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York

York

Roman

A Roman legionary fortress, colonia, and provincial capital, Eboracum was founded in the early 70s ad as a fortress for legio IX Hispana. After the withdrawal of IX Hispana, its place was taken by legio VI Victrix, which remained in garrison, probably until the end of the Roman period. The fortress lay between the rivers Ouse and Foss. Originally built in timber, it was rebuilt in stone either side of 100. Across the Ouse a civil settlement grew up which was promoted colonia, probably when York became capital of the new province of Britannia Inferior at the beginning of the 3rd cent. York remained a provincial capital in the 4th cent. and a bishop attended the Council of Arles in 314. Comparatively little is known of the colonia, but there were large public buildings, including baths, and private buildings with mosaics, attesting to prosperity of a provincial capital. Inscriptions and burials show a wide range of beliefs besides Christianity, and inscriptions also attest to traders with links to Rouen, Bourges, and Bordeaux. Fortress and colonia seem to have been abandoned early in the 5th cent.

Alan Simon Esmonde Cleary

post-Roman

York re-emerges in historical record in 627 when the first Christian king of Northumbria was baptized there, and a bishopric established (an archbishopric from 735). By the 8th cent. it was a flourishing river port; between 866 and 954 it was in Viking hands, and was the capital of Danish and Norwegian kings, who fostered a commercial city (Jorvik) of international importance. In 954 it was absorbed into England, and by the 12th cent. it was the fourth wealthiest English town, with one of the largest Jewish communities (victims of a massacre in 1190). From 1212 to 1213 it acquired privileges of self-government, and intermittently between 1298 and 1337 acted as a temporary English capital during the Scottish Wars of Independence. Its golden age was the century c.1360–1460, when a boom in cloth-making and overseas trade made it the largest English town after London. From about 1460 it declined, despite strong support from Richard III, who had close links with the city. A modest recovery began with the residence in York of the king's Council in the North (1561–1641), although the civil wars (especially the siege of 1644) were damaging. Late Stuart and Hanoverian York flourished greatly as a social capital, but the city fell back in relative importance in the 19th cent., though the coming of the railways allowed some industry: growth was sufficient to create the usual problems of overcrowding and poverty, made notorious by B. S. Rowntree's classic study. Its relative lack of industrialization and war damage has left it with a rich legacy of historic buildings, including an almost intact circuit of medieval walls and gates.

David M. Palliser

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"York." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"York." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/york

"York." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/york

York (city, England)

York, city and unitary authority (2011 pop. 198,051), N England, at the confluence of the Ouse and Foss rivers. It is located at the historical junction of the three ridings of Yorkshire. York, a rail center, is especially noted for the manufacture of cocoa, chocolate, and confections. Instrument making, printing, and light engineering are among its other industries. Tourism is central to the area's economy.

York was a British settlement occupied by the ancient Brigantes. As Eboracum it was an important military post of the British province of the Roman Empire. Emperor Hadrian visited York in 120 and had an earthen rampart built to keep out the Picts and the Celts. The emperors Septimus Severus (211) and Constantius I (306) died there, and Constantine I was proclaimed emperor at York in 306. The city became a significant center in the Kingdom of Northumbria. In the 7th cent., St. Paulinus, the first archbishop of York, was consecrated. The city's archbishopric is the ecclesiastical center of N England, second only to Canterbury in importance. In the 8th cent., York was one of the most famous educational centers in Europe. Alcuin was born there and became the headmaster of St. Peter's School, one of the oldest public schools in England. York was the Viking city of Jorvik from 867–1067.

The Cathedral of St. Peter, commonly known as York Minster, occupies the site of the wooden church in which King Edwin was baptized by St. Paulinus on Easter Day in 627. The edifice dates partly from the Norman period. Many other notable medieval structures remain in York. The ancient portion of the city is enclosed by walls dating in part from Norman times, but mainly from the 14th cent. Four of the gates, including Micklegate and Monk Bar, still stand. The Univ. of York was founded in 1963. The York Plays (see miracle play) reached their height in the 15th cent. and were revived at the Yorkshire Festival of 1951.

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"York (city, England)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"York (city, England)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/york-city-england

York (city, United States)

York, city (1990 pop. 42,192), seat of York co., SE Pa., on Codorus Creek, in an agricultural area; laid out 1741, inc. as a city 1887. It is a market, trade, processing, and distribution center in the Pennsylvania Dutch country. In addition to food and related products, its factories make monorail systems, turbines, controls, stoneware, dinnerware, nuclear components, motorcycles, armored vehicles, swimming pools, and office furniture. York was a meeting place (1777–78) of the Continental Congress. During the Civil War, it was occupied briefly (1863) by Confederates. York College of Pennsylvania and a campus of Pennsylvania State Univ. are in the city. Several colonial houses remain.

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York

York City and county district in North Yorkshire, n England. Located at the confluence of the Ouse and Foss rivers, it was an important Roman military post, an Anglo-Saxon capital, a Danish settlement and then the ecclesiastical centre of the North of England. York Minster cathedral dates from the 13th century. Industries: tourism, engineering (including rail workshops), confectionery, precision instruments. Pop. (1994) 104,102.

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York (former name of Toronto, Canada)

York, Ont.: see Toronto, Ont., Canada.

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york

yorkauk, baulk, Bork, caulk (US calk), chalk, cork, dork, Dundalk, Falk, fork, gawk, hawk, Hawke, nork, orc, outwalk, pork, squawk, stalk, stork, talk, torc, torque, walk, york •pitchfork • nighthawk • goshawk •mohawk • sparrowhawk • tomahawk •back talk • peptalk • beanstalk •sweet-talk • crosstalk • small talk •smooth-talk • catwalk • jaywalk •cakewalk • space walk •sheep walk, sleepwalk •skywalk • sidewalk • crosswalk •boardwalk • rope-walk

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