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Tsunami

Tsunami

Alternative rock band

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

Tsunami is an Arlington, Virginia, based band fronted by the razor-sharp smarts of Jenny Toomey and Kristin Thomson, who also boast musical talent in such excess that they moonlight in other bands. Furthermore, Toomey and Thomson run their own label, Simple Machines, dedicated to providing welcoming business turf for fledgling indie bands. That label is also home of the Tsunami catalog, which includes a staggering number of singles in near-collectible sleeve designs. Tsunami come across like a kind of teen gang, wrote Melody Makers Sharon OConnell. Its their autonomy, their spirit and their drive, and the way they celebrate the raw and the very ordinary; the way it is when youre very young and every feeling is new each time you feel it.

Tsunami was formed inside the suburban Washington, DC house that Toomey and Thomson shared with John Pamer in the last months of 1990. Toomey had been in a band called Geek, where she met Andrew Webster, and she talked him into moving to the area so they could form a band with Pamer and Thomson; their goal was to play a New Years Eve 1990 party. Toomey and Thomson were no newcomers to the music scene, having already formed the Simple Machines label with the help of their friend Ian MacKaye, head of the famed DC label Dischord. By February of 1991, they took their fledgling band on the road.

During 1991, Tsunami came into being as a band with some difficult tours and a well-packaged single or two. Touring was a strictly low-budget affair, with the band and gear loaded into a sometimes unreliable Isuzu Trooper, playing college towns across the country. Their worst show ever, Toomey told ViVidzins Juliette Morris, was at a college in Ohionot at a bar, but at some really bad fraternity-type of party and it was Morns Night, which meant that everywhere we looked, we saw mothers with their arms around their staggering, drunk children. A bad sound system, and a sound man who mistakenly thought Toomey was making fun of him and began lousing up everything during their performance completed the farce. Their first single, released in the spring of 1991, was Headringer, followed by that summers Genius of Crack.

Tsunami recorded and toured with pals Velocity Girl, and also recorded split singles with them, such as 1992s SubPop release Left Behind. Another track from 1992 sums up the unique attitude with which Toomey and Thomson hurtle through the male-dominated world of indie rock: Punk Means Cuddle calls for a nicer, less belligerent attitude among their college-radio bands and fans. Toomey used to be active in the riot-grrl movement, but came to some realizations about what Tsunami call the loadhog phenomenon, and even wrote a song about it. Loadhogs are people who martyr themselves for the cause, Toomey told Melody Make fsSaWy Margaret Joy. People who would rather do the work for you than teach you how to do it yourself. In the song, Toomey explained, she was trying to explore the delicate problem of how work is delegated.

In early 1993 a national promoter phoned and asked them if they might be interested in playing on that summers Lollapalooza tour. Originally, they assumed it was a prank call. Their six shows on a side stage shared with other acts such as Sebadoh and Thurston Moore dovetailed nicely with the release of their first full-length record, Deep End. Later that year Tsunami recorded their follow-up, The Hearts Tremolo, in Chicago and it was released in 1994. Like all of their Tsunami issues, the two albums boasted beautifully designed covers; one single, from the previous year, Diner, featured the menu from their favorite low-budget restaurant.

This irreverence infects much of what Tsunami does. They once undertook a microphone relay race from their office to a club, taped it, and played it live during a show. Yet they also donate money to non-profit organizations and are quite serious about the seemingly insurmountable wall between feminist ideology and alternative music. I believe that women will never be accepted in punk rock, and that is why Tsunami walks the line between pop and punk, Toomey told Melody

For the Record

Original members are John Pamer, drums (left band, c. 1996); Kristin Thomson, guitar, vocals (married Brian Dilworth, a musician, c. 1996); Jenny Toomey, guitar, vocals; and Andrew Webster, bass; Luther Trip Gray, joined as a replacement for Pamer, c. 1996.

Toomey was a philosophy major in college and had previously been in the band Geek; Toomey and Thomson founded Simple Machines Records, c. 1990; Gray played drums in Sea Saw.

