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King, Stephen (Edwin) 1947– (Richard Bachman, Eleanor Druse, Steve King, John Swithen)

King, Stephen (Edwin) 1947
(Richard Bachman, Eleanor Druse, Steve King, John Swithen)

Personal

Born September 21, 1947, in Portland, ME; son of Donald (a merchant sailor) and Nellie Ruth (Pillsbury) King; married Tabitha Jane Spruce (a novelist), January 2, 1971; children: Naomi Rachel, Joseph Hill, Owen Phillip. Education: University of Maine at Orono, B.Sc., 1970. Politics: Democrat. Hobbies and other interests: Reading (mostly fiction), jigsaw puzzles, playing the guitar ("I'm terrible and so try to bore no one but myself"), movies, bowling.

Addresses

Agent Arthur Greene, 101 Park Ave., New York, NY 10178.

Career

Writer. Has worked as a janitor, a laborer in an industrial laundry, and in a knitting mill. Hampden Academy (high school), Hampden, ME, English teacher, 197173; University of Maine, Orono, writer-in-residence, 197879. Owner, Philtrum Press (publishing house), and WZON-AM (rock 'n' roll radio station), Bangor, ME. Has made cameo appearances in films, including Knightriders, 1981, Creepshow, 1982, Maximum Overdrive, 1986, Pet Sematary, 1989, and The Stand, 1994. Judge for 1977 World Fantasy Awards, 1978.

Member

Authors Guild, Authors League of America, Screen Artists Guild, Screen Writers of America, Writers Guild.

Awards, Honors

Carrie named to School Library Journal Book List, 1975; World Fantasy Award nominations, 1976, for 'Salem's Lot, 1979, for The Stand and Night Shift, 1980, for The Dead Zone, 1981, for "The Mist," and 1983, for "The Breathing Method: A Winter's Tale," in Different Seasons; Hugo Award nomination, World Science Fiction Society, and Nebula Award nomination, Science Fiction Writers of America, both 1978, both for The Shining; Balrog Awards, second place in best novel category, for The Stand, and second place in best collection category for Night Shift, both 1979; named to American Library Association list of best books for young adults, 1979, for The Long Walk, and 1981, for Firestarter; World Fantasy Award, 1980, for contribu-tions to the field, and 1982, for story "Do the Dead Sing?"; Career Alumni Award, University of Maine at Orono, 1981; Nebula Award nomination, 1981, for story "The Way Station"; special British Fantasy Award for outstanding contribution to the genre, British Fantasy Society, 1982, for Cujo; Hugo Award, 1982, for Stephen King's Danse Macabre; named Best Fiction Writer of the Year, Us magazine, 1982; Locus Award for best collection, 1986, for Stephen King's Skeleton Crew; Bram Stoker Award for Best Novel, Horror Writers Association, 1988, for Misery; Bram Stoker Award for Best Collection, 1991, for Four Past Midnight; World Fantasy award for short story, 1995, and O. Henry Award, 1996, all for The Man in the Black Suit; Bram Stoker Award for Best Novelette, 1996, for Lunch at the Gotham Cafe; Bram Stoker Award for Best Novel, 1997, for The Green Mile; Bram Stoker Award for Best Novel, 1999, for Bag of Bones; Bram Stoker Award nominee in novel category (with Peter Straub), 2001, for Black House; Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, National Book Award, 2003; The Stand was voted one of the nation's 100 best-loved novels by the British public as part of the BBC's The Big Read, 2003.

Writings

NOVELS

Carrie: A Novel of a Girl with a Frightening Power (also see below), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1974, movie edition published as Carrie, New American Library/Times Mirror (New York, NY), 1975, published in a limited edition with introduction by Tabitha King, Plume (New York, NY), 1991.

'Salem's Lot (also see below), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1975, television edition, New American Library (New York, NY), 1979, published in a limited edition with introduction by Clive Barker, Plume (New York, NY), 1991.

The Shining (also see below), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1977, movie edition, New American Library (New York, NY), 1980, published in a limited edition with introduction by Ken Follett, Plume (New York, NY), 1991.

The Stand (also see below), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1978, enlarged and expanded edition published as The Stand: The Complete and Uncut Edition, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1990.

The Dead Zone (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1979, movie edition published as The Dead Zone: Movie Tie-In, New American Library (New York, NY), 1980.

Firestarter (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1980, with afterword by King, 1981, published in a limited, aluminum-coated, asbestos-cloth edition, Phantasia Press (Huntington Woods, MI), 1980.

Cujo (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1981, published in limited edition, Mysterious Press (New York, NY), 1981.

Pet Sematary (also see below), Doubleday (New York, NY), 1983.

Christine (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1983, published in a limited edition, illustrated by Stephen Gervais, Donald M. Grant (Hampton Falls, NH), 1983.

(With Peter Straub) The Talisman, Viking Press/Putnam (New York, NY), 1984, published in a limited two-volume edition, Donald M. Grant (Hampton Falls, NH), 1984.

The Eyes of the Dragon (young adult), limited edition, illustrated by Kenneth R. Linkhauser, Philtrum Press, 1984, new edition, illustrated by David Palladini, Viking (New York, NY), 1987.

It (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1986.

Misery (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1987.

The Tommyknockers (also see below), Putnam (New York, NY), 1987.

The Dark Half (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1989.

Needful Things (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1991.

Gerald's Game, Viking (New York, NY), 1992.

Dolores Claiborne (also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1993.

Insomnia, Viking (New York, NY), 1994.

Rose Madder, Viking (New York, NY), 1995.

The Green Mile (serialized novel), Signet (New York, NY), Chapter 1, "The Two Dead Girls" (also see below), Chapter 2, "The Mouse on the Mile," Chapter 3, "Coffey's Hands," Chapter 4, "The Bad Death of Eduard Delacroix," Chapter 5, "Night Journey," Chapter 6, "Coffey on the Mile," 1996, published in one volume as The Green Mile: A Novel in Six Parts, Plume (New York, NY), 1997.

Desperation, Viking (New York, NY), 1996.

(And author of foreword) The Two Dead Girls, Signet (New York, NY), 1996.

Bag of Bones, Viking (New York, NY), 1998.

Hearts in Atlantis, G. K. Hall (Thorndike, ME), 1999.

The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon, Scribner (New York, NY), 1999, published as a pop-up book, illustrated by Alan Gingman, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2004

Dreamcatcher, Simon & Schuster (New York, NY), 2001.

(With Peter Straub) Black House (sequel to The Talisman ), Random House (New York, NY), 2001.

(Editor) Ridley Pearson, The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer: My Life as Rose Red, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2001.

From a Buick 8, Scribner's (New York, NY), 2002.

(Under name Eleanor Druse) The Journals of Eleanor Druse: My Investigation of the Kingdom Hospital Incident, Hyperion (New York, NY), 2004.

Also author of early unpublished novels "Sword in the Darkness" (also referred to as "Babylon Here"), "The Cannibals," and "Blaze," a reworking of John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men.

"THE DARK TOWER" SERIES

The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger (also see below), Amereon Ltd. (New York, NY), 1976, published as The Gunslinger, New American Library (New York, NY), 1988, published in limited edition, illustrated by Michael Whelan, Donald M. Grant (Hampton Falls, NH), 1982, second limited edition, 1984, revised and expanded edition, Viking (New York, NY), 2003.

The Dark Tower II: The Drawing of the Three (also see below), illustrated by Phil Hale, New American Library (New York, NY), 1989, with new introduction, Plume (New York, NY), 2003.

The Dark Tower III: The Waste Lands (also see below), illustrated by Ned Dameron, Donald M. Grant (Hampton Falls, NH), 1991.

The Dark Tower Trilogy: The Gunslinger; The Drawing of the Three; The Waste Lands (box set), New American Library (New York, NY), 1993.

The Dark Tower IV: Wizard and Glass, Plume (New York, NY), 1997.

The Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla, illustrated by Bernie Wrightson, Plume (New York, NY), 2003.

The Dark Tower VI: The Songs of Susannah, Donald M. Grant (Hampton Falls, NH), 2004.

The Dark Tower VII, Scribner (New York, NY), 2004.

NOVELS; UNDER PSEUDONYM RICHARD BACHMAN

Rage (also see below), New American Library/Signet (New York, NY), 1977.

The Long Walk (also see below), New American Library/Signet (New York, NY), 1979.

Roadwork: A Novel of the First Energy Crisis (also see below) New American Library/Signet (New York, NY), 1981.

The Running Man (also see below), New American Library/Signet (New York, NY), 1982.

Thinner, New American Library (New York, NY), 1984.

The Regulators, Dutton (New York, NY), 1996.

SHORT FICTION

(Under name Steve King) The Star Invaders (privately printed), Triad, Inc./Gaslight Books (Durham, ME), 1964.

Night Shift (also see below), introduction by John D. MacDonald, Doubleday (New York, NY), 1978, published as Night Shift: Excursions into Horror, New American Library/Signet (New York, NY), 1979.

Different Seasons (novellas; contains Rita Hayworth and the Shawshank Redemption: Hope Springs Eternal [also see below]; Apt Pupil: Summer of Corruption; The Body: Fall from Innocence ; and The Breathing Method: A Winter's Tale ), Viking (New York, NY), 1982.

Cycle of the Werewolf (novella; also see below), illustrated by Berni Wrightson, limited portfolio edition published with "Berni Wrightson: An Appreciation," Land of Enchantment (Westland, MI), 1983, enlarged edition including King's screenplay adaptation published as Stephen King's Silver Bullet, New American Library/Signet (New York, NY), 1985.

Stephen King's Skeleton Crew (story collection), illustrated by J. K. Potter, Viking (New York, NY), 1985.

My Pretty Pony, illustrated by Barbara Kruger, Knopf (New York, NY), 1989.

Four Past Midnight (contains "The Langoliers," "Secret Window, Secret Garden," "The Library Policeman," and "The Sun Dog"; also see below), Viking (New York, NY), 1990.

Nightmares and Dreamscapes, Viking (New York, NY), 1993.

Everything's Eventual: Fourteen Dark Tales, Scribner (New York, NY), 2002.

Also author of short stories "Slade" (a western), "The Man in the Black Suit," 1996, and, under pseudonym John Swithen, "The Fifth Quarter." Contributor of short story "Squad D" to Harlan Ellison's The Last Dangerous Visions; contributor of short story "Autopsy Room Four" to Robert Bloch's Psychos, edited by Robert Bloch. Also contributor to anthologies and collections, including The Year's Finest Fantasy, edited by Terry Carr, Putnam (New York, NY), 1978; Shadows, edited by Charles L. Grant, Doubleday (New York, NY), Volume 1, 1978, Volume 4, 1981; New Terrors, edited by Ramsey Campbell, Pocket Books (New York, NY), 1982; World Fantasy Convention 1983, edited by Robert Weinberg, Weird Tales Ltd., 1983; The Writer's Handbook, edited by Sylvia K. Burack, Writer, Inc. (Boston, MA), 1984; The Dark Descent, edited by David G. Hartwell, Doherty Associates, 1987; Prime Evil: New Stories by the Masters of Modern Horror, by Douglas E. Winter, New American Library (New York, NY), 1988; Dark Visions, Gollancz (London), 1989; and Dark Love: Twenty-two All-Original Tales of Lust and Obsession, edited by Nancy Collins, Edward E. Kramer, and Martin Harry Greenberg, ROC (New York, NY), 1995.

SCREENPLAYS

Stephen King's Creep Show: A George A. Romero Film (based on King's stories "Father's Day," "The Lonesome Death of Jordy Verrill" [previously published as "Weeds"], "The Crate," and "They're Creeping up on You"; released by Warner Bros. as Creepshow, 1982), illustrated by Berni Wrightson and Michele Wrightson, New American Library (New York, NY), 1982.

Cat's Eye (based on King's stories "Quitters, Inc.," "The Ledge," and "The General"), Metro Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, 1984.

Stephen King's Silver Bullet (based on and published with King's novella Cycle of the Werewolf ; released by Paramount Pictures/Dino de Laurentiis's North Carolina Film Corp., 1985), illustrated by Berni Wrightson, New American Library/Signet (New York, NY), 1985.

(And director) Maximum Overdrive (based on King's stories "The Mangler," "Trucks," and "The Lawnmower Man"; released by Dino de Laurentiis's North Carolina Film Corp., 1986), New American Library (New York, NY), 1986.

Pet Sematary (based on King's novel of the same title), Laurel Production, 1989.

Stephen King's Sleepwalkers, Columbia, 1992.

(Author of introduction) Frank Darabont, The Shawshank Redemption: The Shooting Script, Newmarket Press (New York, NY), 1996.

Storm of the Century (also see below), Pocket Books (New York, NY), 1999.

(Author of introductions with William Goldman and Lawrence Kasdan) William Goldman and Lawrence Kasdan, Dreamcatcher: The Shooting Script, Newmarket Press (New York, NY), 2003.

