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Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of (1538–72). Norfolk was grandson of the 3rd duke. His father Lord Surrey was executed when he was 8. He and his grandfather were restored to their honours at the accession of Mary in 1553 and he succeeded as duke the following year. Elizabeth gave him the Garter in 1559 and employed him in Scotland to oust the French party. This proved his undoing. After the death of his third wife in 1567, he conceived a plan to marry Mary, queen of Scots, still a possible successor to Elizabeth. They had not actually met but went in for a good deal of literary swooning. In October 1569 he was committed to the Tower and in November his brother-in-law the earl of Westmorland led the rising of the northern earls, on behalf of Mary and the old religion. Norfolk was released in 1570 and assured Elizabeth that the marriage had been abandoned, but allowed himself to be drawn into the Ridolfi plot to replace Elizabeth by Mary. Norfolk's role was to liaise with a Spanish expedition which was to land at Harwich. He was again put in the Tower and executed in June 1572. His personal popularity was considerable but he was vain, vacillating, and timorous. The dukedom was restored to his great-great-grandson in 1660.

J. A. Cannon

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"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/norfolk-thomas-howard-4th-duke

"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/norfolk-thomas-howard-4th-duke

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of

Thomas Howard Norfolk, 4th duke of, 1536–72, English nobleman, son of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. He succeeded his grandfather, the 3d duke, in 1554. He was favored by Queen Elizabeth I, although he was jealous of the larger measure of confidence she placed in Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. Norfolk commanded the English forces that intervened in Scotland in 1559–60 and in 1568 was chief of the commission that inquired into Scottish affairs after the flight of Mary Queen of Scots to England. A widower, he conducted secret negotiations for Mary's hand. Elizabeth heard of the project, however, and forbade it, and Norfolk was imprisoned (1569–70). On his release Norfolk was drawn into the plot of Ridolfi, agent of Philip II of Spain, who was planning a Spanish invasion and the dethronement of Elizabeth. The plot was discovered, Norfolk was imprisoned (1571) in the Tower of London, tried, and beheaded.

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"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 14 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 14, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/norfolk-thomas-howard-4th-duke

"Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 14, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/norfolk-thomas-howard-4th-duke