Skip to main content

‘rough wooing’

‘rough wooing’, 1544–8. The birth of Mary, queen of Scots, in December 1542, only a week after her father's death, seemed an ideal opportunity to unite the thrones of England and Scotland. Prince Edward, Henry VIII's heir, was 5 years old and the English pressed for a marriage agreement. By the treaty of Greenwich in July 1543 Mary was to be betrothed before she was 10 and thereafter brought up in England. When the Scottish Parliament in December 1543 rejected the treaty, preferring to stay with the French alliance, Henry retorted with a punitive expedition led by Lord Hertford (Somerset), devastating the south-east border—ironically dubbed the ‘rough wooing’. The Scots split and rival parliaments were summoned at Edinburgh and Stirling. A second expedition in 1545 devastated Melrose but the Scottish victory at Ancrum Moor in February put heart into the resistance and Hertford led another raid at harvest-time. In September 1547, after Henry's death, Hertford, now Protector Somerset, led an army to victory at Pinkie Cleugh, but consolidation proved hard. The Scottish reply, by the treaty of Haddington, was to accept a proposed marriage between Mary and the dauphin and she was taken to France in July 1548. With justice, Henry's policy has been described as ‘never very sophisticated’ and ‘incredibly stupid as well as brutal’.

J. A. Cannon

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"‘rough wooing’." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"‘rough wooing’." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rough-wooing

"‘rough wooing’." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rough-wooing

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.