TELEPLAYS

Stephen King's Golden Years, CBS-TV, 1991.

(And executive producer) Stephen King's The Stand (based on King's novel The Stand ), ABC-TV, 1994.

(With Chris Carter) Chinga, (episode of The X-Files,) Fox-TV, 1998.

Storm of the Century, ABC-TV, 1999.

Rose Red (also see below), ABC-TV, 2001.

Stephen King's Kingdom Hospital, ABC-TV, 2004.

Desperation, USA, 2004.

Also author of Battleground (based on short story of same title; optioned by Martin Poll Productions for NBC-TV), and "Sorry, Right Number," for television series Tales from the Dark Side, 1987.

OMNIBUS EDITIONS

Another Quarter Mile: Poetry, Dorrance (Philadelphia, PA), 1979.

Stephen King (contains The Shining, 'Salem's Lot, Night Shift, and Carrie ), W. S. Heinemann/Octopus Books (London, England), 1981.

Stephen King's Danse Macabre (nonfiction), Everest House (New York, NY), 1981.

The Plant (privately published episodes of a comic horror novel in progress), Philtrum Press (Bangor, ME), Part 1, 1982, Part 2, 1983, Part 3, 1985.

Black Magic and Music: A Novelist's Perspective on Bangor (pamphlet), Bangor Historical Society (Bangor, ME), 1983.

(And author of introduction) The Bachman Books: Four Early Novels (contains Rage, The Long Walk, Roadwork, and The Running Man ), New American Library (New York, NY), 1985.

Dolan's Cadillac, Lord John Press (Northridge, CA), 1989.

Stephen King (contains Desperation and The Regulators ) Signet (New York, NY), 1997.

Stephen King's Latest (contains Dolores Claiborne, Insomnia and Rose Madder ) Signet (New York, NY), 1997.

OTHER

Nightmares in the Sky: Gargoyles and Grotesques (nonfiction), photographs by F. Stop FitzGerald, Viking (New York, NY), 1988.

On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, Scribner (New York, NY), 2000.

(With Stewart O'Nan) Faithful: Two Diehard Boston Red Sox Fans Chronicle the Historic 2004 Season, Thorndike Press (Waterville, ME), 2005.

Author of e-book The Plant, and "Riding the Bullet," 2000. Author of weekly column "King's Garbage Truck" for Maine Campus, 196970, and of monthly book review column for Adelina, 1980. Contributor of short fiction and poetry to numerous magazines, including Art, Castle Rock: The Stephen King Newsletter, Cavalier, Comics Review, Cosmopolitan, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, Fantasy and Science Fiction, Gallery, Great Stories from Twilight Zone Magazine, Heavy Metal, Ladies' Home Journal, Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Maine, Maine Review, Marshroots, Marvel comics, Moth, Omni, Onan, Playboy, Redbook, Reflections, Rolling Stone, Science-Fiction Digest, Startling Mystery Stories, Terrors, Twilight Zone, Ubris, Whisper, and Yankee. Contributor of book reviews to the New York Times Book Review.

Most of King's papers are housed in the special collection of the Folger Library at the University of Maine at Orono.

Adaptations

Carrie was adapted for film by Lawrence D. Cohen, directed by Brian De Palma, United Artist, 1976, and was also produced as a Broadway musical in 1988 by Cohen and Michael Gore, developed in England by the Royal Shakespeare Company, featuring Betty Buckley; 'Salem's Lot was produced as a television miniseries in 1979 by Warner Brothers, teleplay by Paul Monash, featuring David Soul and James Mason, and was adapted for the cable channel TNT in 2004, with a teleplay by Peter Filardi and direction by Mikael Salomon; The Shining was filmed in 1980 by Warner Brothers/Hawks Films, screenplay by director Stanley Kubrick and Diane Johnson, starring Jack Nicholson and Shelley Duvall, and was filmed for television in 1997 by Warner Bros., directed by Mick Garris, starring Rebecca De Mornay, Steven Weber, Courtland Mead, and Melvin Van Peebles; Cujo was filmed in 1983 by Warner Communications/Taft Entertainment, screenplay by Don Carlos Dunaway and Lauren Currier, featuring Dee Wallace and Danny Pintauro; The Dead Zone was filmed in 1983 by Paramount Pictures, screenplay by Jeffrey Boam, starring Christopher Walken, and was adapted as a cable television series starring Anthony Michael Hall by USA Network, beginning 2002; Christine was filmed in 1983 by Columbia Pictures, screenplay by Bill Phillips; Firestarter was produced in 1984 by Frank Capra, Jr., for Universal Pictures in association with Dino de Laurentiis, screenplay by Stanley Mann, featuring David Keith and Drew Barrymore; Stand by Me (based on King's novella The Body ) was filmed in 1986 by Columbia Pictures, screenplay by Raynold Gideon and Bruce A. Evans, directed by Rob Reiner; The Running Man was filmed in 1987 by Taft Entertainment/Barish Productions, screenplay by Steven E. de Souza, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger; Misery was produced in 1990 by Columbia, directed by Reiner, screenplay by William Goldman, starring James Caan and Kathy Bates; Graveyard Shift was filmed in 1990 by Paramount, directed by Ralph S. Singleton, adapted by John Esposito; Stephen King's It was filmed as a television mini-series by ABC-TV in 1990; The Dark Half was filmed in 1993 by Orion, written and directed by George A. Romero, featuring Timothy Hutton and Amy Madigan; Needful Things was filmed in 1993 by Columbia/Castle Rock, adapted by W. D. Richter and Lawrence Cohen, directed by Fraser C. Heston, starring Max Von Sydow, Ed Harris, Bonnie Bedelia, and Amanda Plummer; The Tommyknockers was filmed as a television mini-series by ABC-TV in 1993; The Shawshank Redemption, based on King's novella Rita Hayworth and the Shawshank Redemption: Hope Springs Eternal, was filmed in 1994 by Columbia, written and directed by Frank Darabont, featuring Tim Robbins and Morgan Freeman; Dolores Claiborne was filmed in 1995 by Columbia; Thinner was filmed by Paramount in 1996, directed by Dom Holland, starring Robert John Burke, Joe Mantegna, Lucinda Jenney, and Michael Constantine; Night Flier was filmed by New Amsterdam Entertainment/Stardust International/Medusa Film in 1997, directed by Mark Pavia, starring Miguel Ferrer, Julie Entwisle, Dan Monahan, and Michael H. Moss; Apt Pupil was filmed in 1998 by TriStar Pictures, directed by Bryan Singer, starring David Schwimmer, Ian McKellen, and Brad Renfro; The Green Mile was filmed in 1999 by Castle Rock, adapted and directed by Frank Darabont, starring Tom Hanks; Hearts in Atlantis was filmed in 2001 by Castle Rock, directed by Scott Hicks, screenplay written by William Goldman, starring Anthony Hopkins; Dreamcatcher was filmed in 2003 by Warner Bros./Castle Rock Entertainment, directed by Lawrence Kasdan, written by William Goldman, starring Morgan Freeman. Several of King's short stories have also been adapted for the screen, including The Boogeyman, filmed by Tantalus in 1982 and 1984 in association with the New York University School of Undergraduate Film, screenplay by producer-director Jeffrey C. Schiro; The Woman in the Room, filmed in 1983 by Darkwoods, screenplay by director Frank Darabont, broadcast on public television in Los Angeles, 1985 (released with The Boogeyman on videocassette as Two Mini-Features from Stephen King's Nightshift Collection by Granite Entertainment Group, 1985); Children of the Corn, produced in 1984 by Donald P. Borchers and Terrence Kirby for New World Pictures, screenplay by George Goldsmith; The Word Processor (based on King's "The Word Processor of the Gods"), produced by Romero and Richard Rubenstein for Laurel Productions, 1984, teleplay by Michael Dowell, broadcast in 1985 on Tales from the Darkside series (released on videocassette by Laurel Entertainment, Inc., 1985); Gramma, filmed by CBS-TV in 1985, teleplay by Harlan Ellison, broadcast in 1986 on The Twilight Zone series; Creepshow 2 (based on "The Raft" and unpublished stories "Old Chief Wood'nhead" and "The Hitchhiker"), filmed in 1987 by New World Pictures, screenplay by Romero; Sometimes They Come Back, filmed by CBS-TV in 1987; "The Cat from Hell" included in three-segment anthology film Tales from the DarksideThe Movie, produced by Laurel Productions, 1990; The Lawnmower Man, written by director Brett Leonard and Gimel Everett for New Line Cinema, 1992; The Mangler, filmed by New Line Cinema, 1995; and The Langoliers, filmed as a television mini-series by ABC-TV, 1995; "Secret Window, Secret Garden" filmed by Columbia as Secret Window, written and directed by David Koepp, 2004; "All That You Love Will Be Carried Away" adapted as a short film by James Renner. Film rights to "1408," from Everything's Eventual, was optioned by Dimension Films.

Sidelights

Continuing the legacy of American writers Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry James, and H. P. Lovecraft, Stephen King is perhaps the most famous horror writer of his generation. He is known for his ability to transform the ordinary and everyday into the horrific, a talent that is exhibited in books such as Christine, about a car; Cujo, about a dog; Carrie, about a misunderstood teen; and 'Salem's Lot, about the ghostly, vacant house on the hill that exists in every town and is the stuff of neighborhood legend and childish nightmare. As Atlantic Monthly contributor Lloyd Rose wrote, "King takes ordinary emotional situationsmarital stress, infidelity, peer-group-acceptance worriesand translates them into violent tales of vampires and ghosts. He writes supernatural soap operas." While some critics have dismissed King's work as genre fiction, others recognize the skill and sensitivity with which King taps our collective unconscious; his work was duly honored in 2003 when he received the National Book Award Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters.

During King's teen years growing up in Maine, writing was a powerful diversion, and science-fiction and adventure stories comprised his first literary efforts. Penning his first story at age seven, he began submitting short fiction to magazines at age twelve, and published his first story by the time he was eighteen. In high school he authored a small, satiric newspaper titled "The Village Vomit"; in college he penned a popular and eclectic series of columns under the heading "King's Garbage Truck." He also started writing the novels he eventually published under the pseudonym of Richard Bachmannovels that focus more on elements of human alienation and brutality than supernatural horror. After graduation, King supplemented his teaching salary with various odd jobs and by selling stories to men's magazines. Searching for a form of his own, and responding to a friend's challenge to break his writing out of the machismo mold and move to longer fiction, King wrote the manuscript that was eventually published as Carrie. When the novel was marketed by its publisher in the horror genre, and went on to become a best seller as well as a feature film, King's course as a novelist was firmly set.

Like the Maine settings that are characteristic of the author's work, Death figures strongly in King's novels and short fiction. Interestingly, although his novels are geared toward older readers, King's central characters are often children or adolescents, and the empowerment of estranged young people is a theme that recurs throughout his fiction. "If Stephen King's kids have one thing in common," declared Robert Cormier in the Washington Post Book World, "it's the fact that they all are losers. In a way, all children are losers, of coursehow can they be winners with that terrifying adult world stacked against them?" Cormier makes a valid point: Carrie is about a persecuted teenaged girl, while an alienated teenaged boy is the main character in King's Christine. In The Shining and Firestarter, King's young characters are marked as different through the powers they possess and by those who want to manipulate them: evil supernatural forces in The Shining, and the U.S. Government in Firestarter. Children also figure prominently, although not always as victims, in 'Salem's Lot, It, The Tommyknockers, Pet Sematary, The Eyes of the Dragon, The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon, and The Talisman.

Many of King's novels are considered classics within the horror genre, and have become part of modern America's cultural fabric through both King's books and the popular film adaptations that have been made from them. As critics note, despite King's extreme popularity, his more recent works reflect the same high caliber of writing and stylistic experimentation as did his early work. In Desperation, for example, a group of strangers drive into Desperation, Nevada, where they encounter a malign spirit, or Tak, in the body of police officer Collie Entragian. The survivors of this apocalyptic novel are few, but include David Carver, an eleven-year-old boy who talks to God, and John Edward Marinville, an alcoholic novelist. Robert Polito, writing for the New York Times, noted that "King's peculiar knack as a novelist is to strip away much of the complexity and nearly all of the art from a terrifying vision of an unknowable universe ruled by a limited, perhaps evil God and insinuate that Gnosticism into the rituals and commodities of everyday America." Mark Harris remarked in Entertainment Weekly that King "hasn't been this intent on scaring readersor been this successful at itsince The Stand," a terrifying read about a viral outbreak that kills most of the population of Earth.

Set in the Deep South in 1932, The Green Mile a prison expression for death rowbegins with the death of twin girls and the conviction of John Coffey for their murder. Block superintendent Paul Edgecombe, who narrates the story years later from his nursing home in Georgia, slowly unfolds the story of the mysterious Coffey, a man with no past and with a gift for healing. An Entertainment Weekly reviewer called the book a novel "that's as hauntingly touching as it is just plain haunted." The Green Mile captured the imagination of both readers and critics, and was adapted as a popular feature film.

