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Tourism

Tourism

HISTORY

THE TOURIST INDUSTRY

SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO TOURISM

THE FUTURE OF TOURISM

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Tourism is a complex phenomenon that can be conceptualized on several levels. It can be considered demographically, as the flow of temporary leisure migration across international boundaries (international tourism) or within the boundaries of a given country (domestic tourism). It can be thought of institutionally, as the system of enterprises (airlines, travel companies, touring agencies, hotels, resorts, guest houses, souvenir shops, restaurants, theme parks, and so on) and organizations (travel associations, local and national tourist authorities, and international tourist organizations) that process and serve that flow. Finally, it can be conceptualized socially, as the complex of attitudes, motivations, norms, and role models that regulate and shape that flow into a distinct institutional domain.

Traveling for leisure was common in many historical and premodern societies. Tourism as a socially recognized, separate institutional domain, however, emerged in western Europe only in the course of the nineteenth century.

HISTORY

There have been two major precursors of modern tourism: (1) pilgrimages to sacred places, which created basic services for travelers, such as hostelries, and formed routes that prefigured the itineraries of modern sightseeing tourism; (2) spas, or thermal springs, at which members of the European higher classes assembled to take the waters, which prefigured popular modern vacationing tourism on seaside beaches.

The Grand Tour of the British nobility and upper classes between the late sixteenth and the early nineteenth centuries was a form of secular pilgrimage to the centers of European antiquity and culture. In its course, an expanding core of major attractions and amenities developed, which constituted the basis of the emergent modern tourist system.

The development of modern tourism was made possible by major technological innovations in transportation, such as the steamship and the train, and later the car and the airplane, which facilitated the establishment of regular transportation services for large numbers of people. The demand for tourist services, however, was provoked by the economic and social changes that followed the Industrial Revolution: Industrial pollution and urbanization separated people from as yet unspoiled nature; the strains of modern life created demands for rest and recreation; secularization and imperial conquests led to a broadened outlook on the world and a growing interest in remote lands and people. The prosperous middle classes increasingly disposed of discretionary income, which enabled them to bear the costs of traveling, while the introduction of social benefits, such as paid vacations, enabled ever broader social strata to travel. The introduction by Cook, in 1841, of the package tour, was followed by other innovations in the organization of travel, such as the formation of travel companies and touring agencies, airlines, and hotel chains, which made traveling fast and easy, even for people with limited cultural capital.

The principal expansion of tourism took place in the second part of the twentieth century, and especially from the 1970s onward, with the emergence of mass tourism to popular destinations. Most citizens of affluent Western countries at the end of the century took at least one annual vacation abroad, and many took two or even more. Tourism from the non-Western countries, especially Japan, and, more recently, India and China, expanded at an accelerating rate; experts predict that by 2010, one hundred million Chinese will be traveling abroad.

THE TOURIST INDUSTRY

Contemporary tourism is a massive phenomenon. According to the World Tourism Organization (UNTWO), there were 808 million international tourists in 2005, up from about 25 million in 1950. The scope of domestic tourism cannot be ascertained, but it is estimated to be three or four times larger than that of international tourism, totaling about 2.5 to 3.0 billion people per year.

Tourism is one of the leading components of world trade, accounting for about 6 percent of world exports of goods and services. In 2004 the total expenditures of international tourists amounted to $623 billion, up from about $2 billion in 1951. The great majority of international border crossings remain concentrated in Europe, a phenomenon ensuing partly from the relatively large number and small size of European countries. Six European countries are among the ten leading global destinations. France tops the list, with about 70 million visitors a year.

As of 2006 global tourism is growing at about 4 percent annually, but the rate of its expansion to non-Western destinations is significantly higher than it is in the old European core. This growth manifests a marked heliotropic tendency, a flow of tourists from the cold North to vacationing destinations in the warm South, particularly those around the Mediterranean, Caribbean, South Pacific, and Southeast Asian coasts.

Mass tourism is an important source of significant economic benefits, particularly to less-developed countries, but these are mostly unequally distributed. It has also generated undesirable and sometimes destructive environmental, social, and cultural consequences in popular destinations, which threaten the sustainability of local tourist industries. Small countries, particularly island states, in which tourism became the dominant industry while other sectors of the economy remained underdeveloped, are often utterly dependent on tourism, and thus often exposed to financial risks created by far-away political and economic crises.

In reaction to the problematic consequences of the hegemonic tourist industry, various kinds of alternative tourisms have emerged, such as green tourism, eco-tourism, low-impact tourism, and countercultural tourism, the latter espoused in the ideologybut not necessarily in the practiceof contemporary backpackers. Most of these alternative tourisms, however, have been eventually absorbed by the tourist industry, which has adapted its services to the particular needs and preferences of alternative tourists.

More recently, rather than seeking alternatives to the industry, environmentalists and other concerned individuals have sought to collaborate with the industry to ascertain the sustainability of tourism development projects. They thus hope to prevent the environmental and social ravages that unconcerned and often speculative developments wrought in sensitive sites in the past.

SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO TOURISM

Sociologists have been slow in realizing the growing significance of tourism. Early commentators tended to disparage rather than analyze the phenomenon. Once its study was initiated, the principal issue of concern became the relationship between tourism and modernity (and, later on, post-modernity). Dean MacCannell (1973) proposed a distinctly sociological perspective on tourism, by conceiving of the tourist as a modern individual who, alienated from his own society, travels in quest of authentic experiences in other places and other timesin pristine nature, unspoiled, simple communities, or the traces of great civilizations of the past. In MacCannells view, however, this quest is thwarted by the locals at the destinations, who stage authentic tourist settings for the visitors consumption.

Though influential as a paradigm for the sociological study of modern tourism, MacCannells approach was also much contested. Critics argued that he essentialized the tourist, disregarding the empirical variety of touristic phenomena; while a quest for authenticity might be a modern cultural ideal, not all tourists are believed to pursue it to the same extent. Typologies of tourists and touristic experiences were proposed (Cohen 2004). Authenticity was shown to be a socially constructed concept, rather than a given fact. Ning Wang (2000) distinguished between three kinds of authenticity: objective, constructed, and existentialthe latter being a state of exaltation, of really living, virtually independent of the nature of the tourists surroundings. Wangs concept may help explain the attractiveness of otherwise overtly contrived attractions, such as theme parks.

