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ANGLO-IRISH

ANGLO-IRISH.
1. Relating to England or Britain and Ireland: the Anglo-Irish agreement, Anglo-Irish tensions.

2. Relating to the English in Ireland and the Protestant Ascendancy: ‘PAT. He was an Anglo-Irishman. / MEG. In the blessed name of God, what's that? / PAT. A Protestant with a horse’ ( Brendan Behan, The Hostage, 1958, Act I). The term is disliked by many Irish nationalists when used to refer to Irish literature in English or when it obtrusively recalls the centuries of English/British rule over Ireland.

3. A term, especially in linguistics, for a variety of English spoken over most of Ireland. It derives mainly from the English brought to Ireland by 17c Planters (settlers) from England, modified by contacts with Irish Gaelic, Ulster Scots, and Hiberno-English. It is a continuum of usage influenced by the level of education of its speakers, their regional origin, and the area of original settlement. The usage of more educated speakers approximates to Irish broadcasting norms, whereas less educated speakers have more distinctive accents and non-standard usages.

Pronunciation

The middle-class Anglo-Irish accent has been influenced by and continues to be close to RP. However, it is rhotic (with a retroflex r) and the /t, d/ in words like true and drew tend to be dental rather than alveolar, suggesting ‘thrue’ and ‘dhrew’. In working-class speech, the following features are common: (1) Words such as leave and tea sound like ‘lave’ and ‘tay’, cold and old sound like ‘cowl’ and ‘owl’, bull and could can rhyme with ‘cull’ and ‘bud’, and which and whether are distinguished from witch and weather (beginning with /hw/, not /w/). (2) In such words as arm and film, a vowel often opens up the consonant clusters: ‘aram’ and ‘fillim’. (3) In the South, words such as pence are often pronounced ‘pensh’ (an /ʃ/ in word-final position) and story and small are often pronounced ‘shtory’ and ‘shmall’ (an /ʃ/ in consonant clusters). Less often, such words as fizzed and puzzle sound like ‘fizhd’ and ‘puzhl’ (a /ʒ/ in consonant clusters). Also in Southern Anglo-Irish, words such as thin and then sound like ‘tin’ and ‘den’ (/ǒ, ɵ/ replaced by /t, d/). Words such as try, dry, butter, and under sound like thry, dhry, butther, and undher (with interdental rather than alveolar plosives).

Grammar

Standard Anglo-Irish is close to the standard BrE varieties. Non-standard Anglo-Irish syntax has six features also found outside Ireland: (1) Done and seen in the past tense: She done it because she seen me do it. (2) Special past participles: He has div He has dived; They have went They have gone. (3) Auxiliary have reduced to a: You should a knew You should have known; They would a helped you. (4) Them as a demonstrative plural adjective and pronoun: Them shoes is lovely yet. Them's the ones I wanted. (5) A plural form of you. In the South, it tends to be ye (rhyming with he: Ye'll all get what's comin to ye) or youse (rhyming with whose: Youse childher will get a good beatin' when your father gets in!). In the North, it is yiz (rhyming with his: Yiz'll all get what's comin to yiz, Yiz childher will get…). (6) Singular be with plural subjects: Me and Mick's fed up, Mary and the daughter's out shopping, Yiz is late, Themins (those ones) is no use. Such features are probably tolerated higher up the social ladder than in Britain.

Vocabulary



1. Distinctive words never current in the standard language: atomy a small, insignificant person, as in Did you ever see such a wee atomy of a man?; cog to cheat, for example by copying, as in I wouldn't let just anybody cog my exercise; thole to endure, as in There was nothin for it but to thole (shared with ScoE).

2. General words with distinctive senses: backward shy, bold naughty, doubt strongly believe, as in I doubt he's coming (shared with ScoE). Most regionally marked words occur in the speech of older, often rural people; it is unlikely that biddable obedient, feasant affable, pishmire/pismire ant, occur in the natural usage of people under 40. See BELFAST, DUBLIN, IRISH ENGLISH, NEWFOUNDLAND ENGLISH, NORTHERN IRISH ENGLISH.

