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Prohibition

PROHIBITION

The popular name for the period in U.S. history from 1920 to 1933 when the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages—except for medicinal or religious purposes—were illegal.

From 1920 to 1933 the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors were illegal in the United States. The eighteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution authorized Congress to prohibit alcoholic beverages, but the twenty-firstamendment repealed this prohibition. The era of Prohibition was marked by large-scale smuggling and illegal sales of liquor, the growth of organized crime, and increased restriction on personal freedom.

The prohibition movement began in the 1820s in the wake of a revival of Protestantism that viewed the consumption of alcohol as sinful and a destructive force in society. Maine passed the first state prohibition law in 1846, and other states followed in the years before the u.s. civil war.

The prohibition party was founded in 1869, with a ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor as its only campaign goal. This party, like most temperance groups, derived its support from rural and small-town voters associated with Protestant evangelical churches. The Prohibition Party reached it zenith in 1892 when its candidate for president polled 2.2 percent of the popular vote. The party soon went into decline, and though it still exists, it works mainly at the local level.

The impetus for the Eighteenth Amendment can be traced to the Anti-Saloon League, which was established in 1893. The league worked to enact state prohibition laws and had great success between 1906 and 1913. By the time national prohibition took effect in January 1920, thirty-three states (63 percent of the total population) had prohibited intoxicating liquors.

The league and other prohibition groups were opposed to the consumption of alcohol for a variety of reasons. Some associated alcohol with

the rising number of aliens entering the country, many of whom were Roman Catholic. This anti-alien, anti-Catholic prejudice was coupled with a fear of increasingly larger urban areas by the rural-dominated prohibition supporters. Saloons and other public drinking establishments were also associated with prostitution and gambling. Finally, some employers endorsed prohibition as a means of reducing industrial accidents and increasing the efficiency of workers.

When the United States entered world war i in 1917, Congress prohibited the manufacture and importation of distilled liquor in order to aid the war effort. It also authorized the president to lower the alcoholic content of beer and wine and to restrict or forbid their manufacture.

A movement began to support elimination of intoxicating liquors by constitutional amendment. In 1917 Congress passed the Prohibition amendment and submitted it to the states for ratification. The rural-dominated state legislatures made ratification a foregone conclusion, and the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified on January 29, 1919. Congress enacted the volstead act, officially known as the National Prohibition Act (41 Stat. 305 [1919]) to enforce the amendment, which became effective on January 29, 1920.

Prohibition proved most effective in small towns and rural areas. Compliance was much more difficult in urban areas, where illegal suppliers quickly found a large demand for alcohol. Cities had large immigrant populations that did not see anything morally wrong with consuming alcohol. The rise of "bootlegging" (the illegal manufacture, distribution, and sale of intoxicating liquor) by organized crime proved to be one of the unintended consequences of Prohibition.

Besides the illegal importation, manufacture, distribution, and sale of intoxicating liquors by organized crime, millions of persons evaded Prohibition by consuming "medicinal" whiskey that was sold in drugstores on real or forged prescriptions. Many U.S. industries used denatured alcohol, which was treated with noxious chemicals to make it unfit for human consumption. Nevertheless, methods were found to remove these chemicals, add water and a small amount of liquor for flavor, and sell the mixture to illegal bars, called speakeasies, or to individual customers. Finally, many persons resorted to making their own liquor from corn. This type of product could be dangerously impure and cause blindness, paralysis, and death.

The prohibition movement lost political strength in the 1920s. The stock market crash of 1929 and the resulting Great Depression of the 1930s further changed the political climate. Critics of Prohibition argued that the rise of criminal production and sale of alcohol made the legal ban ineffective. In addition, the general public's patronage of speakeasies bred disrespect for law and government. Finally, critics argued that legalizing the manufacture and sale of alcohol would stimulate the economy and provide desperately needed jobs.

In 1932 the democratic party adopted a platform plank at its national convention calling for repeal. The landslide Democratic victory of 1932 signaled the end of Prohibition. The February 1933 resolution proposing the Twenty-first Amendment contained a provision requiring ratification by state conventions rather than state legislatures. This provision was included to prevent rural-dominated legislatures, which still supported Prohibition, from defeating the amendment.