Band formed, late 1990; released several singles on Homestead, SubPop, C/Z and Simple Machines Records; 1991-92; released first full-length record, Deep End, on Simple Machines, 1993; played Lollapalooza 1993.

Addresses: Record company Simple Machines Records, P.O. Box 10290, Arlington, VA 22210-1290. E-mail TsunamiSMR@aol.com

Maker. Band members still had their day jobs in 1993: Toomey worked as a bookkeeper for an anti-nuclear organization, while Thomson worked in a food co-opbut continued to run the Simple Machines label. Its office was at their houseso we wake up, put on our clothes, and start work, Thomson told Joy in Melody Maker. We have no free time at all. [L]uckily, there are no pubs near where we live.

The members of Tsunami were busy throughout 1993 and 1994. They had a friend in England, John Loder, who owns a studio, and began traversing back and forth to do recordings. They toured with the bands Rodan and Eggs, and, when asked how England responds to Tsunami, Toomey told ViVidzine that the music press there is quite fickleIts depending on what bands are popular at the moment, you could be everyones darlings or everyone could hate you. Its such a small country, and they start these weird little trends a lot. Sharon OConnell reviewed a live show for Melody Maker and lauded it: They bang and strum, leaving slight spaces before they storm in to mess things up.

Tsunami completed two American tours in 1994 in addition to more dates in England, but time became more unmanageable with Pamer still in college and living elsewhere. During their get-togethers, the band was forced to write and record real fast, so were very goal-oriented, Toomey told Melody Makers Joy. Toomey also explained to ViVidzine that her bandmate has had a hard time on tour, she said of Thomson, because shes a good workaholic and its been hard for her to get in the van, because theres no desk in there.

Though the band has managed to issue a full-length record annually, it is their singles that fuel the Tsunami wave. In 1994 they released Be Like That, as well as a split CD with Rodan and Eggs from their U.K. tour entitled Cowed by the Blah Blah. After releasing World Tour and Other Destinations in 1995containing 22 singles previously released and difficulttofindthe band went on hiatus so Pamer could finish his degree. Toomey and Thomson continued to run the label and work with other bands. Toomey moonlighted in Liquorice, signed to Englands 4AD label. Thomson married and began spending time in Philadelphia with her husband, Brian Dilworth, of the band the Gelcaps and head of the Compulsiv record label. Webster began a career as a documentary filmmaker. Yet after Pamer graduated in 1996, he remained in Massachusetts and made clear his intention to live in New York, not Virginia.

The break seemed to have changed everyone. When we stopped playing, I was exhausted, Toomey told Magnets Cyndi Elliott. It was because we didnt want to play. Ive always thought that a band benefits from not having to be a band all the time. We always held day jobs and did other things. Thats one of the reasons we were able to stay a band for so long. When you are forced to play because you have to pay rent, you lose quality control and a lot of the joy of it. In a decision made with some trepidation, they hired another drummer, Luther Gray. Formerly an intern at Simple Machines, Gray has a jazz background and brought a new rhythmic dimension to their music. It fit in perfectly with their maturation as a band, with Toomey and Thomson writing more melodic and less strident songs, which was evident on their 1997 release A Brilliant Mistake. Many of Tsunamis friends from the Chicago music scene contributed as well, including members of the Coctails and Poi Dog Pondering, and Rob Christiansen from Liquorice, who played bass on half the record.

Despite her work with Liquorice and Tsunami, Toomey admits to being insecure about her songwriting abilities: Very rarely Ill have something I think I should write, she told Magnet. Except e-mails and purchase orders. Both Toomey and Thomson are confident about their business acumen, however. They claim anyone can begin a label, and have even written a booklet on how to do it, but we dont talk about ambition in it, Toomey told Joy in the Melody Maker interview. Referring to the observation that substance abuse sometimes prevents creative types from accomplishing things, Toomey noted that You cant give people energy and enthusiasm. Sometimes other labels or bands call the Simple Machines offices and ask to have their radio-station mailing list, for instance, and Toomey and Thomson must refuse. Notes Toomey: The only reason those stations play us is because of our track record with them. You have to find the addresses of the stations you like and send them nice lettersjust like we had to.