Bag of Bone tells of a writer struggling with both his grief for the death of his wife and writer's block while living in a haunted cabin. The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon, published in 1999 and a short work by King's standards, centers on a nine-year-old girl from a broken home who gets lost in the Maine woods for two weeks. She has her radio with her, and survives her ordeal by listening to Boston Red Sox baseball games on her Walkman and imagining conversations with her hero, Red Sox relief pitcher Tom Gordon.

Called by Booklist contributor Ray Olson a "massive, postapocalyptic, chivalrized western," King's "Dark Tower" series encompasses seven illustrated novels published from 1982 and 2004 that feature Roland the gunslinger and his efforts to save multiple worlds from the Crimson King and the powers of Chaos. Roland, whose course of right action is mapped by The Beam, is accompanied by a small band of ragtag friends, all of whom encounter a host of adventures and challenges in both late twentieth-century Earth and King's alternate universe, all while moving along their intended path: to save the world from Evil by reaching the Dark Tower, the place where time and space meet. In a surprise for fans, King introduces himself as a character in the sixth installment, a move a Publishers Weekly reviewer called "gutsy." While commenting that "there's no denying the ingenuity with which King paints a candid picture of himself." Reviewing the final volume of the series, The Dark Tower, Library Journal reviewer Mary McNichol wrote that the series "resonates with the ancient fundamentals of story-telling."

King undertook his own epic journey of sorts beginning in 1999, along the road to physical recovery. Struck by a van while walking alongside a road near his home in Maine, the author sustained injuries to his spine, hip, ribs, and right leg. One of his broken ribs punctured a lung, and King nearly died. Fortunately, he overcame these injuries and began a slow progress toward recovery, cheered by countless cards and letters from his fans. Bedriden for a lengthy period, he began experimenting with e-publishing, and has gone on to self-publish several works on his Web site. Three years after the accident, in 2002, he announced his retirement from publishing in the mainstream press.

Just prior to announcing his retirement, King produced On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, which serves as both a writer's manual and autobiography. In addition to King's advice on crafting fiction, the author chronicles his childhood, his rise to fame, his struggles with addiction, and the horrific accident that almost ended his life. "King's writing about his own alcoholism and cocaine abuse," noted John Mark Eberhart in the Kansas City Star, "is among the best and most hon-
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est prose of his career." Similarly, Jack Harville reported in the Charlotte Observer that "the closing piece describes King's accident and rehabilitation. The description is harrowing, and the rehab involves both physical and emotional recovery. It is beautifully told in a narrative style that would have gained [noted grammar gurus] Strunk and White's approval."

Prior to his retirement King wrote daily, exempting only Christmas, the Fourth of July, and his birthday. He enjoys working on two things simultaneously, beginning his day early with a two-or three-mile walk: "What I'm working on in the morning is what I'm working on," he said in a panel discussion at the 1980 World Fantasy Convention, reprinted in Bare Bones. He devoted his afternoon hours to rewriting. Despite chronic headaches, occasional insomnia, and even a fear of writer's block, he continued produced six pages daily; "And that's like engraved in stone," he told Joyce Lynch Dewes Moore in Mystery. Despite retiring, the author did not see much reduction in his writing time.

Despite the fact that his books have been marketed to adult readers, King's focus on story and psychological rather than graphic violence has made his books suitable for teen readers. As he wrote in his Danse Macabre, children are "better able to deal with fantasy and terror than their elders are." In an interview for High Times, he marveled at the resilience of a child's mind and the inexplicable, yet seemingly harmless, attraction of children to nightmare-inducing stories: "We start kids off on things like 'Hansel and Gretel,' which features child abandonment, kidnaping, attempted murder, forcible detention, cannibalism, and finally murder by cremation. And the kids love it." Adults are capable of distinguishing between fantasy and reality, but in the process of growing up, laments King in Danse Macabre, they develop "a good case of mental tunnel vision and a gradual ossification of the imaginative faculty"; thus, King explains, he sees the central the task of the fantasy or horror writer as enabling an adult reader to become, "for a little while, a child again."

Biographical and Critical Sources

BOOKS

Badley, Linda, Writing Horror and the Body: The Fiction of Stephen King, Clive Barker, and Anne Rice, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1996.

Beahm, George W., The Stephen King Story, revised and updated edition, Andrews & McMeel (Kansas City, MO), 1992.

Beahm, George W., editor, The Stephen King Companion, Andrews & McMeel (Kansas City, MO), 1989.

Blue, Tyson, Observations from the Terminator: Thoughts on Stephen King and Other Modern Masters of Horror Fiction, Borgo Press (San Bernardino, CA), 1995.

Collings, Michael R., Stephen King as Richard Bachman, Starmont House (Mercer Island, WA), 1985.

Collings, Michael R., The Works of Stephen King: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide, edited by Boden Clarke, Borgo Press (San Bernardino, CA), 1993.

Collings, Michael R., Scaring Us to Death: The Impact of Stephen King on Popular Culture, second edition, Borgo Press (San Bernardino, CA), 1995.

Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale (Detroit, MI), Volume 12, 1980, Volume 26, 1983, Volume 37, 1985, Volume 61, 1990.

Davis, Jonathan P., Stephen King's America, Bowling Green State University Popular Press (Bowling Green, OH), 1994.

Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 143: American Novelists since World War II, Third Series, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1994.

Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook: 1980, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1981.

Docherty, Brian, editor, American Horror Fiction: From Brockden Brown to Stephen King, St. Martin's (New York, NY), 1990.

Hoppenstand, Gary, and Ray B. Browne, editors, The Gothic World of Stephen King: Landscape of Nightmares, Bowling Green State University Popular Press (Bowling Green, OH), 1987.

Keyishian, Amy, and Marjorie Keyishian, Stephen King, Chelsea House (Philadelphia, PA), 1995.

King, Stephen, Stephen King's Danse Macabre (nonfiction), Everest House (New York, NY), 1981.

Magistrale, Tony, editor, Landscape of Fear: Stephen King's American Gothic, Bowling Green State University Popular Press (Bowling Green, OH), 1988.

Magistrale, Tony, editor, A Casebook on "The Stand," Starmont House (Mercer Island, WA), 1992.

Magistrale, Tony, editor, The Dark Descent: Essays Defining Stephen King's Horrorscape, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1992.

Magistrale, Tony, Stephen King: The Second Decade"Danse Macabre" to "The Dark Half," Twayne (New York, NY), 1992.

Platt, Charles, Dream Makers: The Uncommon Men and Women Who Write Science Fiction, Berkley (New York, NY), 1983.

Russell, Sharon A., Stephen King: A Critical Companion, Greenwood Press (Westport, CT), 1996.

Saidman, Anne, Stephen King, Master of Horror, Lerner Publications (Minneapolis, MN), 1992.

Schweitzer, Darrell, editor, Discovering Stephen King, Starmont House (Mercer Island, WA), 1985.

Short Story Criticism, Volume 17, Gale (Detroit, MI), 1995.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Fear Itself: The Horror Fiction of Stephen King, Underwood-Miller, 1982.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Kingdom of Fear: The World of Stephen King, Underwood-Miller, 1986.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Bare Bones: Conversations on Terror with Stephen King, McGraw-Hill (New York, NY), 1988.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Feast of Fear: Conversations with Stephen King, Carroll & Graf (New York, NY), 1992.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Fear Itself: The Early Works of Stephen King, foreword by King, introduction by Peter Straub, afterword by George A. Romero, Underwood-Miller, 1993.

Winter, Douglas E., Stephen King: The Art of Darkness, New American Library (New York, NY), 1984.

PERIODICALS

American Film, June, 1986.

Atlantic Monthly, September, 1986.

Book, November-December, Chris Barsanti, review of Wolves of the Calla, p. 75.

Booklist, July, 1999, Ray Olson, review of Hearts in Atlantis, p. 1893; May 1, 2004, Ray Olson, review of Song of Susannah, p. 1483; September 1, 2004, Ray Olson, review of The Dark Tower, p. 6.

Boston Globe, October 10, 1980; April 15, 1990, p. A1; May 16, 1990, p. 73; July 15, 1990, p. 71; September 11, 1990, p. 61; October 31, 1990, p. 25; November 17, 1990, p. 12; December 5, 1990, p. 73; July 16, 1991, p. 56; September 28, 1991, p. 9; November 22, 1991, p. 1; August 21, 1992, p. 21; August 30, 1992, p. 14; May 8, 1993, p. 21; May 24, 1993, p. 43; October 16, 1994, p. 14; May 13, 1995, p. 21.

Chicago Tribune, August 26, 1990, p. 3; October 29, 1990, p. 5; November 16, 1990, p. 1; November 30, 1990, p. C29; June 29, 1992, p. 3; November 18, 1992, p. 3; November 7, 1993, p. 9; October 26, 1994, p. 1; May 14, 1995, p. 5.

Chicago Tribune Magazine, October 27, 1985.

Christian Science Monitor, January 22, 1990, p. 13.

Detroit Free Press, November 12, 1982, Jack Matthes, interview with King.

Detroit News, September 26, 1979.

English Journal, January, 1979; February, 1980; January, 1983; December, 1983; December, 1984.

Entertainment Weekly, October 14, 1994, pp. 52-53; June 16, 1995, p. 54; March 22, 1996, p. 63; April 26, 1996, p. 49; May 31, 1996, p. 53; June 28, 1996, p. 98; August 2, 1996, p. 53; September 6, 1996, p. 67; October 4, 1996, p. 54; October 18, 1996, p. 75; December 27, 1996, p. 28; February 7, 1997, p. 111; April 11, 1997, p. 17; April 25, 1997, p. 52; November 28, 1997, p. 41; September 17, 1999, Tom De Haven, "King of 'Hearts': He May Be the Master of Horror, but Stephen King Is Also Adept at Capturing Everyday America," p. 72; September 27, 2002, Chris Nashawaty, "Stephen King Quits," p. 20; June 25, 2004, Gregory Kirschling, review of Song of Susannah, p. 172.

Esquire, November, 1984.

Fantasy Review, January, 1984.

Film Journal, April 12, 1982.

High Times, January, 1981; June, 1981.

Library Journal, March 1, 2004, Kristen L. Smith, review of Wolves of the Calla, p. 126; May 15, 2004, Nancy McNicol review of Song of Susannah, p. 115; September 15, 2004, Nancy McNichol, review of The Dark Tower, p. 49.

Locus, September, 1992, pp. 21-22, 67; November, 1992, pp. 19, 21; February, 1994, p. 39; October, 1994, pp. 27, 29.

Los Angeles Times, April 23, 1978; December 10, 1978; August 26, 1979; September 28, 1980; May 10, 1981; September 6, 1981; May 8, 1983; November 20, 1983; November 18, 1984; August 25, 1985; March 9, 1990, p. F16; October 29, 1990, p. F9; November 18, 1990, p. F6; November 30, 1990, p. F1; July 16, 1991, p. F1; May 28, 1992, p. E7; April 16, 1995, p. 28; November 7, 1997, p. D4.

Los Angeles Times Book Review, August 29, 1982; July 15, 1990, p. 12; June 9, 1991, p. 6; April 23, 1995, p. 14.

Maclean's, August 11, 1986.

Miami Herald, March 21, 2001, Rene Rodriguez, review of Dreamcatcher; March 27, 2002, Rene Rodriguez, review of Everything's Eventual.

Midwest Quarterly, spring, 2004, Tom Hansen, "Diabolical Dreaming in Stephen King's 'The Man in the Black Suit,'" p. 290.

Mystery, March, 1981.

New Republic, February 21, 1981.

New Statesman, September 15, 1995, p. 33.

Newsweek, August 31, 1981; May 2, 1983.

New Yorker, January 15, 1979; September 30, 1996, p. 78.

New York Review of Books, October 19, 1995, p. 54.

New York Times, March 1, 1977; August 14, 1981; August 11, 1982; April 12, 1983; October 21, 1983; November 8, 1984; June 11, 1985; April 4, 1987; January 25, 1988; June 17, 1990, p. 13; October 27, 1990, p. A12; November 16, 1990, p. C38; December 2, 1990, p. 19; June 3, 1991, p. C14; July 14, 1991, p. 25; October 2, 1991, p. C23; June 29, 1992, p. C13; November 16, 1992, p. C15; March 15, 1993, p. D6; June 27, 1993, p. 23; September 17, 1993, p. B8; April 24, 1995, p. C12; May 12, 1995, p. D18; June 26, 1995, p. C16; November 11, 1995, p. 39; April 7, 1996, p. E2; August 5, 1996, p. D7; October 26, 1996, 15; April 25, 1997, p. D22; October 27, 1997, p. C1; November 5, 1997, p. E3; November 7, 1997, pp. A30, D10; February 6, 1998, p. B10.

