Skip to main content
Select Source:

Smog

Smog

Smog refers to an atmospheric condition of atmospheric instability, poor visibility, and large concentrations of gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The word "smog" is an amalgam of the words "smoke" and "fog." There are two types of smog: reducing smog characterized by sulfur dioxide and particulates, and photochemical smog characterized by ozone and other oxidants.

Reducing smog refers to air pollution episodes characterized by high concentrations of sulfur dioxide and smoke (or particulate aerosols). Reducing smog is also sometimes called London-type smog, because of famous incidents that occurred in that city during the 1950s.

Reducing smogs first became common when industrialization and the associated burning of coal caused severe air pollution by sulfur dioxide and soot in European cities. This air pollution problem first became intense in the nineteenth century, when it was first observed to damage human health, buildings, and vegetation.

There have been a number of incidents of substantial increases in human illness and mortality caused by reducing smog, especially among higher-risk people with chronic respiratory or heart diseases. These toxic pollution events usually occurred during prolonged episodes of calm atmospheric conditions, which prevented the dispersion of emitted gases and particulates. These circumstances resulted in the accumulation of large atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide and particulates, sometimes accompanied by a natural fog , which became blackened by soot. The term smog was originally coined as a label for these coincident occurrences of atmospheric pollution by sulfur dioxide and particulates.

Coal smoke, in particular, has been recognized as a pollution problem in England and elsewhere in Europe for centuries, since at least 1500. Dirty, pollution-laden fogs occurred especially often in London, where they were called "peasoupers." The first convincing linkage of a substantial increase in human mortality and an event of air pollution was in Glasgow in 1909, when about 1,000 deaths were attributed to noxious smog during an episode of atmospheric stagnation. A North American example occurred in 1948 in Donora, Pennsylvania, an industrial town located in a valley near Pittsburgh. In that case, a persistent fog and stagnant air during a four-day period coupled with large emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates from heavy industries to cause severe air pollution. A large increase in the rate of human mortality

was associated with this smog; 20 deaths were caused in a population of only 14,100. An additional 43% of the population was made ill in Donora, 10% severely so.

The most famous episode of reducing smog was the socalled "killer smog" that afflicted London in the early winter of 1952. In this case, an extensive atmospheric stability was accompanied by a natural, white fog. In London, these conditions transformed into a noxious "black fog" with almost zero visibility, as the concentrations of sulfur dioxide and particulates progressively built up. The most important sources of emissions of these pollutants were the use of coal for the generation of electricity , for other industrial purposes, and to heat homes because of the cold temperatures. In total, this smog caused 18 days of greater-than-usual mortality, and 3,900 deaths were attributed to the deadly episode, mostly of elderly or very young persons, and those with pre-existing respiratory or coronary diseases.

Smogs like the above were common in industrialized cities of Europe and North America , and they were mostly caused by the uncontrolled burning of coal. More recently, the implementation of clean-air policies in many countries has resulted in large improvements of air quality in cities, so that severe reducing smogs no longer occur there. Once the severe effects of reducing smogs on people, buildings, vegetation, and other resources and values became recognized, mitigative actions were developed and implemented.

However, there are still substantial problems with reducing smogs in rapidly industrializing regions of eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, China, India, and elsewhere. In these places, the social priority is to achieve rapid economic growth, even if environmental quality is compromised. As a result, control of the emissions of pollutants is not very stringent, and reducing smogs are still a common problem.

To a large degree, oxidizing or Los Angeles-type smogs have supplanted reducing smog in importance in most industrialized countries. Oxidizing smogs are common in sunny places where there are large emissions of nitric oxide and hydrocarbons to the atmosphere, and where the atmospheric conditions are frequently stable. Oxidizing smogs form when those emitted (or primary) pollutants are transformed through photochemical reactions into secondary pollutants, the most important of which are the strong oxidant gases, ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate. These secondary gases are the major components of oxidizing smog that are harmful to people and vegetation.

Typically, the concentrations of these various chemicals vary predictably during the day, depending on their rates of emission, the intensity of sunlight, and atmospheric stability. In the vicinity of Los Angeles, for example, ozone concentrations are largest in the early-to-mid afternoon, after which these gases are diluted by fresh air blowing inland from the Pacific Ocean. These winds blow the polluted smog further inland, where pine forests are affected on the windward slopes of nearby mountains. The light-driven photochemical reactions also cease at night. This sort of daily diurnal cycle is typical of places that experience oxidizing smog.

Humans are sensitive to ozone, which causes irritation and damage to membranes of the respiratory system and eyes, and induces asthma. People vary greatly in their sensitivity to ozone, but hypersensitive individuals can suffer considerable discomfort from exposure to oxidizing smog.