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"ANGLO-IRISH." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"ANGLO-IRISH." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved August 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/anglo-irish

Anglo-Irish ascendancy

Anglo-Irish ascendancy (protestant ascendancy). Problematic labels generally applied to the dominant Church of Ireland landed interest: ‘protestant ascendancy’ appears to have been first coined in 1782. However, the origins of this interest lay with the land confiscations of the 17th cent. The Ulster plantation (1608–9) brought a substantial transfer of property from the Gaelic lords to English investors and settlers; the Cromwellian confiscations (1652–3) brought the expropriation of the great majority of catholic landowners throughout the rest of Ireland. The Restoration land settlement brought a minor catholic recovery, but this was short-lived. The victory of the Williamite cause in the war of 1689–91 paved the way for further confiscations, and—more importantly—for a series of measures designed to bolster the new protestant landed interest. These ‘penal laws’ targeted the residual catholic gentry, and ensured a virtual protestant monopoly over freehold proprietorship until the end of the 18th cent.

The 18th cent. was, therefore, the golden age of the ascendancy. Rural economic growth after c.1740 helped to finance the widespread construction or remodelling of the ‘big houses’ (mansions), and the building of lavish town houses, most spectacularly in Dublin. The height of ascendancy political power came after 1782–3, with the grant of legislative independence to the gentry-dominated Irish Parliament. But increasingly powerful and vocal catholic and dissenter interests effectively challenged this dominance in the 1790s, and the apparent helplessness of the ascendancy during the 1798 rising made it vulnerable to English intervention. The Act of Union (1800) abolished the Dublin Parliament, and represented a severe blow to the political authority and prestige of the Irish landed interest. Further political set-backs came with catholic emancipation (1829) and with the rise of an ambitious and radical peasant nationalism. The land legislation of the British government at the end of the 19th cent. weakened the rights of Irish proprietors, and encouraged a transfer of land to the former tenant farmers. Land purchase legislation, especially the Land Act of 1903, facilitated this transfer, and brought a swift if relatively cushioned end to the economic predominance of the Anglo-Irish ascendancy.

Alvin Jackson

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Anglo-Irish treaty

Anglo-Irish treaty, 1921. A truce on 11 July ended the war between the Irish Republican Army and the British army which had been raging since 1919. Eamon de Valera, president of Dáil Éireann, the constituent assembly of Ireland, met with Lloyd George to discuss a settlement. Deadlock ensued with Lloyd George wanting dominion Home Rule for Ireland and de Valera insisting on an independent Irish Republic. Negotiations began in earnest in October with Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins representing Ireland. After much debate a treaty was signed on 6 December whereby Ireland became a free state, with the six counties of Ulster remaining as part of the UK, but with full dominion status. It followed an ultimatum from the British that the Irish agree to their terms or face the renewal of war. The Dáil eventually accepted the treaty on 7 January 1922 by 64 votes to 57 and it came into effect on 6 December.

Richard A. Smith

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Anglo-Irish agreement

Anglo-Irish agreement, 1985, signed at Hillsborough, Co. Down, on 15 November 1985, by Margaret Thatcher and the taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland, Dr Garret FitzGerald. The agreement was intended to promote reconciliation within Northern Ireland, a greater understanding between the unionist and nationalist traditions in Ireland, and co-operation between the British and Irish governments. It established an intergovernmental conference and an attendant secretariat, the latter based at Maryfield, Co. Down. Although the document recognized the constitutional rights of the majority, Ulster Unionists saw it as establishing a form of joint authority, and mounted a ferocious campaign of opposition in 1985–6.

Alvin Jackson

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Anglo-Irish Agreement

Anglo-Irish Agreement (Hillsborough Agreement) Treaty on the status of Northern Ireland, signed (1985) by Margaret Thatcher and Garret Fitzgerald. Aiming to clarify the status of Northern Ireland, it gave the Republic of Ireland the right of consultation; it asserted that any future changes would have to be ratified by a majority of the people of Northern Ireland; and it set up the Anglo-Irish Intergovernmental Conference (AIIC) to promote cooperation. The Ulster Unionists denounced the agreement. See also Downing Street Declaration

http://www.uhb.fr/langues/cei/agree85.htm

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Anglo-Irish

Anglo-Irish of English descent but born or resident in Ireland, or a member of such a family, and associated particularly with the Protestant Ascendancy.

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