New York Times Book Review, May 26, 1974; October 24, 1976; February 20, 1977; March 26, 1978; February 4, 1979; September 23, 1979; May 11, 1980; May 10, 1981; September 27, 1981; August 29, 1982; April 3, 1983; November 6, 1983; November 4, 1984; June 9, 1985; February 22, 1987; December 6, 1987; May 13, 1990, p. 3; September 2, 1990, p. 21; September 29, 1991, pp. 13-14; August 16, 1992, p. 3; December 27, 1992, p. 15; October 24, 1993, p. 22; October 30, 1994, p. 24; March 24, 1995, p. C14; July 2, 1995, p. 11; October 20, 1996, p. 16.

New York Times Magazine, May 11, 1980.

Observer (Charlotte, NC), October 4, 2000, Jack Harville, review of On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft; Salem Macknee, review of From a Buick 8.

Observer (London, England), October 1, 1995, p. 15.

People, March 7, 1977; December 29, 1980; January 5, 1981; May 18, 1981; January 28, 1985; fall, 1989; April 1, 1996, p. 38; October 7, 1996, p. 32; October 21, 1996, p. 16; April 28, 1997, p. 15; January 19, 1998, p. 45.

Publishers Weekly, January 17, 1977; May 11, 1984; March 13, 1996, p. 26; April 1, 1996, p. 22; May 13, 1996, p. 26; June 24, 1996, p. 43; August 5, 1996, p. 292; August 26, 1996, p. 34; September 9, 1996, p. 27; October 7, 1996, p. 20; April 7, 1997, p. 52; July 14, 1997, p. 65; October 27, 1997, p. 21; November 10, 1997, p. 10; April 19, 2004, review of Song of Susannah, p. 37; September 20, 3004, review of The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon, p. 62.

Saturday Review, September, 1981; November, 1984.

School Library Journal, November, 2004, John Peters, review of The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon, p. 148.

Science Fiction Chronicle, December, 1995; June, 1997, p. 43.

Star (Kansas City, MO), October 4, 2000, John Mark Eberhart, review of On Writing.

Time, August 30, 1982; July 1, 1985; October 6, 1986; December 7, 1992, p. 81; September 2, 1996, p. 60.

Tribune Books (Chicago, IL) June 8, 1980.

Village Voice, April 29, 1981; October 23, 1984; March 3, 1987.

Voice Literary Supplement, September, 1982; November, 1985.

Wall Street Journal, July 7, 1992, p. B2; October 5, 1992, p. B3; November 7, 1997, p. B8.

Washington Post, August 26, 1979; April 9, 1985; May 8, 1987; October 29, 1990, p. B8; July 16, 1991, p. B1; April 13, 1992, p. C7; May 21, 1993, p. 16; May 27, 1993, p. D9; May 14, 1995, p. G1.

Washington Post Book World, May 26, 1974; October 1, 1978; August 26, 1980; April 12, 1981; August 22, 1982; March 23, 1983; October 2, 1983; November 13, 1983; June 16, 1985; August 26, 1990, p. 9; September 29, 1991, p. 9; October 31, 1991, p. C7; July 19, 1992, p. 7; December 13, 1992, p. 5; October 10, 1993, p. 4; October 9, 1994, p. 4; March 6, 1995, p. D6.

ONLINE

Stephen King Web site, http://www.stephenking.com (June 23, 2005).

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"King, Stephen (Edwin) 1947– (Richard Bachman, Eleanor Druse, Steve King, John Swithen)." Something About the Author. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/children/scholarly-magazines/king-stephen-edwin-1947-richard-bachman-eleanor-druse-steve-king-john-swithen

"King, Stephen (Edwin) 1947– (Richard Bachman, Eleanor Druse, Steve King, John Swithen)." Something About the Author. . Retrieved August 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/children/scholarly-magazines/king-stephen-edwin-1947-richard-bachman-eleanor-druse-steve-king-john-swithen

King, Stephen 1947–

KING, Stephen 1947–

(Richard Bachman, Steve King, Steven King, John Swithen)

PERSONAL

Full name, Stephen Edwin King; born September 21, 1947, in Portland, ME; son of Donald Edwin (a merchant sailor) and Nellie Ruth (maiden name, Pillsbury) King; married Tabitha Jane Spruce (a writer), January 2, 1971; children: Naomi Rachel, Joseph Hill (some sources cite Joseph Hillstrom), Owen Phillip. Education: University of Maine at Orono, B.S., English, 1970. Politics: Democrat. Avocational Interests: Reading (mostly fiction), playing the guitar, bowling, movies, jigsaw puzzles, the Boston Red Sox.

Addresses:

Office—P.O. Box 1186, Bangor, ME 04001. Agent—Rand Holston, Creative Artists Agency, 9830 Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills, 90212; (literary agent) Ralph Vicinanza, Created By, 1041 North Formosa Ave., Formosa Building, Room 10, West Hollywood, CA 90046.

Career:

Writer, actor, producer, and director. Hampden Academy, Hampden, ME, high school English teacher, 1971–73; University of Maine at Orono, writer in residence, 1978–79; Philtrum Press, Bangor, ME, owner; WZON–AM Radio, Bangor, owner; also owner of other radio stations; creative consultant for films. Appeared in television commercials. World Fantasy awards, judge, c. 1977; Maine Film Commission, founding member; also a philanthropist. Also worked as a janitor, mill worker, and laundry worker.

Member:

Authors Guild, Authors League of America, Screen Writers of America, Writers Guild of America, Screen Actors Guild.

Awards, Honors:

Carrie: A Novel of a Girl with a Frightening Power cited in the School Library Journal Book List, 1975; World Fantasy Award nomination, 1976, for Salem's Lot; Hugo Award nomination, World Science Fiction Society, and Nebula Award nomination, Science Fiction Writers of America, both 1978, for The Shining; World Fantasy Award nomination, 1979, for The Stand and Night Shift; The Long Walk named one of the best books for young adults, American Library Association, 1979; Balrog Award nomination, best novel, 1979, for The Stand; Balrog Award nomination, best collection, 1979, for Night Shift; World Fantasy Award, 1980, for contributions to the field; World Fantasy Award nomination, 1980, for The Dead Zone; World Fantasy Award nomination, 1981, for "The Mist"; Firestarter named one of the best books for young adults, American Library Association, 1981; Nebula Award nomination, 1981, for "The Way Station"; British Fantasy Award, British Fantasy Society, 1981; Career Alumni Award, University of Maine at Orono, 1981; World Fantasy Award, 1982, for the story "Do the Dead Sing?"; special British Fantasy Award, 1982, for Cujo; Hugo Award, 1982, for Stephen King's "Danse Macabre"; named fiction writer of the year, Us magazine, 1982; World Fantasy Award nomination, 1983, for The Breathing Method: A Winter's Tale; Locus Award for best collection, Locus Publications, 1986, for Stephen King's "Skeleton Crew"; Bram Stoker Award, Horror Writers Association, best novel, 1988, for Misery; International Fantasy Film Award nomination, Fantasporto, best film, 1988, for Maximum Overdrive; Bram Stoker Award, best collection, 1991, for Four Past Midnight; Best Screenplay Award, Fantafestival, 1992, for Sleepwalkers; Emmy Award nomination (with others), outstanding miniseries, 1994, for The Stand; USC Scripter Award (with Frank Darabont), University of Southern California, 1995, for The Shawshank Redemption; World Fantasy Award, short story category, 1995, and O. Henry Award, best short story, 1996, both for "The Man in the Black Suit"; Bram Stoker Award, best novelette, 1996, for "Lunch at the Gotham Cafe"; Bram Stoker Award, best novel, 1997, for The Green Mile: A Novel in Six Parts; Emmy Award nomination (with others), outstanding miniseries, 1997, for The Shining; Bram Stoker Award, best novel, 1999, for Bag of Bones; USC Scripter Award nomination (with Darabont), 2000, for The Green Mile; Bram Stoker Award nomination (with Peter Straub), best novel, 2001, for Black House; National Book Award, National Book Foundation, distinguished contribution to American letters, 2003.

CREDITS

Film Appearances:

(As Steven King) Hoagie man, Knightriders (also known as George A. Romero's "Knightriders"), United Film Distribution, 1981.

Jordy Verrill, "The Lonesome Death of Jordy Verrill," Creepshow (also known as Cuentos de ultratumba), Warner Bros., 1982.

(Uncredited) Man at Cashpoint, Maximum Overdrive, De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, 1986.

Himself, David Cronenberg: Long Live the New Flesh, 1986.

Truck driver, "The Hitchhiker," Creepshow 2, New World, 1987.

Priest, Pet Sematary (also known as Pet Cemetery), Paramount, 1989.

Cemetery caretaker, Sleepwalkers (also known as Sleep-stalkers and Stephen King's "Sleepwalkers"), Columbia, 1992.

Dr. Bangor, Thinner (also known as Stephen King's "Thinner"), Paramount, 1996.

Himself, Monkeybone (live action and animated), Twentieth Century–Fox, 2001.

Film Work:

Director, Maximum Overdrive, De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, 1986.

Executive producer, Riding the Bullet (also known as Stephen King's "Riding the Bullet"), Innovation Film Group, 2004.

Television Appearances; Series:

Himself, This Is Horror (also known as This Is Horror: From the Archives of Stephen King's World of Horror), beginning c. 1989.

Johnny B. Good, Kingdom Hospital (also known as Stephen King's "Kingdom Hospital"), ABC, 2004.

Television Appearances; Miniseries:

Bus driver, Golden Years (also known as Stephen King's "Golden Years"), CBS, 1991.

Teddy Weizak, The Stand (also known as Stephen King's "The Stand"), ABC, 1994.

Voice, Baseball (also known as The History of Baseball), PBS, 1994.

Tom Holby, The Langoliers (also known as Stephen King's "The Langoliers"), ABC, 1995.

Gage Creed, The Shining (also known as Stephen King's "The Shining"), ABC, 1997.

(Uncredited) Lawyer in advertisement, Storm of the Century (also known as Stephen King's "Storm of the Century"), ABC, 1999.

(Uncredited) Pizza delivery man, Rose Red (also known as Stephen King's "Rose Red"), ABC, 2002.

Television Appearances; Specials:

The X–Files Movie Special, Fox, 1998.

Himself, Stephen King: Master of Macabre, The Learning Channel, 1999.

The Miracle of "The Green Mile," 1999.

Stephen King: Shining in the Dark, BBC, 1999.

Member of crowd, 2004 World Series, 2004.

Himself, The 100 Scariest Movie Moments, Bravo, 2004.

Television Appearances; Episodic:

"Fear in the Dark," A & E Stage, Arts and Entertainment, 1991.

Steppers, "Blood Is Thicker Than Mud," The Fresh Prince of Bel–Air, NBC, 1993.

Guest, The Late Show with David Letterman, CBS, 1996.

Guest, "The Fear of Flying," Dennis Miller Live, HBO, 1998.

Guest, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, NBC, 1999.

Voice, "Insane Clown Poppy," The Simpsons (animated), Fox, 2000.

Voice of Brian, "Mary Christmas," Frasier, NBC, 2000.

"Stephen King—Fear, Fame, and Fortune," Biography, Arts and Entertainment, 2000.

Guest, Chappelle's Show, Comedy Central, 2003.

Guest, Today (also known as NBC News Today and The Today Show), NBC, 2003.

Guest, NewsNight with Aaron Brown (also known as The Aaron Brown Show), Cable News Network, 2003, 2004.

Guest, The Daily Show (also known as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart), Comedy Central, 2004.

Television Executive Producer; Series:

Kingdom Hospital (also known as Stephen King's "Kingdom Hospital"), ABC, 2004.

Television Executive Producer; Miniseries:

(And creator) Golden Years (also known as Stephen King's "Golden Years"), CBS, 1991.

The Stand (also known as Stephen King's "The Stand"), ABC, 1994.

The Shining (also known as Stephen King's "The Shining"), ABC, 1997.

Storm of the Century (also known as Stephen King's "Storm of the Century"), ABC, 1999.

Rose Red (also known as Stephen King's "Rose Red"), ABC, 2002.

Desperation (also known as Stephen King's "Desperation"), ABC, 2005.

Television Executive Producer; Movies:

The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer, ABC, 2003.

Radio Appearances; Episodic:

Lost Highway Radio Show, syndicated, 2003.

Appeared in other radio productions.

RECORDINGS

Taped Readings:

"The Mist," ZBS Foundation, 1984.

The Author Talks: Stephen King, Recorded Books, 1987.

The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger, New American Library, 1988.

The Dark Tower II: The Drawing of the Three, New American Library, 1989.

"The Langoliers," One Past Midnight, Penguin–HighBridge Audio, 1990.

The Dark Tower III: The Waste Lands, Penguin–HighBridge Audio, 1991.