Selected discography

Singles; on Simple Machines unless otherwise noted

Headringer, 1991.

Genius of Crack, Homestead, 1991.

Left Behind (split single with Velocity Girl; on SubPop), 1992.

Punk Means Cuddle, C/Z, 1992.

Beautiful; Arlington VA, 1992.

Seasons Greetings (split single with Velocity Girl), 1992.

Diner, 1993.

Matchbook, 1993.

Be Like That, 1994.

Cowed by the Blah Blah (split CD with Rodan and Eggs), 1994.

She Cracked (split single with Superchunk; on Huggy Bear Records), 1995.

Poodle/Old City, 1997.

LPs; on Simple Machines

Deep End, 1993.

(Contributor) The Machines 1990-1993, 1993.

The Hearts Tremolo, 1994.

World Tour and Other Destinations, 1995.

A Brilliant Mistake, 1997.

Sources

Melody Maker, January 30, 1993, p. 16; February 20, 1993, pp. 36-37; June 3, 1995, p. 37.

ViVidzine, December 1994.

Carol Brennan

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Tsunami

Tsunami

Tsunami, or seismic sea waves, are a series of very long wavelength ocean waves generated by the sudden displacement of large volumes of water . The generation of tsunami waves is similar to the effect of dropping a solid object, such as a stone, into a pool of water. Waves ripple out from where the stone entered, and thus displaced, the water. In a tsunami, the "stone" comes from underneath the ocean or very close to shore, and the waves, usually only three or four, are spaced about 15 minutes apart.

Tsunami can be caused by underwater (submarine) earthquakes, submarine volcanic eruptions , falling (slumping) of large volumes of ocean sediment, coastal landslides, or even by meteor impacts. All of these events cause some sort of landmass to enter the ocean and the ocean adjusts itself to accommodate this new mass. This adjustment creates the tsunami, which can circle around the world. Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning "large waves in harbors." It can be used in the singular or plural sense. Tsunami are sometimes mistakenly called tidal waves, but scientists avoid using that term since they are not at all related to tides .

Tsunami are classified by oceanographers as shallow water surface waves. Surface waves exist only on the surface of liquids. Shallow water waves are defined as surface waves occurring in water depths that are less than one half their wavelength. Wavelength is the distance between two adjacent crests (tops) or troughs (bottoms) of the wave. Wave height is the vertical distance from the top of a crest to the bottom of the adjacent trough. Tsunami have wave heights that are very small as compared to their wavelengths. In fact, no matter how deep the water, a tsunami will always be a shallow water wave because its wavelength (up to 150 mi [240 km]) is so much greater than its wave height (usually no more than 65 ft [20 m]).

Shallow water waves are different from deep water waves because their speed is controlled only by water depth. In the open ocean, tsunami travel quickly (up to 470 mph [760 kph]), but because of their low height (typically less than 3 ft [1 m]) and long wavelength, ships rarely notice them as they pass underneath. However, when a tsunami moves into shore, its speed and wavelength decrease due to the increasing friction caused by the shallow sea floor.

Wave energy must be redistributed, however, so wave height increases, just as the height of small waves increases as they approach the beach and eventually break. The increasing tsunami wave height produces a "wall" of water that, if high enough, can be incredibly destructive. Some tsunami are reportedly up to 200 ft (65 m) tall. The impact of such a tsunami can range miles inland if the land is relatively flat.

Tsunami may occur along any shoreline and are affected by local conditions such as the coastline shape, ocean floor characteristics, and the nature of the waves and tides already in the area . These local conditions can create substantial differences in the size and impact of the tsunami waves, even in areas that are very close geographically.

Tsunami researchers classify tsunami according to their area of effect. They can be local, regional, or ocean-wide. Local tsunami are often caused by submarine volcanoes, submarine sediment slumping, or coastal landslides. These can often be the most dangerous because there is often little warning between the triggering event and the arrival of the tsunami.

Seventy-five percent of tsunami are considered regional events. Japan, Hawaii, and Alaska are commonly hit by regional tsunami. Hawaii, for example, has been hit repeatedly during this century, about every 510 years. One of the worst was the April 1, 1946, tsunami that destroyed the city of Hilo.

