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Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3d duke of

Thomas Howard Norfolk, 3d duke of, 1473–1554, English nobleman, prominent in the reign of Henry VIII; son of Thomas Howard, the 2d duke. He married (1495) a daughter of Edward IV and thus became brother-in-law to Henry VII. He fought (1513) against the Scots at Flodden and became (1514) earl of Surrey when his father was made duke of Norfolk. After his first wife's death he married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Stafford, 3d duke of Buckingham. He served (1520–21) as lord lieutenant of Ireland. Succeeding his father as lord high treasurer in 1522 and as duke of Norfolk in 1524, Norfolk led the opposition to Thomas, Cardinal Wolsey. He supported Henry VIII's divorce from Katharine of Aragón and his marriage (1533) to Norfolk's niece Anne Boleyn. Later he presided (1536) at the trial and execution of Anne. Although Norfolk conducted the campaign against the Pilgrimage of Grace (1536), he remained Catholic. He was an enemy of Thomas Cromwell and instrumental in bringing about his fall (1540). After the execution in 1542 of another of his nieces, Catherine Howard, Henry's fifth queen, Norfolk's influence waned, and he was forced back into the position of a mere military commander. In 1546 he and his son Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, were charged with treason. Surrey was executed, but Norfolk was saved by the death of the king. He was released (1553) from prison on the accession of Mary I and restored to his dukedom. He successfully led the forces against the rebellion (1554) of Sir Thomas Wyatt, the younger.

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"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3d duke of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3d duke of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/norfolk-thomas-howard-3d-duke

"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3d duke of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/norfolk-thomas-howard-3d-duke

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of (1473–1554). Norfolk picked a precarious path through the hazards of Tudor politics. He was closely related to the royal family. His first wife was a daughter of Edward IV; his second wife's grandmother was sister to Edward IV's queen; he was uncle to both Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. He was given the Garter in 1510 and after fighting under his father at the great victory of Flodden was created earl of Surrey when his father was made duke of Norfolk. From 1513 to 1525 he served as lord high admiral, was lord-lieutenant of Ireland 1520–2 and lord high treasurer 1522–47. He helped to bring down Wolsey and in 1534 presided over the trial of his niece Anne Boleyn. In 1537 he put down the rising of the Pilgrimage of Grace with severity. In 1540 he succeeded in ousting Thomas Cromwell. The disgrace of Catherine Howard rocked his position but he survived and held commands against the French and the Scots. The imprudence of his son Lord Surrey, in sporting the royal arms, brought a conviction for treason in 1546 and Norfolk escaped execution only because Henry VIII died. Throughout Edward VI's reign, Norfolk remained in the Tower but, as a catholic, was released by Mary, restored to his honours, and served against Wyatt's rebellion in January 1554, which was defeated largely by the zeal of his half-brother Lord William Howard. He died the same year at the age of 80.

J. A. Cannon

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"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/norfolk-thomas-howard-3rd-duke

"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/norfolk-thomas-howard-3rd-duke