"The Library Policeman," Three Past Midnight, Penguin–HighBridge Audio, 1991.

Needful Things, Penguin–HighBridge Audio, 1991.

"Secret Window, Secret Garden," Two Past Midnight, Penguin–HighBridge Audio, 1991.

"The Sun Dog," Four Past Midnight, Penguin–HighBridge Audio, 1991.

The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon, Simon & Schuster Audio, 1999.

Blood and Smoke, Simon & Schuster Audio, 2000.

Dreamcatcher, Simon & Schuster Audio, 2001.

LT's Theory of Pets (short story), Simon & Schuster Audio, 2001.

On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, Recorded Books, 2001.

(With Peter Straub) The Talisman, Simon & Schuster Audio, 2001.

From a Buick 8: A Novel, Simon & Schuster Audio, 2002.

Riding the Bullet, Simon & Schuster Audio, 2002.

Black House, Books on Tape, 2003.

Wolves of the Calla, Simon & Schuster Audio, 2003.

Reader of introduction, Salem's Lot, Simon & Schuster Audio, 2004.

The Stephen King Collection (short stories), Books on Tape, 2005.

Other King works have been released as audio recordings.

Videos:

The Cider House Rules: The Making of an American Classic, Miramax, 1999.

Walking the Mile (also known as Walking the Mile: The Making of "The Green Mile"), Warner Home Video, 2000.

Walking the Tracks: The Summer of "Stand by Me," Columbia/TriStar Home Video, 2002.

Hope Springs Eternal: A Look Back at "The Shawshank Redemption," Warner Home Video, 2004.

WRITINGS

Screenplays:

Creepshow (also known as Cuentos de ultratumba; based on King's short stories "The Crate," "Father's Day," "The Lonesome Death of Jordy Verrill," and "They're Creeping Up on You"), Warner Bros., 1982, published as Stephen King's "Creep Show: A George A. Romero Film," illustrated by Berni Wrightson and Michele Wrightson, New American Library, 1982.

Cat's Eye (also known as Stephen King's "Cat's Eye"; based on King's short stories "The General," "The Ledge," and "Quitters"), Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer/United Artists, 1984.

Silver Bullet (also known as Stephen King's "Silver Bullet"; based on King's novella Cycle of the Were-wolf), Paramount, 1985, published with illustrations by Berni Wrightson, New American Library, 1985.

Maximum Overdrive (based on King's short stories "The Lawnmower Man," "The Mangler," and "Trucks"), De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, 1986, published by New American Library, 1986.

Pet Sematary (also known as Pet Cemetery; based on King's novel), Paramount, 1989.

Sleepwalkers (also known as Sleepstalkers and Stephen King's "Sleepwalkers"), Columbia, 1992.

Riding the Bullet (also known as Stephen King's "Riding the Bullet"; based on his novella), Innovation Film Group, 2004.

Secret Window (based on his short story "Secret Window, Secret Garden"), Columbia, 2004.

Author of the screenplay The Shotgunners.

Teleplays; Series:

Kingdom Hospital (also known as Stephen King's "Kingdom Hospital"; based on the Danish mini-series Riget), ABC, 2004.

Teleplays; Miniseries:

Golden Years (also known as Stephen King's "Golden Years"; based on King's book), CBS, 1991.

(With Lawrence D. Cohen) The Tommyknockers (also known as Stephen King's "The Tommyknockers"; based on King's novel), ABC, 1993.

(And song "Baby Can U Dig Your Man") The Stand (also known as Stephen King's "The Stand"; based on King's book), ABC, 1994.

The Shining (also known as Stephen King's "The Shining"; based on his novel), NBC, 1997.

Storm of the Century (also known as Stephen King's "Storm of the Century"), ABC, 1999, published by Pocket Books, 1999.

Rose Red (also known as Stephen King's "Rose Red"), ABC, 2002.

(With Mick Garris) Desperation (also known as Stephen King's "Desperation"; based on his novel), ABC, 2005.

Teleplays; Episodic:

"Sorry, Right Number," Tales from the Darkside, syndicated, 1987.

(With Chris Carter) "Chinga," The X–Files, Fox, 1998.

Novels:

Carrie: A Novel of a Girl with a Frightening Power, Doubleday, 1974, movie edition by Lawrence D. Cohen published as Carrie, New American Library/Times Mirror, 1975, limited edition with introduction by Tabitha King, Plume, 1991.

Salem's Lot, Doubleday, 1975, television edition, New American Library, 1979, limited edition with introduction by Clive Barker, Plume, 1991.

The Shining (Literary Guild selection), Doubleday, 1977, movie edition by Stanley Kubrick and Diane Johnson, New American Library, 1980, limited edition with introduction by Ken Follett, Plume, 1991.

The Stand, Doubleday, 1978, revised edition published as The Stand: The Complete and Uncut Edition, illustrated by Berni Wrightson, Doubleday, 1990.

The Dead Zone (Literary Guild selection), Viking, 1979, movie edition published as The Dead Zone: Movie Tie–In, New American Library, 1980.

Firestarter (Literary Guild selection), Viking, 1980.

Cujo, Viking, 1981.

Creepshow (graphic novel), New American Library, 1982.

The Plant, Philtrum Press, Part I, 1982, Part II, 1983, Part III, 1985.

Pet Sematary (Literary Guild selection), Doubleday, 1983.

Christine (Literary Guild selection), Viking, 1983, also published in a limited edition illustrated by Stephen Gervais, Donald M. Grant, 1983.

(With Peter Straub) The Talisman, Viking Press/Putnam, 1984, also published in a limited two–volume edition, Donald M. Grant, 1984.

The Eyes of the Dragon (young adult), illustrated by Kenneth R. Linkhauser, Philtrum Press, 1984, new edition, illustrated by David Palladini, Viking, 1987.

It (Book–of–the–Month Club selection), Viking, 1986.

Misery (Book–of–the–Month Club selection), Viking, 1987.

The Tommyknockers (Book–of–the–Month Club selection), Putnam, 1987.

The Dark Half (Book–of–the–Month Club selection), Viking, 1989.

Dolan's Cadillac, Lord John Press, 1989.

Needful Things, Viking, 1991.

Gerald's Game, Viking, 1992.

Dolores Claiborne, Viking, 1993.

Insomnia, Viking, 1994.

Rose Madder, Viking, 1995.

Desperation, Viking, 1996.

The Green Mile (serialized novel), Signet, Chapter 1, "The Two Dead Girls," Chapter 2, "The Mouse on the Mile," Chapter 3, "Coffey's Hands," Chapter 4, "The Bad Death of Eduard Delacroix," Chapter 5, "Night Journey," Chapter 6, "Coffey on the Mile," March–August, 1996, published as The Green Mile: A Novel in Six Parts (contains all six chapters of The Green Mile), Plume, 1997.

Bag of Bones, Viking, 1998.

The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon, Scribner, 1999.

Hearts in Atlantis, Scribner, 1999.

Riding the Bullet (e–book), Scribner, 2000.

(With Straub) Black House (sequel to The Talisman), Random House, 2001.

Dreamcatcher, Scribner, 2001.

From a Buick 8, Scribner, 2002.

The Colorado Kid, Hard Case Crime Series, Winterfall, 2005.

Author of early unpublished novels, including The Aftermath, The Cannibals, Sword in the Darkness (also known as Babylon Here), and Blaze (based on John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men).

Novels; "The Dark Tower" Series:

The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger, Amereon, Ltd., 1976, published as The Gunslinger, New American Library, 1988, limited edition with illustrations by Michael Whelan, Donald M. Grant, 1982, revised edition, Plume, 2003.

The Dark Tower II: The Drawing of the Three, illustrated by Phil Hale, New American Library, 1989.

The Dark Tower III: The Waste Lands, illustrated by Ned Dameron, Donald M. Grant, 1991.

The Dark Tower Trilogy: The Gunslinger; The Drawing of the Three; The Waste Lands (box set), New American Library, 1993.

The Dark Tower IV: Wizard and Glass, Plume, 1997.

The Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla, illustrated by Berni Wrightson, 2003.

The Dark Tower VI: Song of Susannah, illustrated by Darrel Anderson, Scribner, 2004.

The Dark Tower VII: The Dark Tower, illustrated by Whelan, Scribner, 2004.

Novels; As the Pseudonym Richard Bachman:

Rage, Signet, 1977.

The Long Walk, Signet, 1979.

Roadwork: A Novel of the First Energy Crisis, Signet, 1981.

The Running Man, Signet, 1982.

The Bachman Books: Four Early Novels (contains Rage, The Long Walk, Roadwork: A Novel of the First Energy Crisis, and The Running Man), with introduction "Why I Was Richard Bachman," New American Library, 1985.

Thinner, New American Library, 1985.

The Regulators, Dutton, 1996.

Short Fiction:

(As Steve King) The Star Invaders (story collection), Gaslight Books, 1964.

Night Shift (story collection; includes "Graveyard Shift" and "Trucks"), introduction by John D. Mac-Donald, Doubleday, 1978, published as Night Shift: Excursions into Horror, Signet, 1979.

Different Seasons (novellas; Book–of–the–Month selection; contains Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption: Hope Springs Eternal; Apt Pupil: Summer of Corruption; The Body: Fall from Innocence; and The Breathing Method: A Winter's Tale), Viking, 1982.

Cycle of the Werewolf (novella), illustrated by Berni Wrightson, limited portfolio edition published with "Berni Wrightson: An Appreciation," Land of Enchantment, 1983, enlarged edition including his screenplay adaptation for the film Silver Bullet published as Stephen King's "Silver Bullet," Signet, 1985.

Stephen King's "Skeleton Crew" (story collection), illustrated by J. K. Potter, Viking, 1985.

My Pretty Pony, illustrated by Barbara Kruger, Knopf, 1989.

Four Past Midnight (collection; contains "The Langoliers," "The Library Policeman," "Secret Window, Secret Garden," and "The Sun Dog"), Viking, 1990.

Nightmares and Dreamscapes (story collection), Viking, 1993.

Six Stories, Philtrum Press, 1997.

Blood and Smoke (audiobook collection), Simon & Schuster Audio, 2000.

Everything's Eventual: 14 Dark Tales (includes the novella "Riding the Bullet"), Scribner, 2002.

Author of other short stories, including "The Glass Floor," "I Was a Teenage Grave Robber," "The Man in the Black Suit," "Slade," a western, "Sometimes They Come Back for More," "The Things They Left Behind," and (as John Swithen) "The Fifth Quarter."

Omnibus Editions:

Stephen King (contains Carrie, Night Shift, Salem's Lot, and The Shining), Octopus Books, 1981.

Stephen King (contains Desperation and The Regulators), Signet, 1997.

Stephen King's Latest (contains Dolores Claiborne, Insomnia, and Rose Madder), Signet, 1997.

Nonfiction:

Stephen King's "Danse Macabre" (criticism), Everest House, 1981.

A Novelist's Perspective on Bangor, Bangor Historical Society, 1983.

Nightmares in the Sky: Gargoyles and Grotesques, photographs by f–Stop Fitzgerald, Viking, 1988.

On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, Scribner, 2001.

(With Stewart O'Nan) Faithful, Scribner, 2004.

Writings; Other:

Another Quarter Mile: Poetry, Dorrance, 1979.

(Author of introduction) Joe Bob Briggs, Joe Bob Goes to the Drive–In, Delacorte Press, 1987.

(And author of foreword) Fear Itself: The Early Works of Stephen King, edited by Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller, introduction by Peter Straub, after-word by George Romero, Underwood Miller, 1993.

Secret Windows: Essays and Fiction on the Craft of Writing (fiction and nonfiction), 2000.

The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer: My Life as Rose Red, Hyperion, 2001.

Creator of "Stephen King's Year of Fear 1986 Calendar" (color illustrations from novels and drawings from King's short stories published in horror magazines with accompanying text), New American Library, 1985. Contributor to numerous books, including The Year's Finest Fantasy, edited by Terry Carr, Putnam, 1978; The Dark Descent, edited by David G. Hartwell, Doherty Associates, 1987; The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Original Stories by Eminent Mystery Writers, edited by Martin Harry Greenberg and Carol–Lynn Roessel Waugh, Carroll & Graf, 1987; I Shudder at Your Touch: Twenty–Two Tales of Sex and Horror, edited by Michele Slung, New American Library, 1991; and Transgressions, edited by Ed McBain, Forge, 2005. Author of "King's Garbage Truck," a newspaper column, Maine Campus, 1969–70; author of monthly book review column, Adelina, 1980; author of the column "The Pop of King," Entertainment Weekly, 2003. Contributor of short stories, poetry, and reviews to periodicals, including Art, Castle Rock: The Stephen King Newsletter, Cavalier, Comics Review, Ellery Queen's Mystery, Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, Playboy, Rolling Stone, Startling Mystery Stories, and Yankee. Author of a short monologue for a promotional CD single by the band the Blue Oyster Cult. King's writings have been published in several languages.