Pacific-wide tsunami are the least common as only 3.5% of tsunami are this large, but they can cause tremendous destruction due to the massive size of the waves. In 1940 and 1960, destructive Pacific-wide tsunami occurred. More recently, there was a Pacific-wide tsunami on October 4, 1994, which caused substantial damage in Japan with 11.5 ft (3.5 m) waves. However, waves of only 6 in (15 cm) over the normal height were recorded in British Columbia.

Tsunami are not only a modern phenomenon. The decline of the Minoan civilization is believed to have been triggered by a powerful tsunami that hit the area in 1480 b.c. and destroyed its coastal settlements. Japan has had 65 destructive tsunami between a.d.684 and 1960. Chile was hit in 1562 and Hawaii has a written history of tsunami since 1821. The Indian and Atlantic Oceans also have long tsunami histories. Researchers are concerned that the impact of future tsunami, as well as hurricanes, will be worse because of intensive development of coastal areas in the last 30 years.

The destructive 1946 tsunami at Hilo, Hawaii, caused researchers to think about the problem of tsunami prediction. It became clear that if scientists could predict when the waves are going to hit, steps could be taken to minimize the impact of the great waves.

In 1965, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization agreed to expand the United States' existing tsunami warning center at Ewa Beach, Hawaii. This marked the formation of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), which is now operated under the U.S. Weather Service. The objectives of the PTWC are to "detect and locate major earthquakes in the Pacific basin; determine whether or not tsunami have been generated; and to provide timely and effective information and warnings to minimize tsunami effects."

The PTWC is the administrative center for all the associated centers, committees, and commissions of the International Tsunami Warning System (ITWS). Japan, the Russian Federation, and Canada also have tsunami warning systems and centers and they coordinate with the PTWC. In total, 27 countries now belong to the ITWS.

The ITWS is based on a world-wide network of seismic and tidal data and information dissemination stations, and specially trained people. Seismic stations measure movement of the earth's crust and are the foundation of the system. These stations indicate that some disturbance has occurred that may be powerful enough to generate tsunami. To confirm the tsunami following a seismic event, there are specially trained people called tide observers with monitoring equipment that enables them to detect differences in the wave patterns of the ocean. Pressure gauges deployed on the ocean can detect changes of less than 0.4 in (1 cm) in the height of the ocean, which indicates wave height. Also, there are accelerometers set inside moored buoys that measure the rise and fall of the ocean, which will indicate the wave speed. These data are used together to help researchers confirm that a tsunami has been generated. Tsunami can also be detected by satellite monitoring methods such as radar and photographic images.

The ITWS is activated when earthquakes greater than 6.75 on the Richter scale are detected. The PTWC then collects all the data, determines the magnitude of the quake and its epicenter. Then they wait for the reports from the nearest tide stations and their tide observers. If a tsunami wave is reported, warnings are sent to the information dissemination centers.

The information dissemination centers then coordinate the emergency response plan to minimize the impact of the tsunami. In areas where tsunami frequency is high, such as Japan, the Russian Federation, Alaska, and Hawaii, there are also Regional Warning Systems to coordinate the flow of information. These information dissemination centers then decide whether to issue a "Tsunami Watch," which indicates that a tsunami may occur in the area, or a more serious "Tsunami Warning," which indicates that a tsunami will occur. The entire coastline of a region is broken down into smaller sections at predetermined locations known as "breakpoints" to allow the emergency personnel to customize the warnings to account for local changes in the behavior of the tsunami. The public is kept informed through local radio broadcasts. If the waves have not hit within two hours of the estimated time of arrival, or, the waves arrived but were not damaging, the tsunami threat is assumed to be over and all Watches and Warnings are canceled.