The emerging discourse of postmodern tourism, or the post-tourist (Urry 1990), moved away from MacCannells paradigm. In a world allegedly devoid of originals, and dominated by simulacra (Baudrillard 1988), the quest for authenticity becomes senseless. The growing interpenetration of cultures in the twin processes of globalization and glocalization blurs the distinction between home and away, and between ordinary leisure and tourism. Sophisticated and reflective post-tourists are said to travel in quest of enjoyment of experiences that, while familiar, are of a higher quality, more abundant, more varied (and cheaper) than those available at home. They are particularly attracted to the world cities, such as London, Paris, or New York, which are the pacesetters in contemporary music, art, fashions, and cuisine, but they may also derive fun from visits to such contrived attractions as technologically highly sophisticated theme parks, of which the Disneylands are the prototype. Some researchers argue that the alleged fragmentation of the postmodern worldview, and of individual identities, is reflected in the post-tourists tendency to mix diverse experiences on the same trip (Uriely 2005), thus thwarting the possibility of constructing typologies of post-tourists.

In the contemporary world, tourism often merges with other institutional domains, such as education (study tours), religion (pilgrimage-tourism), sports ( extreme tourism ), and recently even medicine. Medical tourism, combining vacations with medical services, emerged in the last years of the twentieth century as a rapidly expanding phenomenon, with growing numbers of people from developed countries seeking a variety of treatments and checkups in developing ones. They are pushed by the escalating costs of private medicine, and the lengthening of waiting lists for socialized medical services, in their countries of origin, and attracted by the high quality and relatively low costs of treatments offered by top hospitals in several developing countries, such as Brazil, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Turkey. Popular vacationing destinations, such as the islands of southern Thailand, offer package tours, combining vacations with medical checkups, cosmetic treatments, and even surgery. The phenomenon has led to an internal brain drain of qualified physicians from local to foreigner-oriented medical establishments, but it has also encouraged some who emigrated to the developed West to return to their home countries.

THE FUTURE OF TOURISM

The alleged homogenization of the world under the impact of globalization is considered by some authorities as a disincentive for tourism; however, tourist numbers are in fact growing annually, and are projected to continue to grow even more strongly in the future, with much of the expected growth coming from newly prosperous non-Western countries. The tourist system has continually expanded into new regions, though large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, the South American interior, and Antarctica remain as yet relatively little penetrated by it. While it will probably yet expand into most of those regions, space is expected to become the new frontier of tourism in the twenty-first century. As yet affordable only to the extraordinarily rich, and facing apparently insurmountable technological, medical, and economic constraints, space tourism might remain restricted to only a few passengers into the foreseeable future; however, the current popularity of simulated space travel and of brief, commercial flights to the edge of space, offered to the general public, attest to a demand for the real thing. If such a demand persists, and is no mere fad inspired by novelty, it might provide the incentive for the necessary scientific breakthroughs in the more remote future. Whether and when space travel will become affordable to broad social strata, however, remains an open question.

SEE ALSO Cultural Tourism; Disney, Walt; Gaze, The; Leisure; Tourism Industry

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baudrillard, Jean. 1988. Selected Writings. Ed. Mark Poster. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press.

Cohen, Erik. 2004. Contemporary Tourism: Diversity and Change. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

MacCannell, Dean. 1973. Staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social Space in Tourist Settings. American Journal of Sociology 79 (3): 589603.

Uriely, Natan. 2005. The Tourist Experience: Conceptual Developments. Annals of Tourism Research 32 (1): 199216.

Urry, John. 1990. The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage.

Wang, Ning. 2000. Tourism and Modernity: A Sociological Analysis. Kidlington, U.K.: Pergamon.

Erik Cohen

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Tourism

TOURISM

TOURISM. Food has always been a component of tourism. As a physical necessity and as a prominent arena for expressing creativity and for embodying cultural and individual identity, food has functioned as destination, venue, and vehicle for tourism. As destination, food is the primary experience sought. The preparation, consumption, and even the viewing of a foreign dish gives the tourist a sense of otherness and the exotic. As vehicle, food offers an entry point for viewing another culture. The sensory attributes of food enable consumers to feel a deeper level of experiencing; by ingesting food representing another culture, they can feel that they ingest that culture. As venue, food offers a site from which a culture can be explored. These aspects can be commercial or domestic, public or private, festive or ordinary. Restaurants, festivals, cookbooks, grocery stores, private festive food events, cooking classes, cooking shows, advertising, literature, films, tourism brochures, food tours, and other such sites are physical loci for experiencing tourism. They also offer a tangible, knowable base from which other facets of culturehistory, religion, artistic traditions, customscan be understood and experienced.

Tourism is generally thought of as an activity in which individuals explore a culture that is foreign to them. Valene Smith defines a tourist as "a temporarily leisured person who voluntarily visits a place away from home for the purpose of experiencing a change" (Hosts and Guests, p. 1). The theme of tourism as spiritual and emotional quest appears frequently in scholarly works. Dean MacCannell sees tourism as a modern phenomenon in which tourists are on a quest to recover lost authenticity: it offers a way for modern man to explore the "real life" of others (A New Theory of the Leisure Class, p. 91). Mark Neumann suggests that "tourism is a metaphor for our struggle to make sense of our self and world within a highly differentiated culture" ("Wandering Through the Museum: Experience and Identity in a Spectator Culture," p. 22). Most scholars of tourism now see tourism both as a state of mind in which anything, including the everyday and the local, can be subjected to the "tourist gaze"to borrow John Urry's book titleand as a continuum of types of experiences involving otherness. Erik Cohen offers a typology of tourists based on their concept and concern with authenticity: existential, experimental, experiential, recreational, and diversionary tourists ("Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism"). Valene Smith, in Going Places, outlines a typology of tourists based on aspects of culture being explored and on the motivations of the tourist: ethnic, cultural, historical, environmental, recreational. Maxine Feifer adds the "post-tourist" who sees tourism as a game and inherently inauthentic in its experiencing of another culture.