The state ratification conventions quickly endorsed the amendment, with ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment coming on December 5, 1933. The amendment did allow prohibition by the states. A few states continued statewide prohibition, but by 1966 all states had repealed these provisions. Liquor in the United States is now controlled at the local level. Counties that prohibit the sale of alcohol are known as dry counties, and counties that allow the sale of alcohol are known as wet counties.

further readings

Kyvig, David E. 2000. Repealing National Prohibition. 2d ed. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press.

Van de Water, Frederic F. 2003. The Real McCoy. Mystic, Conn.: Flat Hammock Press.

Whitebread. Charles H. 2000. "Freeing Ourselves from the Prohibition Idea in the Twenty-First Century." Suffolk University Law Review 33 (fall).

cross-references

Capone, Alphonse; Temperance Movement.

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Prohibition

PROHIBITION

PROHIBITION was a tool to which temperance reformers repeatedly turned during more than a century's efforts to change American drinking habits. The first attempts to ban alcohol consumption through government action appeared on the local and state levels during the 1830s. Local prohibition has flourished on and off ever since.

During the early 1850s, twelve states and territories followed the example of Maine by enacting statewide prohibition laws. Most of these, however, were struck down by the courts or repealed. After the Civil War, new organizations were formed to advance the prohibition cause: the Prohibition Party (1869), the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (1874), and the Anti-Saloon League (1893). During the early years of the twentieth century, many localities and states adopted prohibition. During the same period, per capita alcohol consumption rose, buoyed by the rising popularity of beer, which increasingly replaced distilled liquor in American drinking preferences. Rising consumption had two results. On one hand, it motivated prohibitionists to focus their efforts toward a national solution to a problem they perceived as intensifying. On the other hand, it persuaded brewers, who had previously cooperated politically with distillers, that their beverage enjoyed enough popular support to be spared by a federal prohibition law, and thus disrupted the liquor-industry coalition. The Anti-Saloon League's nonpartisan lobbying and balance-of-power approach was rewarded in 1916 by the election of a dry Congress, which approved a proposed prohibition constitutional amendment in December 1917. Three-quarters of state legislatures ratified within the next thirteen months, and national Prohibition came into force one year later, on 16 January 1920. World War I contributed to Prohibition's triumph by eliciting a spirit of sacrifice, restricting liquor production and sales, and discrediting German American antiprohibitionists, but most states ratified after the war's end.

The Eighteenth Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, and exportation of intoxicating beverages and called for concurrent enforcement by the state and federal governments. The amendment's federal enforcement legislation, the Volstead Act, defined "intoxicating" as one-half of 1 percent alcohol by volume. Personal possession and consumption were therefore not proscribed, but Prohibition encompassed a wider range of alcoholic beverages than most Americans had expected. At the same time, the mechanics of concurrent state and federal enforcement were left vague. Prohibition's impact varied among beverage types and social classes. Beer, predominantly the drink of the urban working class, suffered most, and the more easily transported distilled liquors regained a larger place in American drinking patterns. Nevertheless, per capita alcohol consumption declined from its pre-Prohibition peak. Enforcement created political problems, both when it worked, by flooding courts and jails, and when it did not, as speakeasies replaced urban saloons. Federal support for enforcement was inadequate, and federal-state cooperation was consistently problematic. Nevertheless, Prohibition retained considerable popular support until the onset of the Great Depression in 1929.

Leadership for the antiprohibitionist cause was provided during the 1920s by the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment, an upper-class lobby formed in 1918, but its ideological arguments, based upon opposition to centralized federal power, held little popular appeal. Mass support came late in the decade, primarily from the Women's Organization for National Prohibition Reform, led by upper-class women. The needs of the depression produced powerful new arguments for repeal, to generate liquor-industry jobs and government tax revenue. The Democratic Party became repeal's political instrument. After the Democrats' overwhelming victory in 1932, Congress submitted to the states a new constitutional amendment repealing the Eighteenth, and within ten months elected state conventions had ratified the Twenty-first Amendment. The states resumed primary responsibility for liquor control. A few states retained their prohibition laws after federal repeal; the last, Mississippi, abandoned its law in 1966. Per capita alcohol consumption did not regain the level of the pre-Prohibition years until the 1960s.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Blocker, Jack S., Jr. American Temperance Movements: Cycles of Reform. Boston: Twayne, 1989.

Kerr, K. Austin. Organized for Prohibition: A New History of the Anti-Saloon League. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985.

Kyvig, David E.. Repealing National Prohibition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

Pegram, Thomas R. Battling Demon Rum: The Struggle for a Dry America, 1800–1933. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1998.

