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Salisbury, Richard Neville, 5th earl of

Salisbury, Richard Neville, 5th earl of (1400–60). Neville was the first son of the (second) marriage of Ralph, 1st earl of Westmorland, and John of Gaunt's daughter Anne Beaufort. From 1420 to 1436 he was warden of the west march. Here he built Penrith castle after he inherited his father's estates in Cumberland and Yorkshire in 1425, in accordance with a settlement which impoverished the 2nd earl of Westmorland. Royal offices increased his north country dominance. He gained the earldom of Salisbury by marriage to its heiress. He served in France in 1431–2 and 1436–7. Warden again from 1443, he remained a member of the Beaufort faction controlling the king's council, to his profit both financially and as a source of patronage to his retainers. Percy opposition to his regional preponderance led to violence in which his son John was a ringleader, and became a reason for Salisbury's breach with the court after 1453 and his alliance with Richard of York. He was chancellor in York's first protectorate and fought with him at St Albans; in 1459, at Blore Heath (Staffs.), he defeated royalist forces opposing his junction with York. Following the Yorkist collapse, he was attainted and took refuge at Calais, returning with his son Warwick to defeat the royalists at Northampton. He was murdered after the battle of Wakefield, probably by Percy retainers.

R. L. Storey

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