strong desire to fulfill their destiny, believing that all things are possible with God.

Selected writings

Can You Stand to Be Blessed? Destiny Image, 1995.

Daddy Loves His Girls, Creation House, 1996.

Harvest, Pneuma Life Pub, 1995.

Help! Im Raising My Children Alone, Creation House, 1996.

Lay Aside the Weight, Albury Pub, 1997.

Loose That Man And Let Him Go, Albury Pub, 1995.

Naked and Not Ashamed, Treasure House, 1995.

Woman, Thou Art Loosed, Treasure House, 1993.

Sources

Books

Melton, Lucas and Stone, Prime-Time Religion, Oryx Press, 1997.

Periodicals

Christianity Today, January 12, 1998, p. 56.

The Economist, May 31, 1997, p. 28.

Other

Cyberspace Christian Books web page, author profile.

T.D. Jakes Ministries web page.

Dietrich Gruen

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"Jakes, Thomas “T.D.” 1957–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Jakes, Thomas “T.D.” 1957–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/jakes-thomas-td-1957

"Jakes, Thomas “T.D.” 1957–." Contemporary Black Biography. . Retrieved July 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/jakes-thomas-td-1957