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Howard, William, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham

Howard, William, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham (c.1510–73). Howard was a younger son of Thomas, 2nd duke of Norfolk, who died in 1524. He was great-uncle to princess Elizabeth. In the 1530s he served as ambassador to Scotland and to France but was in danger in 1542 when his niece Catherine Howard was executed. Howard was convicted of misprision of treason but pardoned in 1544. In 1552–3 he was governor of Calais. For the last 20 years of his life he held high office continuously as lord high admiral 1553–8, lord chamberlain 1558–72, and lord privy seal 1572–3. He took an active part in repelling Wyatt from London in 1554, after his half-brother's forces had been badly beaten, and was rewarded by Mary with the Garter and a barony. He gained some displeasure by protecting the Princess Elizabeth, Froude writing that she owed her life to him. On her succession in 1558 he was in high favour. His son Charles commanded the fleet against the Spanish Armada.

J. A. Cannon

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