The domestic or putting-out system had many advantages for the master or capitalist manufacturer. The work often required little training. Workers were paid only for their output, and employers did not have to bear the cost of lighting and heating, nor provide space for the machines which were used. In addition, employers responded to variations in demand by increasing or decreasing the amount of work subcontracted. Most workers paid rents for the machines, whether or not they were in use, and stored in their cottages raw materials or components. The masters employed ‘bagmen’ to distribute raw materials and to collect finished items. The payments for work done depended on the quality of the product and disputes often arose between agents and workers.
The decline of the domestic system was a consequence of the industrial revolution. Growth in mass markets, combined with the development of textile machines, gave dominance to factory production of cloth, knitwear, and lace. The domestic system continued in the trades where there were specialized markets or where there were constant changes in the demand for decorative accessories and trimmings for the fashion industry. The pattern also continued in areas such as tailoring, paperbox-making, and even chain-making.
During the 20th cent. the domestic system or home working survived, usually associated with low-paid work by women. These workers, isolated in their homes, rarely joined trade unions or organized to obtain adequate pay and conditions. The Trade Boards Act of 1909 was designed to cover the ‘sweated industries’ of the domestic system and established panels, drawn from employers and employees, to determine minimum rates of pay. However, this law provided no effective means of enforcing the statutory wage rates. It was abolished by the Wages Act of 1986.
Home working continues during the early 21st cent. in a wide range of contexts, from the making of exclusive high-fashion knitwear from expensive fibres for the fashion industry to new developments in telesales and networking from home through computers.
Ian John Ernest Keil
"domestic system." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/domestic-system
"domestic system." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/domestic-system
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.