Jack S.BlockerJr.

See alsoAlcohol, Regulation of ; Speakeasy ; Temperance Movement ; Volstead Act .

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Prohibition

PROHIBITION

The term prohibition has been borrowed by psychoanalysis from everyday language, where it is used either as an adjective to describe something we are not allowed to do, say, see, think, or be; or substantively to refer to the law, social constraint, moral education, and so on, on which this prohibition is based.

Psychoanalytic language gives a more precise meaning to the term, however. Prohibition can present itself to the subject as external, and be internalized as a result of its associated dynamic of conflict; it can also result from structural requirements inherent in the mind. In every case the formulation of the prohibition and its operation can be partially or totally unconscious, even when the resulting conduct and its justification are explicit.

The concept appears early in Freud's work and can be found in the Studies on Hysteria (1895d), where the subject, driven by desires prohibited by morality, consciously forms "representations that are irreconcilable" with that morality, and then refuses them satisfaction, doing away with them by making them unconscious through repression. Those desires are always, in the final analysis, sexual in nature, especially in the case of the "neuro-psychoses of defense." "The etiology of hysteria almost inevitably can be traced to a psychic conflict, an irreconcilable representation, which prompts into action the defense of the ego and provokes repression" (Freud, 1896b). From the very outset, then, the notion of prohibition is inseparable from the drive-defense conflict, which will constitute the core of psychoanalytic theory.

Initially, that is to say, within the framework of the first topography and the first theory of drives, Freud studied the libidinal origins of the conflict and its treatment through repression (these are the texts on metapsychology from 1915) as well as its educational ("Little Hans," 1915), sociological and ethnological (Totem and Taboo, 1912-1913a) origins. The formulation of the Oedipus complex then focused attention on the prohibition of incest.

Subsequently, the formulation of the second topography led to a redefinition of prohibition. Here, the ego appears as prey to conflicts where it is torn between "three masters": the id and its libidinal demands, reality and adaptive requirements, and a superego that is essentially defined as an agent of prohibition. (However, to this must be added the more positive functions of the ego ideal, which condenses all the moral values the subject claims to hold.)

Although throughout his work Freud presents the incest prohibition as the heart of the conflictual dynamic, he also discusses prohibitions that affect other manifestations of sexuality, primarily masturbation and the satisfaction of the partial drives or compound instincts (voyeurism, exhibitionism, anal pleasure). Generalization of the limitations created by these prohibitions can lead to serious inhibitions of thought. Moreover, it has been shown how the repression of the drives can lead to serious reaction formations, especially when aggression is poorly integrated.

Roger Perron

See also: Censorship; Conflict; Deprivation; Ethics; Incest; Law of the father; Oedipus complex; Taboo; Transgression.

Bibliography

Freud, Sigmund. (1896b). Further remarks on the neuro-psychoses of defence. SE, 3: 157-185.

Freud Sigmund, and Breuer, Josef. (1895d). Studies on hysteria. SE, 2: 48-106.

Mijolla-Mellor, Sophie de. (1993). Le "bon droit" du criminel. Topique, 52, 141-161.

Milner, Marion. (1991). On est prié de fermer les yeux. Le regard interdit. Paris: Gallimard.

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prohibition

prohibition, legal prevention of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages, the extreme of the regulatory liquor laws. The modern movement for prohibition had its main growth in the United States and developed largely as a result of the agitation of 19th-century temperance movements. Historians have pointed out that alcohol consumption rose dramatically in the 19th cent., particularly as waves of immigrants moved to America's cities, many opening saloons in their new homes. To some degree the movement to ban alcohol was the result of a social backlash by America's small-town white Protestant population against the urban immigrants and their culture. Prohibition also was often supported by political and social Progressives who advocated woman suffrage, child welfare, and other reforms, and prohibition was associated in cities with the good-government movement, which opposed a saloon culture that helped boss-led political corruption to flourish.

A number of states passed temperance laws in the early part of the 19th cent., but most of them were soon repealed. A new wave of state prohibition legislation followed the creation (1846–51) of a law in Maine, the first in the United States. Emphasis shifted from advocacy of temperance to outright demand for government prohibition. Chief of the forces in this new and effective approach was the Anti-Saloon League. Prohibition had become a national political issue, with a growing Prohibition party and support from a number of rural, religious, and business groups.