One of the more recent changes in the ITWS is that the Regional Centers will be taking on greater responsibility for tsunami detection and warning procedures. This is being done because there have been occasions when the warning from Hawaii came after the tsunami hit the area. This can occur with local and regional tsunami that tend to be smaller in their area of effect. Some seismically active areas need to have the warning system and equipment closer than Hawaii if they are to protect their citizens. For example, the Aleutian Islands near Alaska have two to three moderate earthquakes per week. As of May 1995, centers such as the Alaska Tsunami Warning Center located in Palmer, Alaska, have assumed a larger role in the management of tsunami warnings.

In terms of basic research, one of the biggest areas of investigation is the calculation of return rates. Return rates, or recurrence intervals, are the predicted frequency with which tsunami will occur in a given area and are useful information, especially for highly sensitive buildings such as nuclear power stations, offshore oil drilling platforms, and hospitals. The 1929 tsunami in Newfoundland has been studied extensively by North American researchers as a model for return rates and there has been some dispute. Columbia University researchers predict a reoccurrence in Newfoundland in 1,00035,000 years. However, some geologists argue that it may reoccur as soon as 1001,000 years. These calculations are based on evidence from mild earthquakes and tsunami in the area. They also suggest that the 1929 tsunami left a sedimentary record that is evident in the soil profile, and that such records can be dated and used to calculate return rates. Research is currently ongoing to test this theory.

See also Seismology; Wave motions

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Tsunamis

Tsunamis

A tsunami is a powerful wave, usually created by a large-scale motion of the ocean floor. Although they are almost imperceptible at sea, tsunami waves increase in height as they reach a coastline and are capable of causing great destruction. The term "tsunami" is taken from the Japanese words for "harbor" and "wave."

In the 1990s, eighty-two tsunamis were reported worldwide, taking more than four thousand lives and causing hundreds of millions of dollars in damage. Most tsunamis occur in seismically active regions such as the Pacific Ocean, but tsunamis can occur anywhere in the world where there are large bodies of water.

Mechanics of Tsunami Generation and Propagation

A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that moves a large amount of water. The vast majority of tsunamis originate during undersea earthquakes when water is moved by the uplift or subsidence of hundreds of square kilometers of the sea floor. Landslides (which often accompany large earthquakes), volcanic eruptions and collapses, and explosions and meteor impacts can also disturb enough water to generate a tsunami.

Propagation.

The wind-generated waves usually seen breaking on the beach arrive every 10 to 15 seconds and have wave crests tens of meters apart. In contrast, tsunamis can have crests that are more than 20 minutes and hundreds of kilometers apart (see figure).

Most tsunamis are classified as long wavesthat is, waves with long wavelengths relative to their water depth. They travel with speeds proportional to the square root of the water depth. In the deep ocean, their speed can be similar to that of a jet plane, as high as 700 kilometers per hour. Closer to shore, in shallow water, they slow down appreciably. At sea, the height of a tsunami wave is not usually distinguishable from the surrounding wind waves without sensitive measuring equipment because the wave often is only 1 to 2 meters high and hundreds of kilometers long.

Tsunamis generated by earthquake movement of the seabed can travel thousands of miles across the ocean without losing their energy. For example, in 1960 a tsunami generated in Chile, South America caused substantial damage nearly 14,500 kilometers (9,000 miles) away in Japan. Hawaii, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, is particularly susceptible to tsunamis that travel across the ocean.

Unlike earthquake-caused waves, tsunamis generated by mechanisms like landslides and eruptions dissipate quickly and rarely affect coastlines far away from the source. Their local effects, however, can sometimes be just as damaging: in 1883, the tsunami caused by the eruption of the volcano Krakatau killed more than 36,000 people on the nearby islands of Java and Sumatra.

Landfall.

As tsunami waves approach the coastline, a large change takes place in their shape. Since the landward portion of the wave is in shallower water than the seaward portion, it travels relatively slower. This allows rear portions of the wave to "catch up" with the front of the wave, concentrating the wave energy into ever-higher growing crests as it approaches land. The shoaling waves can reach crest heights of tens of meters, either breaking and flowing onto the shore as violent bores or surging onshore as flood waves.

When a tsunami reaches the shore, the impact can destroy buildings and other coastal structures. The flowing water can move boats, vehicles and debris. Further destruction results when these objects collide like battering rams with anything in their path. Gas lines broken during the tsunami often cause fires that increase the tsunami damage. Tsunamis can flood low-lying areas, destroying crops with salt water and leaving behind sand and boulders.