See also Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric composition and structure; Atmospheric inversion layers; Biosphere; Ultraviolet rays and radiation

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Smog." World of Earth Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Smog." World of Earth Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/smog

"Smog." World of Earth Science. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/smog

Smog

Smog


Originally, the term smog was coined to describe the mixture of smoke and fog that lowered visibility and led to respiratory problems in industrial cities. More recently, the term has come to mean any decrease in air quality whether associated with reduced visibility or a noticeable impact on human health. Smog occurs when emissions of gases and particles from industrial or transportation sources are trapped by the local meteorology so the concentrations rise and chemical reactions occur. It is common to distinguish between two types of smog: London smog and Los Angeles smog.

London, or sulphurous, smog was noted following the introduction of coal into cities. It is most prevalent in the fall or winter when cool conditions naturally produce a thick surface fog. This fog mixes with the smoke and gases from burning coal to produce a dark, thick, acrid sulphurous atmosphere. Normally, the unpolluted fog would disperse during the day and be reformed at night. However, the presence of smoke particles makes the fog so thick that sunlight cannot penetrate it and so only a major change in meteorology can disperse it. The smog has been shown to contribute to an increased death rate, primarily due to respiratory problems. The most notable example of this kind of smog occurred in London, from December 4 to 10, 1954, when some four thousand deaths in excess of normal averages resulted. A similar episode in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 involved approximately twenty excess deaths. Most jurisdictions have instituted control measures to prevent this level of disaster from happening again. They have moved industries out of cities, demanded lower industrial emissions, and increased the heights of smokestacks so emissions are not trapped by local meteorology. These approaches have been largely successful, at least in controlling the most extreme events.

Los Angeles, or photochemical, smog first became apparent in the late 1940s in warm sunny cities that did not have significant coal-burning industries. It is a daytime phenomenon characterized by a white haze and contains oxidants, such as ozone, that cause eyes to water, breathing to become labored, and plants to be damaged. It results from the action of sunlight on the combination of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NOx), known as precursor gases. These are emitted from combustion sources to produce a range of oxidized products and oxidants. These compounds have been shown to produce respiratory and cardiac problems in individuals sensitive to pollution, and the damage inflicted on crops can cause significant decreases in yield. In most cities, the automobile is the primary contributor of smog's precursor gases. As the name would suggest, the most notable example of this type of smog occurs in Los Angeles, California, but it has also been experienced in a large number of cities where the weather is dry, sunlight is plentiful, and there are many automobiles or petroleum industries (e.g., Houston, Athens, and Mexico City.)

The control of photochemical smog is more difficult than for sulphurous smog because the compounds responsible for human and crop impacts are not directly emitted, but produced by chemistry in the atmosphere. Thus, greater knowledge on the emissions of gases, their reactions in the atmosphere, and their lifetime is needed. Most jurisdictions continue to focus their control strategies on reducing ozone concentrations, although particle concentrations are receiving increasing attention. Because smog results from the sunlight-initiated chemistry of hydrocarbons and nitrous oxides, the most common approach to smog control is to decrease the emission of these compounds at their source. Lower volatility gasolines and systems to capture gasoline vapors are used to reduce hydrocarbon emissions while tailpipe controls (catalytic converters) reduce emissions of both hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. The emission control systems of the twenty-first century mean that a car typically emits 70 percent less nitrogen oxides and 80 to 90 percent less hydrocarbons than the uncontrolled cars of the 1960s. The expected improvement in air quality, as a result of increasing controls, is estimated by using computer models of the atmosphere and its chemistry.

see also Air Pollution; Asthma; Donora, Pennsylvania; Health, Human; Ozone.

Bibliography

Brimblecombe, Peter. (1987). The Big Smoke: A History of Air Pollution in London since Medieval Times. London: Methuen.

Turco, Richard. (1997). Earth under Siege. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


internet resources

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health." Available from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/aqibroch.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 19001998." Available from http://www.epa.gov/ttn.

Donald R. Hastie

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Smog." Pollution A to Z. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Smog." Pollution A to Z. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/educational-magazines/smog

"Smog." Pollution A to Z. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/educational-magazines/smog

Smog (Air Pollution)

SMOG (AIR POLLUTION)

"Smog" is a popular term used to describe polluted air. It was originally used as an abbreviation of the combination of coal smoke and fog that, along with sulfur dioxide vapor, characterized polluted air in London and other British cities in the 1950s. The term came into more widespread use as a summary description for the quite different pollution mixture of ozone (O3) and other photochemical oxidants (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, hydroxgl radical peroxy acetylnitrate) that characterized the air pollution in Southern California beginning in the 1950s, and in many other urban areas in the United States in the decades that followed. In the United Kingdom, the smog was black and acidic, while the smog in California was lighter in color and more highly oxidizing.