Culinary tourism is a theoretical framework for analyzing the role of food in tourism. It refers to the "intentional, exploratory participation in the foodways of an Other." It is voluntary and consciously contains an element of curiositythat is, people eating out of choice, not only physical need.

The term "foodways" involves all the other aspects of food, referring to the network of activities and systemsphysical, social, communicative, cultural, economic, spiritual, and aestheticsurrounding the product itself: procurement, preparation, preservation, presentation, consumption, clean-up, and conceptualization. In this sense, culinary tourism can occur in any aspect of foodways, from purchasing familiar ingredients from a new grocery store to adding exotic ingredients to a familiar recipe. It can also include behaviors connected to thinking and talking about food: collecting recipes, watching televised cooking shows or films incorporating food, conversing about restaurants, reading cookbooks and food columns, reminiscing about food experiences.

The culinary Other is simply anything different from the known and familiar. It can be broken into six overlapping categories. National or cultural identity is the most commonly perceived category and includes "ethnic" foods as well as "foreign" foods. Foods become a cultural Other by being placed in a context in which they are different. Thus, kimchi is standard fare in Korea, but is ethnic and foreign in the United States.

Region is the second category of Other and refers to groupings within a culture, differentiated by geographic location and physical resources. Within the United States, regional foods from areas such as the South (grits, fried chicken, hominy, corn bread), New England (baked beans, lobster, boiled suppers), the Southwest (chili peppers, Mexican-based foods), the Mid-Atlantic states (crab and seafood), and even the Midwest (meatloaf, mashed potatoes); and from specific cities, such as New Orleans (gumbo, jambalaya), Kansas City and Memphis (barbecue), and San Francisco (nouvelle cuisine) are advertised as culinary Others appropriate for tourism.

Time as Other refers to both past and future. Foods from the past are commonly found in museums, reenactment events, and cookbooks, and are used as a way of touring a historical era. Similarly, visions of the future can be translated into foodwaysastronaut foods, freeze-dried ice cream, foods compressed into pills and vitamins. Ethos and religion as Other offer foods representing different or novel worldviews and value systems. Religions specifying food taboos or guidelines, such as Judaism, Islam, and Hinduism, can be explored as tourism by experiencing their foodways. Vegetarian foodstextured protein, veggie burgers, and foods commonly used in the United States as meat substitutes, such as bean curd and tempehare frequently tried out of curiosity rather than ethical belief.

Socioeconomic class is another category of Other. Gourmet foods, fine wine, and expensive restaurants are associated with the upper class, and individuals can get a taste of that lifestyle through these foodways. Conversely, foods associated with lower classeswhite bread and bologna sandwiches, junk foods, processed "cheese food," opossum meat or roadkill, meager portionscan be tried in order "to see how the other half lives."

Gender represents the final Other. Although strict taboos do not exist in the United States, there are certain foods associated with each gender: women eat salads, "light" foods, poultry and fish, dainty portions; men eat red meat, large portions, hearty foods. By trying the foods associated with another gender, an individual can try out that identity.

Culinary tourism involves three realms or continua of experience: the exotic, the edible, and the palatable. Based on the perceptions of consumers, the exotic ranges from those food experiences that are familiar and commonplace to those that are strange, new, and different. The edible-to-inedible continuum represents concepts of which items are physically, conceptually, and morally possible for ingestion. These concepts are culturally constructed but also draw upon the consumer's personal ethos. Palatable refers to pleasant and satisfying tastes, and represents individual preferences as well as social trends identifying desirable foods and designating their symbolic associations. Since the placement of foods and food experiences within these continua is a matter of perception and experience, this placement can shift over time or place and between individuals. Foods, therefore, that are perceived as appropriate for culinary tourism can become mundane and familiar, and then may be eaten out of hunger or taste preference rather than curiosity. For example, in the United States, foods that were recently touristic but have become standard fare in many American diets include Japanese sushi; Thai noodles with peanut sauce; Chinese chop suey, chow mein, and egg rolls; Mexican tacos and burritos; and Middle Eastern pita. These and other foods range in the extent of their adaptation to American tastes and resources. As these foods become more familiar, those eaters seeking more touristic experiences tend to seek more authenticity and depth of understanding of a foreign cuisine.

Food will be a part of tourism as long as people are curious about the world around them, but both are multivocal and multivalent domains of activity. And it is important to remember that although foodways can offer an entry into another realm of Other, culinary tourism is frequently not as much a window into other cultures as a mirror on our own.

See also Comfort Food ; Gender and Food ; Travel ; United States: Ethnic Cuisines .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cohen, Erik. "A Phenomenology of Tourist Experiences." Sociology 13 (1979): 179201.

Cohen, Erik. "Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism." Annals of Tourism Research 15 (1988): 371386.

Feifer, Maxine. Going Places. London: Macmillan, 1985.

Long, Lucy M. "Culinary Tourism: A Folkloristic Perspective on Eating and Otherness." Special Issue of Southern Folklore 55/3 (1998):181204.

Long, Lucy M., ed. Culinary Tourism: Eating and Otherness. Special Issue of Southern Folklore 55/3 (1998).

MacCannell, Dean. The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1973.

Mintz, Sidney. Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions into Eating, Culture and the Past. Boston: Beacon, 1996.

Neumann, Mark. "Wandering Through the Museum: Experience and Identity in a Spectator Culture." Border/Lines (Summer 1988):1927.

Smith, Valene. Hosts and Guests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

Urry, John. The Tourist Gaze. London: Sage, 1990.

Lucy M. Long

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Tourism

Tourism

It is highly likely that the general public will be traveling, touring, and living in space at some time in the twenty-first century. If history is to be followed, the human expansion into space, on a large scale, is a foreseeable prospect for humankind. One possible scenario begins with 30-minute sub-orbital flights by the year 2005, followed by orbital flights of two to three revolutions (three to four-and-a-half hours) by about 2010. Surveys have shown that people would like to have a specific destination in space. That desire suggests a destination such as a resort hotel that can provide several days of accommodation in low Earth orbit , and a hotel like this may be available in about 2020. Beyond that, space hotels could be followed by orbiting sports stadiums and lunar cruises with excursions to the Moon's surface by 2040. After suborbital rides become commonplace, a new aeroballistic cargo and human transportation system could begin operation, leaving no major transportation hub on Earth more than an hour's flight time away.