Mitigation and Research

Efforts to protect people from tsunamis center on proper preparation of tsunami-prone areas. Many lives have been saved when residents of coastal communities were aware that earthquake shaking was a signal to evacuate to high ground.

Although certain tsunamis, such as those generated by landslides, arrive without warning, tsunami researchers are focusing on better predicting these locally destructive waves as well as the transoceanic ones. The tools that researchers use include seismic stations, deep-ocean pressure gauges, and physical and numerical models. Field surveys of recent tsunamis and geological investigations of ancient waves also help scientists and hazards planners design structures and plan communities so that casualties and damage can be reduced.

see also Human Health and the Ocean; Landslides; Waves.

Catherine M. Petroff

Bibliography

Folger, T. "Killer Waves, the Struggle to Predict Tsunamis." Discover Magazine May 1994, 6673.

Gonzalez, F. "Tsunami, Predicting Destruction by Monster Waves." Scientific American May 1999, 5665.

McCredie, S. "Tsunamis, the Waves that Kill." Smithsonian Magazine March 1994, 2839.

Internet Resources

Tsunami! University of Washington. <http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami>.

USC Tsunami Research Group. University of Southern California. <http://www.usc.edu/dept/tsunamis>.

Tsunami Research Program. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. <http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami>.

TSUNAMIS ARE NOT TIDAL WAVES

At one time, tsunamis were called tidal waves for the way that the water flowed on and offshore like a quickly rising and falling tide. But because tsunamis are not caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun, the term tidal wave is no longer used.

SEA OF JAPAN: 1993

A 7.8-magnitude earthquake in the Sea of Japan caused waves 5 to 10 meters high that swept up buildings and vehicles on the island of Okushiri. Although 239 people died from the Okushiri tsunami, many residents saved themselves by fleeing to high ground immediately after the earthquake.

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tsunami

tsunami (tsŏŏnä´mē), series of catastrophic ocean waves generated by submarine movements, which may be caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides beneath the ocean, or an asteroid striking the earth. Tsunamis are also called seismic sea waves or, popularly, tidal waves.

In the open ocean, tsunamis may have wavelengths of up to several hundred miles and travel at speeds up to 500 mi per hr (800 km per hr), yet have wave heights of less than 3 ft (1 m), which pass unnoticed beneath a ship at sea. The period between the crests of a tsunami's waves varies from 5 min to about 1 hr. When tsunamis approach shallow water along a coast, they are slowed, causing their length to shorten and their height to rise sometimes as high as 100 ft (30 m). When they break, they often destroy piers, buildings, and beaches and take human life. The wave height as they crash upon a shore depends almost entirely upon the submarine topography offshore. Waves tend to rise to greater heights along gently sloping shores, along submarine ridges, or in coastal embayments. Tsunamilike waves can also occur on lakes and within inlets and small bays as a result of large landslide into the water or an underwater landslide.

There is little warning of approach; when a train of tsunami waves approaches a coastline, the first indication is often a sharp swell, not unlike an ordinary storm swell, followed by a sudden outrush of water that often exposes offshore areas as the first wave trough reaches the coast. After several minutes, the first huge wave crest strikes, inundating the newly exposed beach and rushing inland to flood the coast. Generally, the third to eighth wave crests are the largest.

Since tsunamis principally occur in the Pacific Ocean following shallow-focus earthquakes over magnitude 6.5 on the Richter scale, one of the best means of prediction is the detection of such earthquakes on the ocean floor with a seismograph network (see seismology). Tsunamis may be detected by wave gauges and pressure monitors, such as those emplaced as part of the U.S. Tsunami Warning System; established in 1949 and originally confined to the Pacific region, the system has been expanded to the Caribbean and the W North Atlantic. An early warning system for the Indian Ocean began operating in 2006. Measurement of sudden sea level changes from satellites are also used to warn of a potential tsunami.