The black smoke in Britain was heavier in the winter months, and was most closely associated with its reducing power as a chemical (i.e., antioxidant), and with excess mortality, from chronic bronchitis and respiratory symptoms. By contrast, the California mixture was worse in the summer, and was characterized in terms of its oxidizing power. It attacked rubber and chemical polymers, and was associated with eye irritation, reduced lung function, and impaired athletic performance. In both mixtures there were fine particles that caused light to scatter and reduced the range of visibility.

In the United States, United Kingdom, and other economically developed countries in the twentieth century, the black smoke components of past pollution have largely been controlled, and the residual pollution problem is most closely related to the concentrations of light-scattering fine particles and ozone that form in the atmosphere from gaseous precursors (ie, pollutant chemicals whose reaction products have low vapor pressures and condense into fine particles). Such pollution mixtures are generally referred to as smog. While generally present at lower concentrations than in the past, these mixtures are still associated with excess cardiopulmonary mortality, morbidity, and physiologic function deficits. Attribution of the effects to specific components of the pollution mixture remains controversial, and further chemical characterization and health-effects research is now underway to resolve the remaining uncertainties.

Morton Lippmann

(see also: Airborne Particles; Air Quality Index; Ambient Air Quality [Air Pollution]; Automotive Emissions; Carbon Monoxide; Clean Air Act; Environmental Determinants of Health; Fossil Fuels; Fuel Additives; Inhalable Particles [Sulfates] )

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Smog (Air Pollution)." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Smog (Air Pollution)." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/smog-air-pollution

"Smog (Air Pollution)." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/smog-air-pollution

smog

smog (smŏg) [smoke+fog], dense, visible air pollution. Smog is commonly of two types. The gray smog of older industrial cities like London and New York derives from the massive combustion of coal and fuel oil in or near the city, releasing tons of ashes, soot, and sulfur compounds into the air. The brown smog characteristic of Los Angeles and Denver in the late 20th cent. is caused by automobiles. Nitric oxide from automobile exhaust combines with oxygen in the air to form the brown gas nitrogen dioxide. Also, when hydrocarbons and nitrous oxides from auto emissions are exposed to sunlight, a photochemical reaction takes place that results in the formation of ozone and other irritating compounds. In some instances, atmospheric pollutants accumulate and become concentrated when air movement is stopped by a temperature inversion: Usually the air is warmer at the earth's surface and colder above; in a temperature inversion a layer of warm air forms above and holds down a layer of cool air at the ground. Smog usually results in reduced visibility, irritation of the eyes and respiratory system, and damage to paint, metal, rubber, and other materials. Prolonged smogs (generally caused by temperature inversions) are often lethal to persons with respiratory ailments. As the result of an unremitting smog in 1948 in Donora, Pa., more than 5,000 persons were reported ill and the deaths of 20 persons were recorded. In London, smog accounted for the deaths of more than 4,000 persons in 1952 and 106 persons in 1962.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"smog." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"smog." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/smog

"smog." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/smog

smog

smog Dense atmospheric mixture of smoke and fog or chemical fumes, commonly occurring in urban or industrial areas. It is most dense during temperature inversions.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"smog." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"smog." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/smog-0

"smog." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/smog-0

smog

smog fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants; the word is recorded from the early 20th century, and is a blend of smoke and fog.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"smog." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"smog." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog

"smog." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog

smog

smog / smäg/ • n. fog or haze combined with smoke and other atmospheric pollutants. DERIVATIVES: smog·gy adj.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"smog." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"smog." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog-1

"smog." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog-1

smog

smog Naturally occurring fog mixed with visible (smoke) and/or invisible pollutants. See also PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"smog." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"smog." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog

"smog." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog

smog

smog Naturally occurring fog mixed with visible (smoke) and/or invisible pollutants. See also photochemical smog.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"smog." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"smog." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog-0

"smog." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog-0

Smog

Smog

Singer, songwriter, guitar, keyboards

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

With a rotating lineup of backing musicians, though most of his early releases were one-man efforts, Bill Callahan has released work since the late 1980s under the Smog name. A pioneer of the lo-fi movement, the eclectic songwriter and minimalist musician combined elements of rock, blues, country, and experimental sounds that usually revealed a dark and hopeless view of the world. His words are largely intimate self-revelations: melancholy, often bitter pessimisms that veer between painful candor and self-parody. His low-end production style has said to have been an influence on such bands as Pavement and Guided by Voices. Throughout the 1990s, and especially since the issue of The Doctor Came at Dawn in 1996, Callahan amassed a loyal cult following, primarily in the United States and Great Britain. One of his most vocal supporters includes Lou Barlow, the indie rock guru and leader of Sebadoh and Folk Implosion.