Just exactly how and when these new modes of transportation and resorts will materialize is difficult to predict. However, there is an organized effort underway between the private and public sectors to assure that the right ingredients and the proper catalysts are brought together. This effort is multifaceted and includes the government, business, and the general public.

Human space activity to date has been the exclusive domain of the Russian and U.S. governments. But this situation has changed, at least to a small degree. The Russian Aviation and Space Agency has made available one to three seats per year on its Soyuz taxi flights to the International Space Station to anyone who can mentally and physically qualify and pay the ticket price of $20 million. In April 2001 American Dennis Tito became the world's first space tourist by qualifying and paying the required fee for transportation and a week's stay at the station. Mark Shuttleworth, a South African, became the second space tourist to the station in April 2002. The exact size of this market remains to be seen. At the stated price, an extremely small proportion of the population will be able to experience space in this new international facility. However, this is a start and this activity will likely encourage others to act.

Barriers and Obstacles to Space Travel and Tourism

Before space travel and tourism can be made economical, reliable, efficient, and safe for everybody, several obstacles must be overcome and many barriers will have to be removed, as detailed next.

Market Research and Development.

The space travel and tourism market must attract investors and businesspeople. Although there have been a number of space travel and tourism market surveys and analytic studies, a carefully thought-out market survey should be designed and conducted by professionals in the market research field. In addition, ways to enhance the credibility of space tourism by piquing the interest of nontraditional space businesses, which stand to profit from its development, must be realized.

Legislative Measures.

Several legislative measures have been discussed, including three bills that have already been introduced in Congress, that could create favorable conditions for investors and entrepreneurs to join in new commercial space ventures. U.S. Senator John Breaux (D-LA) introduced a bill to make Federal Government insured loans available to space transportation companies; Congressman Nick Lampson (D-TX) introduced a bill to make Federal Government insured loans available to space tourism companies; and Congressman Ken Calvert (R-CA), et al., introduced a bill to provide tax credits to purchasers of space transportation vehicle provider stock. These bills are being evaluated along with other initiatives to be studied including relief from taxes on company-expended space research and development funds, and tax breaks for profits earned during a venture's start-up years.

Technology and Operations.

There is a need to go far beyond space shuttle technology and operational capabilities. The shuttle's costs, depending on the annual budget and flight rate, are between $500 million and $750 million per flight, and it takes approximately six months to process orbiters between flights. From these baseline parameters, it is essential to lower the unit cost and decrease the turnaround time between flights. Furthermore, reliability must be increased before space travel and tourism can become safe and affordable for the vast majority of the general public.

Medical Science.

There are volumes of recorded data about how a nearly physically perfect human specimen reacts to the space environment but no information about people with common physical limitations and treatable maladies. For example, how would the medicines taken by a large percentage of the general public act on the human body in a state of weightlessness? Astronauts and cosmonauts are physiologically screened for their ability to react quickly and correctly under extreme pressure in emergency situations, but early living in space will be characterized by cramped living conditions, common hygienic and eating facilities, and semiprivate sleeping quarters. Such conditions are conducive to unrest and conflict among certain individuals, making screening of early space tourists for temperament and tolerance a must.

Regulatory Factors.

Methods must be devised through public and private sector efforts that will allow an orderly, safe, and reliable progression of certification and approval of a venture's equipment without the imposition of potentially crippling costs. Initially it will not be possible to match the safety and reliability levels of conventional aircraft that have evolved over time. Instead, a system is needed that will allow voluntary personal risk to be taken in excess of that involved in flying on modern aircraft while fully protecting the safety of third parties (people and property not affiliated with the operator and/or customer).

Legal Factors.

Just as there are laws for operating on Earth's land surface and oceans, there will be a need for laws for operating in space and on and around other celestial bodies. The United Nations treaty governing the use of space must be improved and expanded to take into account eventual space operations involving people and accommodating infrastructure . From the navigational rules of space lanes to real estate claims for settlement or mining purposes, laws will have to be created by international legal bodies to provide order and justice on the final frontier.

Finance and Insurance.

Perhaps the most prominent obstacle that must be overcome is the lack of financing available for private space ventures, particularly those involving new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). Several RLV development programs have been stalled because of an inability to find investors. Persuading investors to accept some front-end risk in return for the large rewards that will be realized in the years ahead is the main challenge. Legislation to ease the risk is one potential solution. Innovative methods for raising capital (e.g., tax-exempt bonds) and other ways to lower the risks to acceptable levels will have to come from the investment and insurance communities.

Space should be seen as another medium that will be developed for business and recreational purposes, contributing to the welfare and enjoyment of all the world's people. Before long space will become an extension of Earth itself.

see also Hotels (volume 4); Living in Space (volume 3); Space Tourism, Evolution of (volume 4).

Robert L. Haltermann

Bibliography

Haltermann, Robert L. Going Public 2001: Moving Toward the Development of a Large Space Travel and Tourism Business. Proceedings of the 3rd Space Travel and Tourism Conference. Washington DC: Space Transportation Association, 2001.

O'Neil, Daniel, ed. STA General Public Space Travel and Tourism Study Report. Volume 1 Executive Summary. Huntsville, AL: Marshall Space Flight Center, 1998.

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Tourism

Tourism

Clean water contributes to the recreation and tourism industry worldwide by accentuating beautiful beaches, white-water rivers, mountain lakes, and aquatic ecosystems such as coral reefs. Water has a powerful attraction for people. When people decide to plan vacations and travel for recreation, instruction, and pleasure, many have a strong tendency to head to the water.

For example, a day at the beach provides recreation, relaxation, and a chance to renew the spirit. A third of all Americans visit coastal areas each year, making a total of 910 million trips while spending about $44 billion. Coastal tourism supports businesses like hotels, resorts, restaurants, outdoor outfitters, chartered fishing services, and travel agencies.

