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Ulster Unionist Party

Ulster Unionist Party. Formed in 1904–5 as the Ulster Unionist Council to resist the threat of all-Ireland devolution, it consisted of representatives of local unionist institutions, the presbyterian church, the Orange order, and loyalist MPs. It brought protestant landowners, businessmen, and working class together successfully to oppose the third Home Rule Bill, 1912–14. It was led by southern unionist Sir Edward Carson 1910–21, and then by Sir James Craig, key organizer in the preceding period and the first Northern Ireland prime minister 1921–40. The Ulster Unionists became the single party controlling the Northern Ireland government and Parliament 1921–68, resisting constitutional reforms and concessions to the catholic minority until O'Neill's premiership in 1963. Representing highly conservative social and economic views, it always had locally based interests at heart. Through control of local and provincial government, it was frequently accused of gerrymandering and sectarianism. The civil rights crisis from 1967 and the reluctant involvement of the British government placed enormous strains on party unity and resulted in a challenge from traditional unionist sources. It divided over the power-sharing executive 1973–4, the majority deserting Brian Faulkner's leadership and helping its demise. Since then it has been under an increasing challenge from the Democratic Unionist Party, leaving it with primarily middle-class support. The UUP opposed the Anglo-Irish agreement 1985, but extremely cautiously supported the Downing Street declaration of 1993 and the Good Friday agreement of 1998. The latter placed a severe strain on the party as the IRA reneged upon its commitment to decommission its weapons. It suffered a crushing defeat in the general election of 2005, losing three seats to the DUP, Belfast South to the SDLP, and retaining only the seat for Down North. Its leader, David Trimble, defeated in Upper Bann, resigned at once.

Michael Hopkinson

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"Ulster Unionist Party." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ulster Unionist Party." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ulster-unionist-party

"Ulster Unionist Party." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ulster-unionist-party

Ulster Unionist Labour Association

Ulster Unionist Labour Association. Created in July 1918 as a working-class adjunct to the Ulster Unionist Party, it benefited from the social Toryism of its patron, Edward Carson. The UULA won three of the eight Unionist seats in Belfast at the general election of December 1918; six UULA candidates were returned to the first Northern Irish Parliament in June 1921. Thereafter, the UULA parliamentary voice—a combination of deference and sectarianism—grew frailer, weakened by the retirement of Carson from politics in 1921 and by defeats in the 1925 Northern Ireland elections.

Alvin Jackson

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"Ulster Unionist Labour Association." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ulster Unionist Labour Association." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ulster-unionist-labour-association

"Ulster Unionist Labour Association." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ulster-unionist-labour-association

Ulster Unionist Party

Ulster Unionist Party Largest Loyalist party in Northern Ireland. It developed in the late 19th century to defend the six northern provinces of Ulster from Irish home rule and to maintain the union with Britain. Almost exclusively Protestant, it was the ruling party in Northern Ireland from 1922 until the imposition of direct rule from Westminster in 1972. In 1998, the Ulster Unionist leader, David Trimble, became first minister of Northern Ireland.

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"Ulster Unionist Party." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Ulster Unionist Party." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ulster-unionist-party