ADAPTATIONS

Several screenplays have been based on King's writings. These include Carrie, adapted by Lawrence D. Cohen and released by United Artists in 1976, was based on the novel Carrie: A Novel of a Girl with a Frightening Power. The Shining (also known as Stanley Kubrick's "The Shining"), adapted by Kubrick and Diane Johnson and released by Warner Bros. in 1980, Christine (also known as John Carpenter's "Christine"), adapted by Bill Phillips and released by Columbia in 1983, Cujo, adapted by Don Carlos Dunaway and Lauren Currier and released by Warner Bros. in 1983, and The Dead Zone, adapted by Jeffrey Boam and released by Paramount in 1983, were all based on King's novels. The 1983 film Disciples of the Corn was based on a story by King. The Woman in the Room (also known as Stephen King's "Night Shift Collection" and Stephen King's "Nightshift Collection Volume One: The Woman in the Room"), adapted by Frank Darabont and released by Darkwoods in 1983, then broadcast on public television in Los Angeles, 1985, was based on King's short story of the same title. Children of the Corn (also known as Stephen King's "Children of the Corn"), adapted by George Goldsmith and released by New World in 1984, was based on King's short story of the same title. Firestarter, adapted by Stanley Mann and released by Universal in 1984, was based on King's novel. The Boogeyman (also known as Stephen King's "Nightshift Collection Volume Two: The Boogeyman," Stephen King's "The Boogeyman," and Wer Hat Angst Vorm Schwarzen Mann), adapted by Jeffrey C. Schiro and released by Tantalus in 1984 (some sources cite in 1982), was based on King's short story of the same title. Stand by Me, adapted by Raynold Gideon and Bruce A. Evans and released by Columbia in 1986, was based on King's novella The Body: Fall from Innocence. Creepshow 2, adapted by George A. Romero and released by New World in 1987, was based on King's short stories "The Hitchhiker," "Old Chief Wood'nhead," and "The Raft." The 1987 film The Last Rung on the Ladder was based on a short story by King. A Return to Salem's Lot, adapted by Cohen and James Dixon and released by Warner Bros. in 1987, and The Running Man, adapted by Steven E. de Souza and released by TriStar in 1987, were based on King's novels. Graveyard Shift (also known as Stephen King's "Graveyard Shift"), adapted by John Esposito and released by Paramount in 1990, was based on King's short story of the same title. Misery, adapted by William Goldman and released by Columbia in 1990, was based on King's novel. A segment of the film Tales from the Darkside: The Movie, adapted by Romero and released by Paramount in 1990, was based on the short story "The Cat from Hell." The Lawnmower Man, adapted by Brett Leonard and Gimel Everett and released by New Line Cinema in 1992, and Children of the Corn II: The Final Sacrifice (also known as Children of the Corn: Deadly Harvest), adapted by A. L. Katz and Gilbert Adler and released by Miramax/Dimension Films in 1993, were both based on short stories by King. The Dark Half, adapted by Romero and released by Orion in 1993, and Needful Things, adapted by Cohen and W. D. Richter and released by Columbia/Castle Rock in 1993, were based on King's novels. Children of the Corn III (also known as Children of the Corn III: Urban Harvest), adapted by Dode B. Levenson and released by Dimension Films in 1994, was based on King's short story. The Shawshank Redemption, adapted by Darabont and released by Columbia in 1994, was based on King's novella Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption: Hope Springs Eternal. Dolores Claiborne, adapted by Tony Gilroy and released by Columbia in 1995, was based on King's novel. The Mangler, adapted by Tobe Hooper, Stephen Brooks, and Peter Welbeck and released by New Line Cinema in 1995, and Children of the Corn: The Gathering (also known as Deadly Harvest), adapted by Stephen Berger and Greg Spence and released by Dimension Home Video in 1996, were both based on short stories by King. Thinner (also known as Stephen King's "Thinner"), adapted by Michael McDowell and released by Paramount in 1996, was based on King's novel. Sometimes They Come Back … again (also known as Sometimes They Come Back 2), released in 1996, was based on characters created by King. Night Flier (also known as Stephen King's "The Night Flier"), adapted by Jack O'Donnell and Mark Pavia and released by Amsterdam Entertainment/Stardust Entertainment/Medusa Film in 1997, was based on King's short story of the same title. Ghosts (also known as Michael Jackson's "Ghosts"), adapted by Stan Winston, Mick Garris, and Michael Jackson and released by M.J.J. Productions/Heliopolis in 1997, was based on King's writings. Apt Pupil (also known as L'eleve doue and Un eleve doue—Ete de corruption), adapted by Brandon Boyce and released by TriStar in 1998, was based on King's novella Apt Pupil: Summer of Corruption. Children of the Corn V: Fields of Terror (also known as Children of the Corn V), released by Dimension Films in 1998, was based on King's short story. Sometimes They Come Back … for More (also known as Frozen and Ice Station Erebus), released by Trimark Pictures in 1998, and The Rage: Carrie 2 (also known as Carrie 2 and Carrie 2, Say You're Sorry), released by United Artists in 1999, were based on characters created by King. Children of the Corn 666: Isaac's Return (also known as Children of the Corn 666), released by Buena Vista Home Video in 1999, was based on King's short story. The film The Green Mile (also known as Stephen King's "The Green Mile") was adapted by Darabont from King's serialized novel, Warner Bros., 1999. The short film Paranoid (also known as Stephen King's "Paranoid"), released by Adakin Productions in 2000, was based on King's poetry. Children of the Corn: Revelation, released by Dimension Films in 2001, was based on King's short story. Hearts in Atlantis, adapted by Goldman and released by Warner Bros. in 2001, was based on King's novel. The Mangler 2 (also known as The Mangler 2: Graduation Day), released by Artisan Entertainment in 2001, was based on characters created by King. The 2001 short film Strawberry Spring was based on a story by King. The Dead Zone, released by Lions Gate Films in 2002, was based on King's novel. The 2002 short film Night Surf, was based on a story by King. Dream-catcher (also known as L'attrapeir de reves), adapted by Goldman and released by Warner Bros. in 2003, was based on King's novel. The short films Autopsy Room Four, released by Haven Films in 2003, and Rainy Season, released by Wauters from the Moon Productions in 2003, were based on short stories by King. The short films All That You Love Will Be Carried Away, released by Big D Productions in 2004, and The Man in the Black Suit, released by Mauler Films/New York University in 2004, were based on short stories by King. The Talisman, released in 2005, was based on a novel by King and Peter Straub. Other King novels have formed the basis of films, including Bag of Bones, adapted by David Veloz and released by Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer in 2005, and The Girl Who LovedTom Gordon, released in 2005, and an animated production based on the novel The Eyes of the Dragon. Television miniseries based on King's writings include Salem's Lot (also known as Blood Thirst, Salem's Lot: The Miniseries, and Salem's Lot: The Movie) adapted by Paul Monash and broadcast by CBS in 1979, which was based on King's novel. "It" (also known as "Stephen King's 'It"'), adapted by Lawrence D. Cohen and Tommy Lee Wallace and broadcast on ABC Novel for Television, ABC, 1990, is based on King's novel. Firestarter 2: Rekindled (also known as Firestarter: Rekindled), broadcast by Sci–Fi Channel in 2002, was based on King's novel Firestarter. Salem's Lot (also known as Stephen King's "Salem's Lot"), adapted by Peter Filardi and broadcast by TNT in 2004, was based on King's novel. Television movies based on King's writings include Sometimes They Come Back (also known as Stephen King's "Sometimes They Come Back"), broadcast by CBS in 1991, which was based on King's short story of the same title. The Langoliers (also known as Stephen King's "The Langoliers"), adapted by Tom Holland and broadcast by ABC in 1995, was based on King's novella. Quicksilver Highway, adapted by Garris and Clive Barker and broadcast by Fox in 1997, was based on King's short story"Chattery Teeth." The movie Trucks, broadcast by USA Network in 1997, was also based on a short story by King. Carrie, broadcast by NBC in 2002, was based on King's novel. The Diary of Ellen Rimbauer, broadcast by ABC in 2003, was based on characters created by King. Other television adaptations of King's work include "The Word Processor of the Gods," an episode of Tales from the Darkside, released in syndication in 1985, then as a video by Laurel Entertainment, 1985, was adapted by Michael Dowell from the short story "The Word Processor." "Gramma," an episode of The Twilight Zone broadcast by CBS in 1986, was adapted by Harlan Ellison from King's short story of the same title. "The Moving Finger," an episode of the series Monsters, broadcast in syndication in 1991, was based on a story by King. "The Revelations of 'Becka Paulson," an episode of The Outer Limits (also known as The New Outer Limits), broadcast by Showtime and in syndication in 1997, was based on a short story by King. The series The Dead Zone (also known as Stephen King's "Dead Zone"), broadcast by USA Network beginning 2002, was based on King's novel. Stage productions based on King's writings include the musical Carrie, adapted by Lawrence D. Cohen and Michael Gore, developed by Royal Shakespeare Company, London, and produced at Virginia Theatre, New York City, 1988. The film version of the novel Misery was adapted for the stage by Simon Moore, produced at American Stage Festival, Nashua, NH, 2002, and in subsequent regional productions. The video collection Two Mini–Features from Stephen King's "Nightshift Collection," released by Granite Entertainment Group in 1985 contains The Boogeyman and The Woman in the Room.

OTHER SOURCES

Books:

Badley, Linda, Writing Horror and the Body: The Fiction of Stephen King, Clive Barker, and Anne Rice, Greenwood Press, 1996.

Beahm, George W., editor, The Stephen King Companion, Andrews & McMeel, 1989.

Beahm, George W., The Stephen King Story, revised edition, Andrews & McMeel, 1992.

Blue, Tyson, Observations from the Terminator: Thoughts on Stephen King and Other Modern Masters of Horror Fiction, Borgo Press, 1995.

Collings, Michael R., Stephen King as Richard Bachman, Starmont House, 1985.

Collings, Michael R., Films of Stephen King, illustrated by Stephen Fabian, Borgo Press, 1986.

Collings, Michael R., The Works of Stephen King: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide, edited by Boden Clarke, Borgo Press, 1993.

Collings, Michael R., Scaring Us to Death: The Impact of Stephen King on Popular Culture, second edition, Borgo Press, 1995.

Contemporary Authors New Revision Series, Volume 52, Gale, 1996.

Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale, Volume 12, 1980, Volume 26, 1983, Volume 37, 1985, Volume 61, 1990.

Contemporary Novelists, seventh edition, St. James Press, 2001.

Davis, Jonathan P., Stephen King's America, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1994.

Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 143: American Novelists since World War II, Third Series, Gale, 1994.

Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook: 1980, Gale, 1981.

Doherty, Brian, editor, American Horror Fiction: From Brockden Brown to Stephen King, St. Martin's, 1990.

Hoppenstand, Gary, and Ray B. Browne, editors, The Gothic World of Stephen King: Landscape of Nightmares, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987.

Keyishian, Amy, and Marjorie Keyishian, Stephen King, Chelsea House, 1995.

Lloyd, Ann, The Films of Stephen King, St. Martin's, 1994.

Magistrale, Tony, editor, Landscape of Fear: Stephen King's American Gothic, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1988.

Magistrale, Tony, editor, A Casebook on "The Stand," Starmont House, 1992.

Magistrale, Tony, editor, The Dark Descent: Essays Defining Stephen King's Horrorscape, Greenwood Press, 1992.

Magistrale, Tony, Stephen King: The Second Decade—"Danse Macabre" to "The Dark Half," Twayne, 1992.

Russell, Sharon A., Stephen King: A Critical Companion, Greenwood Press, 1996.

Saidman, Anne, Stephen King, Master of Horror, Lerner Publications, 1992.

Schweitzer, Darrell, editor, Discovering Stephen King, Starmont House, 1985.

Short Story Criticism, Volume 17, Gale, 1995.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Fear Itself: The Horror Fiction of Stephen King, Underwood Miller, 1982.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Kingdom of Fear: The World of Stephen King, Underwood Miller, 1986.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Bare Bones: Conversations on Terror with Stephen King, McGraw–Hill, 1988.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Feast of Fear: Conversations with Stephen King, McGraw–Hill, 1989.

Underwood, Tim, and Chuck Miller, editors, Fear Itself: The Early Works of Stephen King, Underwood Miller, 1993.

Winter, Douglas E., Stephen King: The Art of Darkness, New American Library, 1984.

Periodicals:

Entertainment Weekly, February 23, 1996, pp. 60–62; October 18, 1996, p. 75; December 15, 1996, p. 21; December 27, 1996, pp. 28–29; November 21, 1997, p. 41; September 25, 1998, p. 97; November 1, 1999, p. 86; December 10, 1999, pp. 38–40; September 27, 2002, p. 20.