Despite comparisons to diverse styles and other musicians, such as Neil Young and the Replacements, Callahan always hesitated to align himself with one particular genre. Its hard to wake up in the morning and say, Im a country musician today, Callahan explained to Corey duBrowa in Magnet magazine. Or, Ill be a rock musician now(those) jackets dont really fit. You cant look at yourself in the mirror and say those things. If theres a rock element in a song, if anything, Ill put an opposite element in there just to balance it. And when asked about how he feels about the music press placing him in the lo-fi category, Callahan replied, It never meant anything to me, and I never really understood it, as quoted by Marlene Goldman from a February, 1999, interview with the RollingStone.com website. I dont believe in these sorts of movements in music. I dont even think they exist. its just music, and has been since music started.

Callahan was born in Maryland in 1966. Shortly after his birth, his family moved to England, where he lived until the age of three. The family then returned to the United States, remaining in America for the next four years. At the age of seven, Callahan returned to Knaresborough in North Yorkshire, England, for another five years, before going back to the United States at age 12. Despite his frequent moves between the two countries during his early childhood, Callahan, as an adult, regarded himself as 100 percent American. Nevertheless, the songwriter admitted that he has always felt he never really fit in anywhere he lived. During his adult life, Callahan called several cities home, including Prosperity, South Carolina, San Francisco and Sacramento, California, and Chicago, where he has lived since around 1999.

Callahan, who realized in his early twenties that he would never enjoy working in an office and wanted to maintain his freedom, began his recording career releasing a series of self-made cassette tapes on his own Disaster label under the name Smog. The first of these tapes, Macramé Gunplay, arrived in 1988, while his second cassette, Cow, was released in 1989. 1990 saw the release of three more tapes: the enigmatic, minimalist A Table Setting, Tired Tape Machine, and the primitive yet promising Sewn to the Sky. Sewn to the Sky caught the attention of Chicagos Drag City label, echoed the Residents and Captain Beefheart. And as the vague, atmospheric title and the name Smog suggest, Callahans repetitive guitar riffs, complemented by his occasional and deeply subdued vocals, formed the bleak sound-scapes of notable tracks such as Garb and Fruit Bats.

After signing with Drag City, Callahan released his first EP, Floating, in 1991. Smogs debut full-length album for Drag City, Forgotten Foundation, arrived in 1992. Though still purposefully crude in terms of musical development and production, Forgotten Foundation nonetheless showed Callahans song-oriented side for some tracks with more traditional arrangements, additional vocals, and more fully developed melodies, paving the way for Smogs follow-up, Julius Caesar. Released in 1991 and recorded with musicians Cynthia Dall and Jim ORourke, the spare, folk-inspired Julius Caesar was Smogs first release to earn critical acclaim. Here, Callahan incorporated cello, violin, acoustic guitar, and banjo into the mix

For the Record

Born in 1966 in Maryland.

Released series of self-made cassettes on own Disaster label, beginning with Macramé Gunplay in 1988; signed with Chicagos Drag City label, released EP Floating, 1991; released debut album for Drag City, Forgotten Foundation, 1992; released acclaimed album Julius Caesar, 1993; released The Couple Came at Dawn, 1996; released the more optimistic Knock Knock, 1999.

Addresses: Record company Drag City, P.O. Box 476867, Chicago, IL 60647, (312) 455-1015.

and established himself as a focused songwriter. He composed tracks that revealed both elation, as in When You Walk, and more commonly depression, as in Your Wedding. Highlights from the album included the upbeat I Am Star Wars!, the instrumental cello piece One Less Star, and the immortal 37 Push Ups.

Smog released the six-song EP Burning Kingdom, which found Callahan further breaking with his lo-fi tendencies, in 1994. For the song My Shell, for example, Callahans words of alienation are complemented by electric guitar, cello, and drums. Other notable tracks included My Family, a low-key, relentless psychodrama, and The Desert, which tells the story of crawling through the desert without water to the accompaniment of a funeral-like organ. In 1995, Smog released another more fully-produced album entitled Wild Love, which found Callahan for the most part abandoning hopefulnessexcluding the brilliant Prince Alone in the Studio, a metaphor for an artists lonely existencein favor of a relentless, often bitter pessimism that some critics found hard to take seriously. Throughout the album, Callahan tells stories of an unhappy childhood, failed romances, and lifes disappointments in general.