One of the most destructive tsunamis to occur during historical times followed the explosive eruption of the volcano Krakatoa in the East Indies on Aug. 27, 1883, when over 36,000 people were killed as a result of the wave. Waves were up to 100 ft (30 m) high. Its passage was traced as far away as Panama. On Dec. 26, 2004, a 9.1 earthquake off NW Sumatra, Indonesia, caused a tsunami with waves as high as 65 ft (20 m) nearest the epicenter. Some 230,000 people are believed to have died. The waves devastated many areas in the E Indian Ocean basin, particularly the nearby coast of N Sumatra, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the E and S coasts of Sri Lanka. Areas of SE India and SW Thailand were also hard hit. The 9.0 earthquake off NE Honshu, Japan, on Mar. 11, 2011, caused a tsunami that devastated nearby areas on the Honshu coast. The water overtopped 33 ft (10 m) seawalls and in some locations reached places as far as 5 mi (8 km) inland. Most of the nearly 18,500 killed or missing as a result of the earthquake were lost to the tsunami. It is believed that a 0.6-mi-wide (1-km-wide) asteroid that struck the ocean SW of New Zealand about AD 1500 created a tsunami that reached heights of more than 425 ft (130 m).

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tsunami

tsunami (seismic sea wave) Ocean wave caused by a submarine earthquake, subsidence or volcanic eruption. Sometimes erroneously called a tidal wave, tsunamis spread radially from their source in ever-widening circles. Tsunamis travel across oceans at speeds up to 400km/h (250mph) and reach heights of 10m (33ft). On December 26, 2004 a massive Tsunami, resulting from an earthquake near to Sumatra in the Indian Ocean, killed more than 250,000 people, mostly in Indonesia (particularly western Sumatra), Sri Lanka, India and Thailand.

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tsunami

tsunami A seismic sea wave of long period, produced by a submarine earthquake, underwater volcanic explosion, or massive gravity slide of seabed sediment. In the open ocean, such waves are barely noticeable even though they may be travelling at 700 km/h, but on reaching shallow water they build up to heights of more than 30 m and can cause severe damage in coastal areas.

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tsunami

tsunami A seismic sea wave of long period, produced by a submarine earthquake, underwater volcanic explosion, or massive gravity slide of sea-bed sediment. In the open ocean such waves are barely noticeable even though they may be travelling at 700 km/h, but on reaching shallow water they build up to heights of more than 30 m and cause severe damage in coastal areas.

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"tsunami." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"tsunami." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved October 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tsunami

tsunami

tsunami a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance; the word is Japanese, and comes from tsu ‘harbour’ + nami ‘wave’.

On 26 December, 2004, an undersea earthquake in the Indian Ocean resulted in a tsunami which devastated coastal regions of Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka, causing great loss of life.

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"tsunami." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"tsunami." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved October 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tsunami

tsunami

tsu·na·mi / (t)soōˈnämē/ • n. (pl. same or -mis ) a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance. ORIGIN: late 19th cent.: from Japanese, from tsu ‘harbor’ + nami ‘wave.’

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"tsunami." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"tsunami." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tsunami-1

"tsunami." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved October 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tsunami-1

tsunami

tsunamichamois, clammy, gammy, Grammy, hammy, jammy, mammae, mammee, mammy, Miami, ramie, rammy, Sammy, shammy, whammy •acme, drachmae •Lakshmi •army, balmy, barmy, gourami, macramé, origami, palmy, pastrami, salami, smarmy, swami, tsunami, Yanomami •Clemmie, Emmy, jemmy, lemme, semi •elmy •Amy, cockamamie, flamy, gamy, Jamie, Mamie, samey •beamy, creamy, dreamy, gleamy, Mimi, preemie, seamy, steamy •gimme, shimmy, Timmy •pygmy • filmy •arch-enemy, enemy •synonymy • Jeremy • sashimi •blimey, gorblimey, grimy, limey, slimy, stymie, thymy •commie, mommy, pommie, pommy, tommy •dormy, stormy •foamy, homey, loamy, Naomi, Salome •polychromy

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"tsunami." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"tsunami." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved October 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tsunami-0