Newsweek, June 28, 1999, p. 64.

People Weekly, April 1, 1996, p. 38; October 7, 1996, p. 32; October 21, 1996, p. 37; July 5, 1999, p. 166; January 24, 2000, p. 125.

Publishers Weekly, November 20, 1995, p. 15; April 1, 1996, p. 22; May 13, 1996, p. 26; August 5, 1996, pp. 292–94; August 26, 1996, p. 34; September 9, 1996, p. 27; October 7, 1996, p. 20; November 10, 1997, p. 10.

Time, September 2, 1996, pp. 60–61.

TV Guide, February 13, 1999, pp. 24–27.

U.S. News & World Report, September 23, 1996, p. 31.

Electronic:

Stephen King Official Page, http://www.stephenking.com, May 15, 2005.

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King, Stephen (Edwin)

KING, Stephen (Edwin)

Also writes as Richard Bachman. Nationality: American. Born: Portland, Maine, 21 September 1947. Education: University of Maine at Orono, B.Sc. 1970. Family: Married Tabitha Jane Spruce in 1971; two sons, one daughter. Career: Worked as a janitor, a laborer in an industrial laundry, and in a knitting mill; English teacher, Hampden Academy (high school), Hampden, Maine, 1971-73; University of Maine, Orono, writer-in-residence, 1978-79; owner, Philtrum Press (publishing house), and WZON-AM (rock 'n' roll radio station), Bangor, Maine; actor in films, television, and commercials, 1981; reviewer, New York Times Book Review. Awards: Balrog Awards, second place in best novel category and second place in best story collection category, 1979; American Library Association's list of best books for young adults, 1979, 1981; World Fantasy Award, 1980, 1982; Career Alumni Award (University of Maine at Orono), 1981; special British Fantasy Award (British Fantasy Society), 1982; Hugo Award (World Science Fiction Convention), 1982; Best Fiction Writer of the Year (Us Magazine), 1982; Locus Award for best collection (Locus Publications), 1986; World Fantasy award for short story, 1995; Tommy Award, 2000. Agent: Arthur Greene, 101 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10178, U.S.A.

Publications

Novels

Carrie: A Novel of a Girl with a Frightening Power. New York, Doubleday, 1974; with an introduction by Tabitha King, New York, Plume, 1991.

Salem's Lot. New York, Doubleday, 1975; with an introduction byClive Barker, New York, Plume, 1991.

The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger. Amereon Ltd., 1976; published asThe Gunslinger, illustrated by Michael Whelan. New York, New American Library, 1988.

The Shining. New York, Doubleday, 1977; with an introduction byKen Follett, New York, Plume, 1991.

Rage (as Richard Bachman). New York, New American Library/Signet, 1977.

The Stand. New York, Doubleday, 1978; enlarged and expanded edition published as The Stand: The Complete and Uncut Edition. New York, Doubleday, 1990.

The Long Walk (as Richard Bachman). New York, New AmericanLibrary/Signet, 1979.

The Dead Zone. New York, Viking, 1979; movie edition published asThe Dead Zone: Movie Tie-In. New York, New American Library, 1980; The Dead Zone, introduction by Anne Rivers Siddons, New York, Plume, 1994.

Firestarter. New York, Viking, 1980.

Cujo. New York, Viking, 1981.

Roadwork: A Novel of the First Energy Crisis (as Richard Bachman). New York, New American Library/Signet, 1981.

The Running Man (as Richard Bachman). New York, New AmericanLibrary/Signet, 1982.

Different Seasons. (novellas; contains Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption: Hope Springs Eternal, Apt Pupil: Summer of Corruption, The Body: Fall from Innocence, and The Breathing Method: A Winter's Tale ). New York, Viking, 1982.

Pet Sematary. New York, Doubleday, 1983.

Christine. New York, Viking, 1983.

Cycle of the Werewolf (novella), illustrated by Berni Wrightson. Westland, Michigan, 1983.

The Talisman (with Peter Straub). New York, Viking Press/Putnam, 1984.

The Eyes of the Dragon (young adult), illustrated by Kenneth R. Linkhauser, Philtrum Press, 1984; illustrated by David Palladini, New York, Viking, 1987.

Thinner (as Richard Bachman). New York, New American Library, 1984.

It. New York, Viking, 1986.

Misery. New York, Viking, 1987.

The Tommyknockers. New York, Putnam, 1987.

The Dark Half. New York, Viking, 1989.

The Dark Tower II: The Drawing of the Three, illustrated by PhilHale. New York, New American Library, 1989.

Needful Things. New York, Viking, 1991.

The Dark Tower III: The Waste Lands, illustrated by Ned Dameron. New York, New American Library, 1991.

Gerald's Game. New York, Viking, 1992.

Dolores Claiborne. New York, Viking, 1993.

Insomnia. New York, Viking, 1994.

Rose Madder. New York, Viking, 1995.

The Green Mile (serialized in six chapters). New York, Signet, 1996; published as The Green Mile: A Novel in Six Parts. New York, Plume, 1997.

Desperation. New York, Viking, 1996.

The Regulators (as Richard Bachman). New York, Dutton, 1996.

The Two Dead Girls (with a foreword by the author), New York, Signet, 1996.

The Bachman Books: Four Early Novels (all previously published, with a new introduction by the author). New York, Plume, 1996.

The Dark Tower IV: Wizard and Glass. New York, Plume, 1997; published as Wizard and Glass, illustrated by Dave McKean. Hampton Falls, New Hampshire, D. H. Grant, 1997.

Bag of Bones. New York, Scribner, 1998.

The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon. New York, Scribner, 1999.

Hearts in Atlantis. New York, Scribner, 1999.

Riding the Bullet (e-book novella). New York, Scribner, 2000.

Short Stories

The Star Invaders. Durham, Maine, Gaslight Books, 1964.

Night Shift New York, Doubleday, 1978; published as Night Shift: Excursions into Horror. New York, New American Library/Signet, 1979.

Stephen King's Skeleton Crew, illustrated by J. K. Potter. New York, Viking, 1985.

Dark Visions. London, Gollancz, 1989.

My Pretty Pony (with Barbara Kruger). New York, Knopf, 1989.

Four Past Midnight. New York, Viking, 1990.

Nightmares & Dreamscapes. New York, Viking, 1993.

Plays

Screenplays:

Creepshow. Warner Brothers, 1982; published as Stephen King's Creep Show: A George A. Romero Film, illustrated by Berni Wrightson and Michele Wrightson, New York, New American Library, 1982.; Cat's Eye, Metro Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, 1984; Silver Bullet, Paramount Pictures/Dino de Laurentiis's North Carolina Film Corp., 1985, illustrated by Berni Wrightson, New York, New American Library/Signet, 1985; Maximum Over-drive (and director), Dino de Laurentiis's North Carolina Film Corp., 1986, New York, New American Library, 1986; Pet Sematary, Paramount Pictures, 1989; Stephen King's Sleepwalkers. Columbia, 1992.

Television Plays:

Battleground, Martin Poll Productions/NBC-TV), 1987; Tales from the Dark Side (teleplay of episode, "Sorry, Right Number"), 1987; Stephen King's Golden Years, CBS-TV, 1991; Stephen King's The Stand (also executive producer), ABC-TV, 1994; The X-Files (teleplay of episode, "Chinga," with Chris Carter), Fox-TV, 1998; Storm of the Century, ABC-TV, 1999, New York, Pocket Books, 1999.

Poetry

Another Quarter Mile: Poetry. Dorrance, 1979.

Other

Stephen King's Danse Macabre (nonfiction). Everest House, 1981.

The Plant (privately published episodes of a comic horror novel in progress). Bangor, Maine, Philtrum Press, 1982.

Black Magic and Music: A Novelist's Perspective on Bangor (pamphlet). Bangor, Maine, Bangor Historical Society, 1983.

The Mist (sound recording). Fort Edward, New York, ZBS Foundation, 1984.

Nightmares in the Sky: Gargoyles and Grotesques, photographs by F. Stop FitzGerald. New York, Viking, 1988.

Dolan's Cadillac. Northridge, California, Lord John Press, 1989.

On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft. New York, Scribner, 2000.

Contributor, The Year's Finest Fantasy, edited by Terry Carr. NewYork, Putnam, 1978.

Contributor, Shadows, Volume 1, edited by Charles L. Grant. New York, Doubleday, 1978.

Contributor, Shadows, Volume 4, edited by Charles L. Grant. New York, Doubleday, 1981.

Contributor, New Terrors, edited by Ramsey Campbell. New York, Pocket Books, 1982.

Contributor, World Fantasy Convention 1983, edited by Robert Weinberg. Weird Tales Ltd., 1983.

Contributor, The Writer's Handbook, edited by Sylvia K. Burack, Boston, Writer, Inc., 1984.

Contributor, The Dark Descent, edited by David G. Hartwell. Doherty Associates, 1987.

Contributor, Prime Evil: New Stories by the Masters of Modern Horror, edited by Douglas E. Winter. New York, New American Library, 1988.

Contributor, The Complete Masters of Darkness, edited by Dennis Etchison. Novato, California, Underwood-Miller, 1990.

Contributor, Shock Rock, edited by Jeff Gelb. New York, Pocket Books, 1992.

Contributor, Death Walks Tonight: Horrifying Stories, edited by Anthony Horowitz. New York, Puffin, 1996.

Contributor, Twists of the Tale: Cat Horror Stories, edited by Ellen Datlow. New York, Dell, 1996.

Contributor, Screamplays, edited by Richard Chizmar. New York, Ballantine, 1997.

Contributor, The Best of the Best: 18 New Stories by America's Leading Authors, edited by Elaine Koster and Joseph Pittman. New York, Signet, 1998.

Foreword, Tales from the Nightside: Dark Fantasy by Charles L. Grant. Sauk City, Wisconsin, Arkham House, 1981.

Foreword, Scars and Other Distinguishing Marks by Richard Christian Matheson. Los Angeles, Scream/Press, 1987.

Foreword, Archie Americana Series: Best of the Forties, created by John L. Goldwater. Mamaroneck, New York, Archie Comic Publications, 1991.

Foreword, Fear Itself: The Early Works of Stephen King, edited by Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller. San Francisco, Underwood-Miller, 1993.

Introduction, The Arbor House Treasury of Horror and the Supernatural, edited by Bill Pronzini, Barry M. Malzberg, and Martin H. Greenberg. New York, Arbor House, 1981.

Introduction, Grande Illusions: A Learn-by-Example Guide to the Art and Technique of Special Make-up Effects from the Films of Tom Savini by Tom Savini. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Imagine, 1983.

Introduction, The Blackboard Jungle by Evan Hunter. New York, Arbor House, 1984.

Introduction, Fear Itself: The Horror Fiction of Stephen King, edited by Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller. New York, New American Library, 1984.

Introduction, Joe Bob Goes to the Drive-In by Joe Bob Briggs. New York, Delacorte Press, 1987.

Introduction, Classic Tales of Horror and the Supernatural, edited by Bill Pronzini, Barry N. Malzberg, and Martin H. Greenberg. New York, Quill, 1991.

Introduction, Graven Images: The Best of Horror, Fantasy, and Science Fiction Film Art from the Collection of Ronald V. Borst, edited by Ronald V. Borst and Margaret A. Borst. New York, Grove Press, 1992.

Introduction, The Fugitive Recaptured: The 30th Anniversary Companion to a Television Classic by Ed Robertson. Los Angeles, Pomegranate Press, 1993.

Introduction, Heading Home: Growing Up in Baseball, photographs by Harry Connolly. New York, Rizzoli, 1995.

Introduction, Horripilations: The Art of J. K. Potter, text by Nigel Suckling. Woodstock, New York, Overlook Press, 1995.

Introduction, The Shawshank Redemption: The Shooting Script by Frank Darabont. New York, Newmarket Press, 1996.

Introduction, Saturday Night at Moody's Diner: Even More Stories by Tim Sample. Camden, Maine, Down East Books, 1996.

Introduction, The Green Mile: The Screenplay by Frank Darabont. New York, Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1999.

*

Manuscript Collection:

Folger Library, University of Maine at Orono.