The drive was given impetus in World War I, when conservation policies limited liquor output. After the war national prohibition became the law, the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution forbidding the manufacture, sale, import, or export of intoxicating liquors. In spite of the strict Volstead Act (1919) (see under Volstead, Andrew Joseph), law enforcement proved to be very difficult. Smuggling on a large scale (see bootlegging) could not be prevented, and the illicit manufacture of liquor sprang up with such rapidity that authorities were unable to suppress it. There followed a period of unparalleled illegal drinking (often of inferior and dangerous beverages) and lawbreaking on a large and organized scale. Meanwhile, speakeasies flourished and provided a new venue for sexually integrated social interaction. In 1933 the Twenty-first Amendment, repealing prohibition, was ratified. A number of states, counties, and other divisions maintained full or partial prohibition under the right of local option. By 1966 no statewide prohibition laws existed. Prohibition laws were passed in Finland, the Scandinavian countries, and most of Canada after World War I, but were repealed, partly because of serious consequences to the countries' commerce with wine-exporting nations.

See Report on the Enforcement of the Prohibition Laws (1931) by the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission); C. Warburton, The Economic Results of Prohibition (1932, repr. 1969); H. Asbury, The Great Illusion (1950, repr. 1968); A. Sinclair, Prohibition, the Era of Excess (1962); J. H. Timberlake, Jr., Prohibition and the Progressive Movement (1963); J. Gusfield, Symbolic Crusade (1963); H. Waters, Smugglers of Spirits (1971); J. Kobler, Ardent Spirits (1973); D. Okrent, Last Call (2010); L. McGirr, The War on Alcohol (2015).

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Prohibition party

Prohibition party, in U.S. history, minor political party formed (1869) for the legislative prohibition of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages. The temperance movement was in existence as early as 1800, but it was not until 1867 that its leaders marshaled their forces to establish a separate political party to campaign for prohibition. The result was the organization (Sept., 1869) of the Prohibition party at a convention in Chicago attended by delegates from 20 states. The failure of the temperance cause to gain active support from the major political parties, the failure of public officials to enforce existing local prohibition laws in several states, and the nationwide founding of the United States Brewers' Association were factors contributing to the creation of the Prohibition party. Before entering a presidential race, the Prohibition party entered elections in nine states during the period from 1869 to 1871. The first three presidential candidates—James Black (1872), Green C. Smith (1876), and Neal Dow (1880)—each polled a very small number of votes. Although the central issue of the party was prohibition, typical party platforms included woman suffrage, free public education, prohibition of gambling, and prison reform. In 1882 the party made sizable gains in state elections, and in 1884 a vigorous presidential campaign by John P. St. John resulted in the party's first large popular vote (150,626). Of these votes, 25,000 came from New York state, which the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland carried by fewer than 1,200 votes. As most of St. John's support came from Republicans angered at the comtemptuous treatment accorded a temperance petition at their national convention, the Prohibitionists helped swing a key state to Cleveland. Four years later the temperance leader Clinton B. Fisk received almost 250,000 votes. But the peak of popular support was reached in 1892, when John Bidwell won almost 265,000 votes. The popularity of the temperance cause had been greatly furthered by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (1874), and later by the Anti-Saloon League (1893), despite the latter's nonpartisan political position. Although the Prohibition party never received a large percentage of the national vote, its influence on public policy far outweighed its electoral strength. This can be seen in state platform declarations of the major parties at this time and in the institution of prohibition by the Eighteenth Amendment. Although the Prohibition party continues to run presidential candidates, the repeal of prohibition by the Twenty-first Amendment had a decidedly weakening effect on the party.

See W. B. Hesseltine, The Rise and Fall of Third Parties (1948); H. P. Nash, Third Parties in American Politics (1959); J. Kobler, Ardent Spirits (1973).

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prohibition

prohibition Prohibitions are powerful, (theoretically) enforceable, and sanctionable social and/or legal restrictions on certain behaviours, events, or other activities—including, for example, sexual ‘deviations’, drug-taking or trafficking, and trade in endangered species. The term is often applied to the period (1919–33) during which alcohol production was outlawed in the United States. Sponsored by various religious and political moral entrepreneurs and economic interest groups, and described at the time as a ‘noble experiment’, the social consequences of prohibition were highly damaging and the experiment ultimately proved to be insupportable. Prohibitions frequently produce innovative, illegal counter-responses, and in this case criminal entrepreneurs maintained the illegal supply of alcohol. High profits and competition led to violence. Otherwise non-criminal individuals were caught up in the criminalization of a previously normal social activity. The rapid expansion of organized crime was also a legacy of the American experiment.