One of the largest service industries in the United States is travel and tourism, two broad categories which involve approximately 17 million jobs. Total travel and tourism expenditures in the United States for the year 2000 reached $582.5 billion, while total revenue was $99.5 billion. In increasing numbers, domestic and foreign travelers are visiting theme parks, natural wonders, and points of interest in major U.S. cities. Worldwide, tourism annually generates over $3.5 trillion dollars, a significant percentage of which involves water-related tourism.

Because of the popularity of tourism worldwide, coastal, lake, and riverfront development has dramatically increased in recent decades. For instance, riverfront developments often include convention centers, hotels, retail and entertainment facilities, housing, and sometimes an aquarium or discovery center. With the emergence of riverfront parks, land near rivers is becoming highly desirable.

Popular Water-Related Activities

Almost all Americans participate in some type of water-based recreation and tourism, and (on average) spend about 10 percent of their disposable income on recreational activities, including water-related tourism. Popular waterrelated vacations may involve cruise ships, ecotourism, sport fishing, underwater diving, and canoeing and kayaking, to name a few.

Cruise Ships.

Cruise ships are elegant vessels featuring swimming pools, theaters, restaurants, and luxurious passenger accommodations. Some vessels built in the 1980s were twice the size of their 1970s predecessors and carried over 1,000 passengers. In the 1990s, these floating entertainment centers became even larger, some carrying nearly 5,000 passengers and crew. One half-billion-dollar ship featured amenities such as a large floating casino, a luxurious 1,350-seat theater, a 9-hole miniature golf course, an ice rink, and a shopping mall.

Some cruise operators also offer small ships for up-close exploration of wilderness waterways. The shallow draft of small vessels can take tourists along shorelines, alongside icebergs and calving glaciers, and through the narrowest navigable channels.* The small vessels offer a more informal and relaxed way to observe difficult-to-reach water passages and landmasses.

Ecotourism.

Ecotourism is a popular way to enjoy water resources while still conserving the integrity of nature. Ecotourism is tourism directed toward exotic, often threatened, natural environments, especially in order to support conservation efforts and to observe wildlife. The fastest growing segment of the world's tourism business, ecotourism is expanding at a rate of 30 percent a year worldwide. Many tourism experts believe that this increase is due to people becoming more knowledgeable about ecosystem values.

Sport Fishing.

Sport fishing is enjoyed in fresh water or salt water. Freshwater fishing takes place in such places as lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams. Game fish in these waters include trout, bass, and many other species. They range in size from 0.25 kilograms (0.5 pounds), such as bluegills, to as large as 45 kilograms (100 pounds), such as king salmon.

Salt-water fishing occurs in oceans, estuaries , and tidal rivers. Game fish found in these waters tend to be larger than average fresh-water fish. They include snappers, bonefish, striped bass, and tuna. Fish can be landed as large as 70 kilograms (150 pounds), such as sailfish and tarpon, and even as much as 225 kilograms (500 pounds), such as marlin.

Fishing expenditures are increasing, and in some areas participation rates outpace rates of population growth. A significant portion of recreational spending is tied to fish and wildlife, both of which require high quality water and habitat for survival.

Underwater Diving.

Underwater diving is the act of entering water and remaining below the surface to explore, to work, or simply to have fun. Diving is popular all over the world as a tourist activity. It is usually done in the ocean, but divers also explore other waterbodies such as lakes, rivers, and ponds. Snorkeling is a popular underwater activity that involves swimming face down on the surface of water (or just below). The basic equipment is a mask to observe underwater objects and aquatic plants and animals, fins for propulsion, and a slender plastic tube called a snorkel in order to breathe.*

Scuba divers carry a tank of air that allows them to breathe while diving deep underwater. The Professional Association of Dive Instructors estimates that there are now 6 million active scuba divers worldwide. They engage in many different types of diving, of which wreck, cave, commercial, and military diving are just a few. The most common form of scuba diving is sport diving, or recreational diving, which is practiced at depths of less than 39 meters (130 feet). From these depths, divers can make a straight ascent to the surface. Diving beyond this limit requires advanced training.

In general, divers seek locations where the water is clear, the temperatures warm, and the marine life plentiful. Divers often choose to visit areas with coral reefs because they are colorful and dense with life, and provide shelter for many types of fish. The Caribbean is the most popular destination in the world, with many designated marine parks or sanctuaries. The South Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea are other common dive destinations. Yet cold-water divers may venture into cold waters when fully equipped with proper exposure protection (such as a thick wet or dry suit) in order to endure the harshness of such climates.*

Canoeing and Kayaking.

Canoes and kayaks are small crafts that are pointed at both ends. Most canoes are open-topped boats, while kayaks are completely enclosed except for an opening for each occupant. One or more persons can paddle both types of boats. One of the sport's most exciting activities is whitewater kayaking. Participants sit in closed-topped boats and propel themselves with a double-bladed paddle through fast-moving water. Kayakers wear waterproof clothing, a life vest, and a helmet.

see also Economic Development; Recreation; Rivers, Major World; Sustainable Development.

William Arthur Atkins

Bibliography

Mill, Robert Christie. The Tourism System: An Introductory Text. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Internet Resources

American Sportfishing Association. American Sportfishing Association. <http://www.asafishing.org/index.cfm>.

Eco-Tourism. Humboldt Water Resources. <http://www.humboldt1.com/~water/info_pages/eco-tourism.html>.

Paddling. Canoe and Kayak Magazine. <http://canoekayak.about.com/>.

PADI Today: News in the World of Diving. Professional Association of Diving Instructors <http://www.padi.com/english.asp>.

Travel Statistics and Trends. tours.com. <http://www.tours.com/travelstats.php>.

* See "Corals and Coral Reefs" for a photograph of a snorkeler.

* See "Glaciers and Ice Sheets" for a photograph of a glacier breaking off (calving) into the sea.

* See "Human Health and the Ocean" for a photograph of a scuba diver in cold water (as evidenced by the insulated dive suit).

