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Norham, treaty of

Norham, treaty of, 1209. In August 1209, after some years of strained relations with the Scots, King John brought a large army to Norham, 7 miles west of Berwick-on-Tweed. In return for peace, William the Lion promised to pay £10,000 and handed over his two elder daughters for marriage into the English royal house. In February 1212 John secured a renewal of this treaty and, apparently, the right to arrange the marriage of William's son and heir, the future Alexander II. Although John failed to secure acknowledgement as feudal overlord of Scotland, these agreements emphasized William's submission and his dependence on English goodwill.

Keith J. Stringer

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