In 1996, Smog released the Kicking a Couple Around EP, which opened with a solo acoustic performance of the song Your New Friend from a British Broadcasting Company (BBC) broadcast and also included three tracks recorded and produced in Chicago with Steve Albini. Overall, Callahan again focused on introspection, gloom, and feelings of displacement, such as in The Orange Glow of a Strangers Living Room and I Break Horses, a song which can reduce strong men and women to heaps of quivering gelatin, according to Ben Thompson of Independent on Sunday. That same year, Callahan followed with the groundbreaking album The Doctor Came at Dawn, comprised of quiet, acoustic songs of reflection. However, Callahan admitted that unanticipated events led him to concentrate on his acoustic side for his 1996 records. Im really haphazard how I work. I like to work around difficulties and not really plan things, he said to Goldman. Like, I had a keyboard that got stolen [on tour in Barcelona]the keyboard I used on the Wild Love album. The I made Kicking a Couple Around, which is just with acoustic guitar. It was my reaction to having my keyboard stolen.

Callahan returned in 1997 with another mostly acoustic effort, Red Apple Falls, a country-informed album with unexpected dashes of French horns and steel guitar that bore similarities to the songs of Neil Young. Red Apple Falls took just five days to record, but included songs that reveal concepts that could take years to understand, exemplified in the tracks Inspirational and I Was a Stranger. His subsequent release, Knock Knock, appeared in 1999 and was co-produced by ORourke. Considered Smogs most diverse release, Knock Knock featured orchestral qualities and members of the Chicago Childrens Choir for the chorus in tracks like No Dancing, as well as acoustic numbers like Left Only With Love. Unlike his prior work, which overwhelmingly centered around a doomed and pessimistic view of life, Knock Knock provided a more optimistic view of the world. Its more forward-thinking. I guess I had some realizations about not letting things crush you, Callahan explained to duBrowa. The fact that you can always move you dont have to stay in a bad place.

Selected discography

Macramé Gunplay, (Cassette), Disaster, 1988.

Cow, (Cassette), Disaster, 1989.

A Table Setting, (Cassette), Disaster, 1990.

Tired Tape Machine, (Cassette), Disaster, 1990.

Sewn to the Sky, Disaster, 1990, reissued by Drag City, 1995.

Floating, (EP), Drag City, 1991.

Forgotten Foundation, Drag City, 1992.

Julius Caesar, Drag City, 1993.

Burning Kingdom, (EP), Drag City, 1994.

Wild Love, Drag City, 1995.

Kicking a Couple Around, (EP), Drag City, 1996.

The Couple Came at Dawn, Drag City, 1996.

Red Apple Falls, Drag City, 1997.

Knock Knock, Drag City, 1999.

Sources

Books

Robbins, Ira A., editor, Trouser Press Guide to 90s Rock, Fireside/Simon and Schuster, 1997.

Periodicals

Chicago Tribune, December 12, 1997; January 29, 1999.

Guitar Player, May 1997.

Independent, April 19, 1996, pp. 8-9; October 22, 1997, p. 4; February 12, 1999, p. 12; May 18, 1999, p. 9.

Independent on Sunday, May 11, 1997, p. 18

Magnet, April/May 1999, p. 25.

Washington Post, February 26, 1999.

Online

Quiet Knocking, Rolling Stone.com, http://www.rollingstone.tunes.com (January 14, 2000).

Laura Hightower

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Smog." Contemporary Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Smog." Contemporary Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/smog

"Smog." Contemporary Musicians. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/smog

Smog

SMOG

SMOG. SeeAir Pollution .

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Smog." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Smog." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog

"Smog." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog

smog

smogagog, befog, blog, bog, clog, cog, dog, flog, fog, frog, grog, hog, Hogg, hotdog, jog, log, nog, prog, slog, smog, snog, sprog, tautog, tog, trog, wog •hangdog • lapdog • seadog • sheepdog •watchdog • bulldog • gundog • firedog •underdog • pettifog • pedagogue •demagogue • synagogue • sandhog •hedgehog • warthog • groundhog •roadhog • backlog • Kellogg • weblog •eclogue •epilogue (US epilog) •prologue (US prolog) • footslog •ideologue •dialogue (US dialog) • duologue •Decalogue •analog, analogue (US analog) •monologue • apologue •catalogue (US catalog) • travelogue •eggnog • leapfrog • bullfrog •Taganrog •golliwog, polliwog •phizog • Herzog

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"smog." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"smog." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog-0

"smog." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/smog-0