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Tourism

TOURISM

TOURISM. From sunbathers at Myrtle Beach to Civil War buffs at Gettysburg, Americans travel to many different destinations for a variety of reasons. Today, tourism plays an integral role in American economy, society, and culture. The Travel Industry Association of America reported that in 2001 tourism generated 7.8 million American jobs and revenues in excess of $545 billion. Yet tourism is relatively new. In less than two hundred years, touring has changed from the activity of a small elite to a mass phenomenon spurred by a thriving economy, improved transportation, national pride, and an increased desire to escape the pressures of modern life.

Before the 1820s, Americans rarely traveled for pleasure. In the next two decades, however, the fruits of industrialization created the necessary environment for tourism, as more Americans possessed the time, money, and opportunity for recreational travel. With the invention of the steamboat and increased use of railroads after 1830, Americans could travel faster, more inexpensively, and in relative comfort.

For most of the nineteenth century, Americans traveled in pursuit of improved health, sublime scenery, and social opportunities. Large spas sprang up in upstate New York and the Valley of Virginia, where the elite could "take" the waters. Americans also traveled the country searching for picturesque wonders. Popularized by the British, the "picturesque" tourist sought sublime scenes that astonished by their grandeur, beautiful vistas that soothed through pastoral serenity, and landscapes that intrigued by their quaintness. Favorite destinations included the White Mountains of New Hampshire, the villages along the Hudson River, and most of all, Niagara Falls. The historian John Sears has shown that such journeys


became sacred pilgrimages as tourists found spiritual renewal gazing on the power and beauty of the divine in nature. A popular itinerary, the "fashionable tour," combined health and the picturesque as visitors steamed up the Hudson River to Albany, traveled west along the Erie Canal stopping at the Ballston or Saratoga Springs, and ended up at Niagara Falls. Popular guidebooks such as Theodore Dwight's The Northern Traveller (1825) showed tourists where to visit, how to get there, and what to experience. In turn, trips became a sign of status for the individuals and of cultural identity for their new nation.

After the Civil War, attention focused on Florida and the West. Northerners gathered to winter in Jacksonville, a semitropical Eden according to a multitude of guidebooks from the 1870s and 1880s. Popular excursions included a cruise down the St. John's River and a visit to America's oldest city, St. Augustine. Even more people flocked to the state after the oil tycoon Henry M. Flagler constructed a railroad along Florida's eastern coast and built a string of luxury hotels including the lavish 1,150-room Royal Poinciana Hotel in Palm Beach, completed in 1894 and at the time the largest wooden structure in the world. Henry B. Plant used similar methods to lure tourists to the state's Gulf Coast.

The West, however, attracted visitors more out of curiosity than climate. The completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869 and luxurious Pullman Palace cars enticed visitors to California. Visitors to the West marveled at the wonders of Yosemite and Pike's Peak and stayed in luxury resorts such as the Hotel Del Monte in Monterey. Americans increasingly viewed the West as a mythic, golden land. Railroads busily promoted this image in guidebooks and pamphlets while travel agents, such as the Raymond and Whitcomb Company, helped smooth the journey westward.

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, preservation groups worked on several popular sites. In 1860, the Mount Vernon Ladies Association purchased and restored George Washington's Virginia home


and in the process spurred similar efforts that rescued such sites as the Hermitage and Jamestown Island. Cities and states created chambers of commerce and tourism boards that urged patriotic citizens to "see America first." The federal government responded to pressures for preservation and conservation by establishing Yellowstone as a national park in 1872. Later, the National Parks Act of 1916 established the National Park Service (NPS), whose mission was to conserve the scenery, natural and historic objects, and wildlife of America for future generations.

In the decades after World War I, the automobile spurred a great expansion of tourism. By 1930,23 million Americans owned cars, and middle-class Americans traveled the country staying at hotels, motels, and campgrounds. Federal legislation earmarked large sums for roads, highways, and turnpikes, including the scenic Blue Ridge Parkway. During the Great Depression close to $4 billion was spent by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) to build, repair, or improve 651,087 miles of highway and 124,031 bridges. The WPA also issued guidebooks for several states and key cities through the Federal Writers Program.

After 1945, America tourism experienced phenomenal growth. Most Americans enjoyed a two-week vacation that had been denied them during the years of depression and war. As Americans' disposable income rose, so did the promotion of tourism. Major destinations included cities, ski resorts, and national parks. Several cities revitalized their downtown areas to attract tourists. San Antonio's Riverwalk and Baltimore's Inner Harbor are but two examples. And beginning with the 1955 opening of Disneyland in Anaheim, California, there has been phenomenal growth in theme parks with attendance totaling more than 163 million in 1998.

After the attacks of 11 September 2001, air travel plummeted and domestic tourism suffered, though by spring 2002 the World Trade Organization had announced that recovery was well underway.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aron, Cindy S. Working at Play: A History of Vacations in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Brown, Dona. Inventing New England: Regional Tourism in the Nineteenth Century. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1995.

Cocks, Catherine. Doing the Town: The Rise of Urban Tourism in the United States, 1850–1915. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Sears, John F. Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Shaffer, Marguerite. See America First: Tourism and National Identity, 1880–1940. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2001.

Rebecca C.McIntyre

See alsoAmusement Parks ; National Park System ; Recreation ; Transportation and Travel .

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Tourism

TOURISM

Though tourism was not a product of the Russian Revolution, the Bolshevik emphasis on raising the cultural level of the masses and educating through practical experience made tourism one of the concerns of the new regime. The government created a number of institutions to encourage development in this field. Within Narkompros and Glavprolitprosvet, excursion sectors were established as early as 1919 to organize educational trips throughout the country; a number of these bureaus later developed into scientific-research bodies such as the Central Museum-Excursion Institute in Moscow. The two major organizations for Soviet tourismthe Society for Proletarian Tourism (OPT RFSFR, created by decree of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs) and the joint-stock society Soviet Tourist (created by Narkompros in 1928)merged in 1930 under the name of the All-Union Society of Proletarian Tourism and Excursions (OPTE) under the direction of N. V. Krylenko. It was also at this time that mass tourism began to develop as a movement among Soviet youth, marked by the establishment of a separate bureau within the Komsomol in 1928. Students, pioneers, and other young Soviets went on tours of the country organized under themes such as "My Motherlandthe USSR." Excursions were designed to acquaint citizens with national monuments, the history of the revolutionary movement, and the life of Vladimir Lenin. This so-called sphere of proletarian tourism was thus intended as an integral aspect of the construction of socialism within the Soviet Union.