Critical Studies:

Fear Itself: The Horror Fiction of Stephen King, edited by Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller, San Francisco, Underwood-Miller, 1982, new edition, with introduction by King and afterword by George Romero, New York, New American Library, 1984; Stephen King by Douglas E. Winter, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1982; Dream Makers: The Uncommon Men and Women Who Write Science Fiction by Charles Platt, New York, Berkley, 1983; Stephen King: The Art of Darkness by Douglas E. Winter, New York, New American Library, 1984; Stephen King as Richard Bachman by Michael R. Collings, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1985; The Many Facets of Stephen King by Michael R. Collings, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1985; The Shorter Works of Stephen King by Michael R. Collings and David Engebretson, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1985; Discovering Stephen King, edited by Darrell Schweitzer, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1985; The Annotated Guide to Stephen King: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography of the Works of America's Premier Horror Writer by Michael R. Collings, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1986; The Films of Stephen King by Michael R. Collings, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1986; Kingdom of Fear: The World of Stephen King, edited by Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller, San Francisco, Underwood-Miller, 1986; The Stephen King Phenomenon by Michael R. Collings, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1987; Stephen King Goes to Hollywood: A Lavishly Illustrated Guide to All the Films Based on Stephen King's Fiction by Jeff Conner, New York, New American Library, 1987; The Gothic World of Stephen King: Landscape of Nightmares, edited by Gary Hoppenstand and Ray B. Browne, Bowling Green, Ohio, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987; The Author Talks by Stephen King (sound recording), Charlotte Hall, Maryland, Recorded Books, 1987; Reign of Fear: Fiction and Film of Stephen King, edited by Don Herron, Los Angeles, Underwood-Miller, 1988; Landscape of Fear: Stephen King's American Gothic by Tony Magistrale, Bowling Green, Ohio, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1988; Stephen King: The First Decade, Carrie to Pet Sematary by Joseph Reino, Boston, Twayne, 1988; Bare Bones: Conversations on Terror with Stephen King, edited by Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller, New York, McGraw-Hill, Warner Books, 1988; The Stephen King Companion, edited by George W. Beahm, Kansas City, Missouri, Andrews & McMeel, 1989; The Moral Voyages of Stephen King by Anthony Magistrale, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1989; American Horror Fiction: From Brockden Brown to Stephen King, edited by Brian Docherty, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1990; The Shape Under the Sheet: The Compete Stephen King Encyclopedia, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Popular Culture, 1991; The Stephen King Story by George W. Beahm, Kansas City, Missouri, Andrews & McMeel, 1991, revised and updated edition, 1992; The Dark Descent: Essays Defining Stephen King's Horrorscape, edited by Tony Magistrale, Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1992; A Casebook on "The Stand", edited by Tony Magistrale, Mercer Island, Washington, Starmont House, 1992; Stephen King: The Second Decade"Danse Macabre" to "The Dark Half" by Tony Magistrale, New York, Twayne, 1992; Stephen King, Master of Horror by Anne Saidman, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Lerner Publications, 1992; Feast of Fear: Conversations with Stephen King, edited by Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller, New York, Carroll & Graf, 1992; The Works of Stephen King: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide by Michael R. Collings and edited by Boden Clarke, San Bernardino, California, Borgo Press, 1993; The Films of Stephen King by Ann Lloyd, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1993; Fear Itself: The Early Works of Stephen King, edited by Tim Underwood and Chuck Miller (foreword by King, introduction by Peter Straub, afterword by George A. Romero), San Francisco, Underwood-Miller, 1993; Stephen King's America by Jonathan P. Davis, Bowling Green, Ohio, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1994; More Things That Are Dreamt Of: Masterpieces of Supernatural Horror, from Mary Shelley to Stephen King, in Literature and Film by James Ursini and Alain Silver, New York, Limelight Editions, 1994; Observations from the Terminator: Thoughts on Stephen King and Other Modern Masters of Horror Fiction by Tyson Blue, San Bernardino, California, Borgo Press, 1995; Susie Bright's Sexwise: America's Favorite X-Rated Intellectual Does Dan Quayle, Catherine MacKinnon, Stephen King, Camille Paglia, Nicholson Baker, Madonna, the Black Panthers, and the GOP by Susie Bright, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Cleis Press, 1995; Scaring Us to Death: The Impact of Stephen King on Popular Culture by Michael R. Collings, San Bernardino, California, Borgo Press, 1995; Stephen King by Amy Keyishian and Marjorie Keyishian, New York, Chelsea House, 1995; Writing Horror and the Body: The Fiction of Stephen King, Clive Barker and Anne Rice. by Linda Badley, Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1996; The Work of Stephen King: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide by Michael R. Collings and edited by Boden Clarke, San Bernardino, California, Borgo Press, 1996; Maps of Heaven, Maps of Hell: Religious Terror as Memory from the Puritans to Stephen King by Edward J. Ingebretsen, Armonk, New York, M. E. Sharpe, 1996; Stephen King: A Critical Companion by Sharon A. Russell. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1996; Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature, edited by Brenda Miller Power, Jeffrey D. Wilhelm, and Kelly Chandler, Urbana, Illinois, National Council of Teachers of English, 1997; Fangoria Masters of the Dark, edited by Anthony Timpone, New York, HarperPrism, 1997; Stephen King: America's Best-Loved Boogeyman by George Beahm, Kansas City, Missouri, Andrews & McMeel, 1998; Stephen King from A to Z: An Encyclopedia of His Life and Work by George Beahm, Kansas City, Missouri, Andrews & McMeel, 1998; Stephen King, edited and with an introduction by Harold Bloom, Philadelphia, Chelsea House, 1998; Treks Not Taken: What If Stephen King, Anne Rice, Kurt Vonnegut, and Other Literary Greats Had Written Episodes of Star Trek, The Next Generation?, New York, HarperPerennial, 1998; Imagining the Worst: Stephen King and the Representation of Women, edited by Kathleen Margaret Lant and Theresa Thompson, Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1998; The Lost Work of Stephen King: A Guide to Unpublished Manuscripts, Story Fragments, Alternative Versions, and Oddities, Secaucus, New Jersey, Birch Lane Press, 1998; Stephen King Country: The Illustrated Guide to the Sites and Sights That Inspired the Modern Master of Horror by George Beahm, Philadelphia, Running Press, 1999; Stephen King by John F. Wukovits, San Diego, Lucent Books, 1999; On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft by Stephen King, New York, Scribner, 2000; American Horror Writers by Bob Madison, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, Enslow Publishers, 2000; Stephen King: King of Thrillers and Horror by Suzan Wilson, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, Enslow Publishers, 2000.

* * *

Stephen King is a prolific, best-selling, internationally famous author who is known primarily as a writer of horror fiction but who has also worked extensively in other genres, particularly fantasy. In his horror stories, King draws on a range of classic motifs, such as vampirism and evil spirits, and masterfully employs a variety of techniques drawn from popular fiction, for example in the way he creates narrative suspense by skilful concealment and timely revelation. But he is not only interested in sensational effects; his novels also provide him with canvasesusually large oneson which he can explore communities, especially those of small New England towns, and evoke the workings of the human mind, particularly when it is subject to terror and fear.

King's first novel, Carrie, was a powerful debut that introduced a number of his key themes. Carrie, bullied by her fanatically religious mother and shunned by her schoolfriends, finds the psychokinetic power she possessed as an infant reviving with her first period. Humiliated at the high school prom night, she takes a terrible revenge, unleashing her psychic wrath to set the town ablaze and bring about many deaths. Carrie combines King's skills as a horror writer with his insights into the feelings of the vulnerable and the abused, and the combination of these two elements recurs in many subsequent novels, giving them a human interest that deepens their horrific aspects. But Carrie is an uncharacteristically short novel; its success allowed King to work on a larger scale with his next book, Salem's Lot. This novel deals with a vampire takeover of a small New England town, and a significant element of its strength comes from the way in which King carefully, almost affectionately, builds up his portrayal of the life of the community. Most of King's later books are long, and while he has been criticized for this, it does enable him to enrich the complexity of his characterization and narrative. Salem's Lot is also significant in that the key protagonist is a writerand writers, though rather less successful ones than King himself, will feature in a number of his later novels. Indeed his third book, The Shining, is a powerful story of an unsuccessful author spending the winter as a caretaker with his wife and child in an isolated, haunted hotel; he is prone to drunkenness and violence in a way that terrifies his precognitive son, through whose mind some of the most disturbing scenes of the novel are evoked.

A batch of novels followed that moved away from horror and employed more of a mixture of popular genres. The Stand shows the human beings who have survived the ravages of an escaped germ warfare virus setting out to rebuild civilization. Starting as science fiction, it develops into a powerful fantasy that dramatizes the contest between good and evil. The Dead Zone focuses on a young man with precognitive and telepathic powers who determines to kill a politician whom he foresees will begin a nuclear war if he becomes President. Firestarter echoes Carrie in that its protagonist, a little girl called Charlie, has the power to set off fires and is hunted by a mysterious government agency that wants to use her for malign ends, while Cujo features a monstrously transformed St. Bernard dog that menaces a small New England town.

In 1982 King brought out four suspense novellas under the title Different Seasons, the best-known of which is The Shawshank Redemption, where a prisoner unjustly convicted of his wife's murder spends years digging his way out of his cell. 1982 also saw the first novel of the still unfinished "Dark Tower" series, The Gunslinger. Subsequent novels in the series are The Drawing of the Three, The Waste Lands, and Wizard and Glass, and there are perhaps three more novels to come. The series takes its title and some of its symbolism from Robert Browning's complex, sinister Victorian poem "Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came" (1855). Its central character, Roland of Gilead, a gunslinger in a strange, bleak fantasy future with some echoes of our own civilization, is engaged on a quest for the Dark Tower, where he hopes to arrest and possibly to reverse the accelerating destruction of Mid-World. King himself regards this series as a very important work that encompasses the elements of all the other fictional worlds that he has created.

King's horror fiction continued in the 1980s with Pet Sematary, in which pets and people buried in an old Indian burial ground return to life in distorted, savage form, and in which a doctor's attempt to resurrect his dead son has horrific consequences. Christine is about a possessed car, a 1958 Plymouth Fury, that takes over its owners. King collaborated with Peter Straub on the novel The Talisman, which follows a twelve-year old boy on a quest for the Talisman that will save his dying mother, but the styles and narrative techniques of the two writers did not quite gel. In 1986 King returned to his own work with It, which deals once more with a New England town under threat, this time by an evil spirit that lives in its storm-drains and sewers and that a band of children finally destroy. This was followed by the highly praised Misery, in which a writer, badly injured in a car crash, is brought back to life by a woman who insists that he write another book about her favorite character, whom he has previously killed off. A longer, more diffuse novel, The Tommyknockers concerns the finding of a spaceship that sends out vibrations that change the behavior of the citizens of a small town in destructive ways. The Dark Half, like Misery, features a writer who is unable to dispose of a character he has created; Thad Beaumont has written a number of best-selling thrillers under the pseudonym of George Stark, and endowed Stark with a sinister character. But when he tries to kill Stark off, Stark, the "dark half" of his imagination, enters his actual life and starts to murder his friends.

King's books in the 1990s included Four Past Midnight, a collection of novels, of which the most chilling is The Library Policeman, in which a monster that takes the shape of a librarian needs to regenerate itself by feeding off the fears of children and incarnating itself in adult bodies. In Needful Things, a devilish shopkeeper creates conflict among the townsfolk of Castle Rock by offering to gratify their most private desires. Gerald's Game is a tormented, claustrophobic novel in which a wife left handcuffed to a bed in a bondage game, after her husband has died of a heart attack, has to relive an experience of being abused by her father in order to survive. In Dolores Claiborne, a companion housekeeper tells the story of her troubled relationship with an almost insane crippled widow whom she looked after, while Rose Madder follows the trail of a woman who flees from a murderous husband, enters a picture to discover her own powers of resistance, and later persuades her husband to get into the picture, where he effectively murders himselfa remarkable combination of thriller and fantasy elements. Desperation, like The Stand, dramatizes the battle between good and evil, this time in a desolate Nevada town. The protagonist of Bag of Bones is again an author, suffering from writer's block after his wife's death, who returns to their lakeside retreat and starts to uncover dark secrets, while The Green Mile focuses on a strange prisoner awaiting execution for two brutal murders. Hearts in Atlantis comprises five interlinked stories that run from 1960 to 1999 and explore the continuing impact of the 1960s and the Vietnam War. King's greatest achievement of the 1990s, however, is Insomnia, with its harrowing descriptions of an acute form of sleeplessness that produces the power of transcendent vision in an elderly man who, in a town riven by battles over abortion, has to restore the balance between the "Purpose," which ends human lives at the appropriate time, and the "Random," which can cut the thread of life at whim.

King was struck by a car and seriously injured in June 1999, and for a time it seemed that he might be unable to go on writing. However, he has recently enjoyed success with the publication, in electronic form, of the novella Riding the Bullet. Many of his books have been filmed, though the results have rarely met with his approval. His huge output and immense popularity have proved barriers to sustained critical consideration of his work in the past, but now that literary and cultural criticism has broadened its scope to take in popular writing, there is a growing volume of analysis of King as a cultural phenomenon and of the structural and stylistic qualities of his fiction. While the standard of his work is variable, and he can sometimes fall back on the stock devices and images of the horror or fantasy writer, his writing at its best demonstrates a vivid style and a capacity for imaginative penetration into dark and disturbing areas of human psychology that place him in a tradition of American novelists that includes Charles Brockden Brown, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Edgar Allan Poe.

Nicolas Tredell

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