FORCE ACTS, also known as Force Bills, refers to Congressional legislation enacted during the early 1830s and 1870s, intended to compel Southern compliance with particular federal legislation.
The first Force Act—passed by Congress, at the urging of President Andrew Jackson, on 2 March 1833—was designed to compel the state of South Carolina's compliance with a series of federal tariffs, opposed by John C. Calhoun and other leading South Carolinians. Among other things, the legislation stipulated that the president could, if he deemed it necessary, deploy the U.S. Army to force South Carolina to comply with the law.
In reality, Jackson, under the U.S. Constitution, already enjoyed that power. Indeed, by that March, he had already dispatched U.S. military forces to Charleston, with orders to make sure that the tariffs were enforced before visiting cargo ships were allowed to land. The confrontation between Jackson and South Carolina, years in the making, turned on a widespread belief among states rights advocates that many of the economic woes then bedeviling South Carolina arose from protective federal tariffs enacted in 1828 and 1832. Reacting to such fears, Calhoun and other South Carolinians had promulgated a "doctrine of nullification," which—stopping just short of claming the state's right to secede from the Union—maintained that states enjoyed a right to disobey federal statutes, which they adjudged violated states' rights under the U.S. Constitution. The Force Act of 1833 had, for the most part, a merely symbolic value, for, by the time of its passage, the dispute that gave rise to the legislation had been resolved through compromise. To wit, on the same day that Congress passed the Force Act, it also passed, with Jackson's blessings, a bill modifying the offending tariffs. South Carolina, in a face-saving gesture, was then allowed to "nullify" the Force Act—an empty gesture since the controversy had already been resolved.
The term Force Acts also refers to a series of federal statutes, enacted between 1870 and 1875, that sought to secure the compliance of recalcitrant Southerners with various Reconstruction-era reforms. An 1870 Force Bill sought to force compliance with the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which reconfirmed various political rights of African Americans. An 1871 bill, designed to protect voting
rights, mandated federally appointed election supervisors. Another 1871 Force Bill, designed to strengthen enforcement of the Fourteenth Amendment, sought to curtail voter intimidation by the Ku Klux Klan and other groups opposed to black enfranchisement. The final Force Bill, passed in 1875—just before Republicans lost control of the Congress—sought to give African Americans equal access to hotels, trains, and other public facilities. In the end, all four of that era's Force Bills fell victim to the forces of southern white supremacy that gathered resurgent powers during the 1870s. Not until the mid-twentieth century were the rights sought for African Americans in the South by the Force Bills' authors fully secured.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863– 1877. New York: Harper and Row, 1998.
Freehling, William W. The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay, 1776–1854. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
See also Civil Rights Act of 1875 ; Reconstruction ; Tariff .
"Force Acts." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/force-acts
"Force Acts." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved April 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/force-acts
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.