The importance of travel was not limited, however, to shaping Soviet ideology within the country. The state recognized that foreigners visiting the Soviet Union also represented a significant means through which socialism might gain expression and adherents throughout the world; additional consideration was given to the inflow of capital from international tourists. Though certain privileged groups of udarniki, fine arts performers, musicians, students, and government officials traveled beyond Soviet borders in the country's initial years, millions of visitors ultimately toured the Soviet Union throughout its roughly seventy-year history.

To aid in the maintenance of foreign tours and international travel to the Soviet Union, on April 12, 1929, the Council for the Labor and Defense of the USSR adopted the decree "On the organization of the All-Union Joint-Stock Company for Foreign Tourism in the USSR." Otherwise known as Intourist (an acronym of Gosudarstvennoe aksionernoe obshchestvo po innostrannomu turizmu v SSSR and an abbreviated form of Inostrannyi turist), the company was supported by a number of Soviet organizations such as the People's Commissariat of Trade, Sovtorgflot, the People's Commissariat of Rail Transport, and the All-Union Joint-Stock Company Otel'. A. S. Svanidze was its first chairman. Though Intourist was occasionally responsible for organizing the visits of more prominent foreigners such as Bernard Shaw and Theodore Dreiser, in its initial years it played host primarily to international labor delegations as part of the movement to acquire foreign technical assistance. Only in the post-World War II period did Intourist experience rapid growth and an expansion of its services. This was the result, first, of the general postwar spirit of internationalism and faith in international organizations and, second, of the new friendships between the Soviet Union and the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. Intourist became a member of numerous national and international bodies such as the World Tourism Organization and participated in various conferences on tourism such as those hosted by the United Nations. More importantly, however, was the creation of a unified commercial organization for international tourism and satellite travel bureaus in each of the socialist Eastern Europe nations. This network facilitated exchanges among worker delegations, students, theater troupes, trade unions, kolkhozes, and other social groups. It was also during this time that Intourist constructed the basic infrastructure of hotels, autoparks, and restaurants used by foreign visitors until 1989, when the organization was withdrawn from the control of the central state apparatus and restructured as an independent enterprise.

Intourist's operations raise numerous questions about the meaning of leisure and privilege in a socialist society. Its advertisements and exhibit materials throughout the Soviet period spur consideration of the various messages the state promoted about itself to the outside world. And its list of itineraries that, at one point, covered 150 cities of the Union republicswith cruises along the Dniepr from Kiev to Kherson, along the Black Sea to Odessa, along the Dunau to Rus in Bulgaria or to Dzurduz in Romaniagive credence to the geopolitical power of the entity that was the Soviet Union.

bibliography

Margulies, S. (1968). The Pilgrimage to Russia: the Soviet Union and the Treatment of Foreigners, 19241937. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Ostrovskii, I., and Pavlenko, M. (1998). Intourist 19291999. VAO Inturist.

State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) Fond 9612, opis 1, delo 2 and 123; opis 3, delo 557.

Shawn Solomon

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Tourism

TOURISM

An economic and social activity that has widely varying manifestations in the Middle East and North Africa.

Since the rise of civilization, the Middle East has been rich in notable sights and sites, and people have been visiting them for millennia. The Great Pyramids, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, and places of religious significance such as Jerusalem and Mecca were drawing visitors long before the invention of the word tourism. And while travel for the purpose of seeing religious sites or carrying out religious obligations may be rightly termed "pilgrimage," the social and economic effects of this sort of travel are essentially indistinguishable from travel for purely secular reasons. If one accepts a broad definition of tourism, then it has been going on for centuries, on a large scale, to the region's many religious destinations. If one defines tourism more narrowly, as secular travel for the purposes of sightseeing and leisure on a scale large enough to be economically significant, then tourism, especially by Europeans, became important in the region only in the second half of the nineteenth century, when transportation methods improved and leisure time increased along with disposable income.

Europe's interest in the region historically had a religious component: Its Christians and Jews were keenly aware of the Holy Land, and much of the literature of European travelers to Palestine is intertwined with religious themes. Colonialism also drove European curiosity. The French and British occupations of parts of Egypt brought a flood of information about the land of the pharaohs. And with

the coming of steamship travel and the wealth and leisure generated by the industrial revolution in Europe, tourism as an organized industry spread from Europe to the Middle East. The first tours of Egypt from England were organized by Thomas Cook in 1868, and the first editions of Baedeker's guides for Palestine, Syria, and Egypt were published a few years later, first in German and later in French and English.

Early tourists were drawn by the region's sites of religious and historical importance, and today many still flock to such world treasures as the Great Pyramids at Giza, the Blue Mosque of Istanbul, and the old medina of Fez. As modern governments and private investors attempt to increase tourism revenues, they are adopting new strategies to attract visitors and keep them entertained. Egypt, Syria, Morocco, and some Persian Gulf countries have been developing waterfront resorts. Turkey, long a summertime destination for many Europeans, has begun to develop mountain areas for winter tourism. Bahrain expanded its International Exhibition Centre in 1999 and plans to construct facilities for international-caliber formula-one auto racing. Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates, has for years been hosting international tennis and golf tournaments. Several countries have built large exhibition and convention facilities, new sports venues, and a variety of resorts, from Tunisia's Saharan winter resorts to beach complexes on the Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean coasts.

Turkey has the largest volume of annual tourist arrivals in the region, with about 11.6 million visitors recorded in 2001. Tunisia also has an active tourism sector, with an average of about 5 million visitors between 1999 and 2001. Morocco, where tourism is important in the country's development strategy, averaged more than 2 million arrivals between 1999 and 2001. Countries with the least tourist activity were Algeria, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, and Yemen.

