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Richter Scale

Richter Scale

The earliest earthquake measurements were simple descriptions called intensity ratings. These results were unreliable depending on the distance between the quake's source (epicenter), and the people evaluating the event.

A more systematic approach was developed by an Italian seismologist, Guiseppe Mercalli in 1902. He gauged earthquake intensity by measuring the damage done to buildings. The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey adapted his method, which they called the modified Mercalli Scale, dividing the measurements into 12 categories: level II was "felt by persons at rest," but at level VII it was "difficult to stand." Level X caused most buildings to collapse, and level XII, the most intense, combined ground fissures with tsunamis (tidal waves) and almost total destruction. Despite the specific detail of descriptions, this method, like the intensity ratings, was influenced by the measurement's distance from the earthquake's epicenter. Seismologists needed a way to determine the size, or magnitude, of an earthquake. They needed a quantitative, numerical measurement that would compare the strength of earthquakes in a meaningful way, not merely catalog damage or record perceptions as Mercalli's qualitative method did. This critical factor was finally determined in 1935 by American seismologist Charles F. Richter , a professor of seismology at the California Institute of Technology. His system of measurement, called the Richter scale, was based on his studies of earthquakes in southern California. It has become the most widely used assessment of earthquake severity in the world.

Richter measured ground movement with a seismograph , compared the reading to others taken at various distances from the epicenter, then calculated an average magnitude from all reports. The results are plotted on a logarithmic scale, in whole numbers and tenths, from 1 to 9. Each whole number increase means that the magnitude of the quake is ten times greater than the previous whole number. Thus, an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.5 has ten times the force of one with a magnitude of 5.5; an earthquake of 7.5 has 100 times the intensity of the 5.5 earthquake. An 8.5 measurement is 1,000 times stronger, and so on.

The amount of energy an earthquake releases is calculated in a different manner. Instead of tenfold jumps with each increase in magnitude, energy released is measured in roughly thirtyfold increments. Thus, an earthquake with a value of 7 releases 30 times the amount of energy as an earthquake measured at 6, while an earthquake of 8 would have 900 times the energy as one valued at 6.

Today the modified Mercalli scale is often used in combination with the Richter scale because both methods are helpful in gauging the total impact of an earthquake.

See also Seismology

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Richter scale

Richter scale (rĬk´tər), measure of the magnitude of seismic waves from an earthquake. Devised in 1935 by the American seismologist Charles F. Richter (1900–1985) and technically known as the local magnitude scale, it has been superseded by the moment magnitude scale, which was developed in the 1970s. The Richter scale is logarithmic; that is, the amplitude of the waves increases by powers of 10 in relation to the Richter magnitude numbers. The energy released in an earthquake can easily be approximated by an equation that includes this magnitude and the distance from the seismograph to the earthquake's epicenter. Numbers for the Richter scale range from 0 to 9, though no real upper limit exists. An earthquake whose magnitude is greater than 4.5 on this scale can cause damage to buildings and other structures; severe earthquakes have magnitudes greater than 7. Like ripples formed when a pebble is dropped into water, earthquake waves travel outward in all directions, gradually losing energy, with the intensity of earth movement and ground damage generally decreasing at greater distances from the earthquake focus. In addition, the nature of the underlying rock or soil affects ground movements. In order to give a rating to the effects of an earthquake in a particular place, the modified Mercalli scale, based on a scale developed by the Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli, is often used. It measures an earthquake's intensity, the severity of an earthquake in terms of its effects on the inhabitants of an area, e.g., how much damage it causes to buildings.

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Richter scale

Richter scale The measurement of the intensity of an earthquake using the amplitude of seismic waves. As the amplitude depends on the depth of the earthquake focus, the distance of the recording station from the focus, the travel path, and local geology at both the source and receiver, such magnitude estimates need to be constrained by several determinations. At any given recording station, the magnitude (M) of a shallow earthquake is given by the equation: M = log(A/T) + 1.66 logΔ + 3.3, where A is the maximum amplitude, T is the period, and Δ is the epicentral angular distance between the earthquake and receiver. For deeper earthquakes, the magnitude is given using 20-second-period Rayleigh waves by M = log(A/T) + afΔh + b, where h is the depth of the focus, and a and b are empirically determined constants for each seismic station.

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Richter scale

Richter scale The most widely used system for reporting the intensity of an earthquake, developed by C. F.Richter, and calculated from the amplitude of seismic waves, the period of the dominant wave, and the angular distance from the recording station to the earthquake focus. The scale is logarithmic and ranges from 0 to 10; a tremor with a value of 2 can barely be felt and structural damage is likely from earthquakes greater than 6.

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Richter scale

Richter scale a numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake on the basis of seismograph oscillations. The more destructive earthquakes typically have magnitudes between about 5.5 and 8.9; it is a logarithmic scale and a difference of one represents an approximate thirtyfold difference in magnitude. It is named after Charles F. Richter (1900–85), American geologist.

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Richter scale

Richter scale Classification of earthquake magnitude set up in 1935 by the US geologist Charles Richter (1900–85). The scale is logarithmic – each point on the scale increases by a factor of ten – and is based on the total energy released by an earthquake, as opposed to a scale of intensity that measures the damage inflicted at a particular place.

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Richter scale

Rich·ter scale / ˈriktər/ • n. Geol. a numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake on the basis of seismograph oscillations. The more destructive earthquakes typically have magnitudes between about 5.5 and 8.9; the scale is logarithmic and a difference of one represents an approximate thirtyfold difference in magnitude.

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