The political and security situations in a country can have a markedly negative impact on tourism. Periods of prolonged conflict can cut the number of visitors drastically, even in places where tourism often is encouraged. For example, despite a highly developed and well-funded tourism infrastructure and an active Ministry of Tourism, tourist arrivals in Israel dropped from 2.3 million in 1999 to 1.2 million in 2001, due in large part to continuing violence. The fact that arrivals in Algeria, a country with tremendous tourist potential, numbered fewer than 200,000 between 1998 and 2000 can be attributed in large part to the unsettled security situation there. Violent groups sometimes attempt to make a political statement by attacking tourists or other foreigners. This was the case in Egypt when Islamists carried out a number of deadly attacks in the late 1990s. The government responded by increasing security measures, including the hiring of special "tourist police." In Yemen it has been the practice of some tribes to put pressure on the government by taking hostages, often foreign tourists. After the events of 11 September 2001, security became more perilous as the government, in cooperation with the United States, attempted to capture or kill al-Qaʿida members and sympathizers.


Bibliography


Compendium of Tourism Statistics, 2001 Edition. Madrid: World

Tourism Organization, 2001.

anthony b. toth

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tourism

tourism is a stage beyond trail-blazing as an explorer or adventuring in little-explored and possibly dangerous places as what might be called a traveller. It depends on an infrastructure providing guidance, accommodation, and perhaps entertainment, on however rudimentary a level, for those who seek pleasure and interest in journeys away from home territory. It follows beaten paths, and sometimes receives contemptuous responses from the more self-consciously imaginative and adventurous: even Revd Francis Kilvert, thinking himself a little off the conventional routes of Cornwall in the early 1870s, felt able to denounce (repeatedly) the common ‘tourists’ he encountered. There is a case for presenting Chaucer's Canterbury pilgrims and their medieval counterparts as early tourists, but the phenomenon of tourism has its most obvious roots in the grand tour of Europe which British aristocrats opened out in the 17th and 18th cents., seeking cultural awakening and worldly experience in (especially) northern Italy and buying sculptures and paintings to take back to adorn their country houses. Cultural tourism was soon supplemented by landscape tourism, as the cult of the picturesque, the romantic, and the sublime led British aristocrats to alpine passes and glaciers, as well as to landscapes vivified by classical connotations; and the pursuit of the picturesque encouraged tours like those of Lord Torrington or Sir Richard Colt Hoare in search of distinctive scenery and novel sensations, which could be transmogrified into the stuff of polite cultural exchange through the sketch-book and the printed word. Architecture also became part of the fashionable passing show, as did ruins and natural history, and the country houses of the aristocracy and the birthplaces or chosen subjects of literary lions or artists also became objects of the tourist gaze.

The age of the steamship and the railway brought a widening of the tourist market in Britain, as the middling and even the lower middle classes began to aspire to travel in search of entertainment and enlightenment, and cheaper transport and more accessible arrangements made this a realistic possibility. The foremost name here is Thomas Cook, the Leicester temperance reformer, who inaugurated cut-price continental travel, with all arrangements made by his firm, after modestly inaugurating his activities with a temperance excursion from Leicester to Loughborough. Cook's tourists, as they became known, were derided by those who laid claim to effortless expertise in cultural analysis, and their passage through places such as Cologne cathedral, guidebooks in hand, eager not to miss a single point, was the subject of condescending comment in periodicals like Punch from the 1860s onwards. But tourism was to prove an enduring growth industry, as higher real incomes and expanded free time spread down the social scale, and the cultural rewards for being able to talk about interesting holidays became enhanced accordingly. Alongside the rise of spas and seaside resorts (from the 18th cent.), which catered for seekers after health and entertainment as well as those with more exacting aspirations, there were regions which offered mountain air and scenery, literary associations, and interesting flora and fauna as well as architecture and classical allusions; and the market for British tourism had extended throughout and beyond Europe by the turn of the century, including Cook's popular tours to the Holy Land. The growth of tourism promoted markets in souvenirs and fake works of art, and the tourist gaze transformed the societies at which it was directed. This was already a source of complaint before the First World War, though some utilitarian and progress-celebrating writers like Harriet Martineau, writing in this case about the mid-Victorian Lake District, celebrated the progress and enlightenment which tourism brought in its train, pointing out its capacity for generating employment. Not everyone was so optimistic. The problems and possibilities opened out by an ever-expanding tourist industry, and by its popularizations (especially for the affluent middle-class British market), continued to be the focus for anguished debate in the inter-war years, although it was not until the advent of cheap air travel and package tours to the Mediterranean from the 1960s that a real sense of cultural crisis could be detected on a broad front. The debates on tourism at the end of the 20th cent. differed more in degree and emphasis than in kind from those which were already being aired a century earlier.

John K. Walton

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tourist

tour·ist / ˈtoŏrist/ • n. 1. a person who is traveling or visiting a place for pleasure: the pyramids have drawn tourists to Egypt. 2. short for tourist class. • v. [intr.] rare travel as a tourist: American families touristing abroad. DERIVATIVES: tour·is·tic / toŏˈristik/ adj. tour·is·ti·cal·ly / toŏˈristik(ə)lē/ adv.

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tourism

tour·ism / ˈtoŏrˌizəm/ • n. the commercial organization and operation of vacations and visits to places of interest.

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tourist

tourist •tantrist •guitarist, scenarist, tsarist •sitarist • memoirist • belletrist •centrist • Marist • sacrist •lyrist, panegyrist •equilibrist • interest •optometrist, psychometrist, sociometrist •satirist •afforest, florist, forest, Forrest •rainforest • folklorist •careerist, querist, theorist •plagiarist • meliorist • apiarist •topiarist • diarist • psychiatrist •jurist, purist, tourist •obituarist • caricaturist • pedicurist •manicurist • sinecurist • naturist •miniaturist • futurist •agriculturist, apiculturist, arboriculturist, horticulturist, pisciculturist, sericulturist, silviculturist, viniculturist, viticulturist •acupuncturist • welfarist • allegorist •Eucharist • artillerist • secularist •particularist •colourist (US colorist) •amorist • ephemerist • mesmerist •consumerist, humorist •mannerist • tenorist • seminarist •terrorist • adventurist • detectorist •documentarist • militarist •monetarist • lepidopterist •motorist, votarist •scooterist • voluntarist • zitherist •Everest • aquarist • auteurist

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