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GORDON MARSHALL. "prohibition." A Dictionary of Sociology. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Prohibition (Issue)

PROHIBITION (ISSUE)


During the colonial period in America alcohol consumption was more common than it was at the end of the twentieth century. Some estimate per capita consumption of alcohol during colonial times at double the rate it was in the 1990s. Puritans brewed beer and ordinary citizens consumed prodigious amounts of hard cider. Part of the reason for so much alcohol consumption was the uncertainty of potable water. Cholera epidemics in the 1830s and 1840s resulted in part from drinking unclean water. Although the abuse of alcohol was more common then, there is also considerable evidence that it was frowned upon. For example in Virginia as early as 1629, ministers were prohibited by law from excess in drinking, and in Massachusetts a 1633 law limited the amount of alcohol that could be purchased while another statute in 1637 limited the amount of time anyone could spend in a tavern. Later, many colonies imposed fines for excessive behavior as well as taxes and license fees.

The last half of the eighteenth century witnessed the beginnings of the temperance movement as religious leaders began to denounce not only excessive drinking but all consumption of alcohol. Technically, temperance meant moderation, but in fact people meant abstinence. In 1773 John Wesley, one of the founders of the Methodist Church, declared that drinking was a sin and Anthony Benezet, a leading member of the Society of Friends, the Quakers, wrote a pamphlet in which he argued that drinking tended to make a man behave foolishly and even dangerously.

The medical community was also concerned. In 1785, Dr. Benjamin Rush, the leading physician of the day, published a pamphlet entitled "Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits Upon the Human Body and Mind," wherein he listed various diseases thought to plague those who consumed alcohol. At about this time temperance organizations began to appear. Among the first were the Organization of Brethren and the Litchfield Connecticut Association.

In the early nineteenth century, those who opposed alcohol became more strident because many people saw drinking as an impediment to the growth of democracy and U.S. nationalism. This period saw the first experiments with statewide prohibition. Maine passed the first prohibition law in 1843. During the next few years Ohio, Illinois, Rhode Island, Minnesota, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and New York followed suit. But most of these efforts were short-lived. They were vetoed, soon repealed or stricken down by the courts. There was also, of course, considerable opposition from the public. State prohibition laws were widely ignored while they were in effect and in some cases there was violence, as in 1850 when people rioted against Sunday closing laws in Chicago. Still, the advocates of prohibition persisted. The American Temperance Society was founded in 1826, followed by the Washington Movement in 1840 and the Sons of Temperance in 1842. All these organizations advocated total abstinence.

By the late nineteenth century the prohibition movement, like other reform movements, was lobbying Congress. The National Prohibition Party was founded in 1869, and ran its first candidate for president, James Black, in 1872. The Women's' Christian Temperance Union was established in 1874. The organization was led by Frances Willard who was also an advocate of women's rights and suffrage. By 1884 the issue was clearly affecting the national parties. James G. Blaine, the Republican candidate for president in that year, lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland (18851889), partly as a result of his ineffective handling of the temperance question. He succeeded only in alienating people on both sides of the debate.

In 1895 the Anti-Saloon League was founded. Over the next decade-and-a-half the Anti-Saloon League was to become the most powerful lobby for prohibition advocates. Supported mostly by rural, middle-class, white Protestants, the League conducted an aggressive campaign. The Anti-Saloon League argued that liquor was destructive to society because it contributed to divorce, poverty, pauperism, crime, child abuse and insanity. During the early twentieth century, the socalled Progressive Era when social and political reforms were in vogue, the League portrayed prohibition as one of the leading reform movements of the day, and the results were impressive. By 1913 nine states had adopted statewide prohibition, and 31 had chosen the "local option" which allowed cities or counties to go dry by referendum. As a result, 75 percent of the population lived under some form of prohibition. While this was regarded as a dangerous trend by wets (people in opposition to prohibition) and their leading organizations such as the National Brewers Association, the prohibitionists would not be satisfied until prohibition covered the entire country.

Between 1913 and 1915 prohibition resolutions were twice introduced in Congress by Congressmen Joseph B. Thompson of Oklahoma and Senator Morris Sheppard of Texas. These both failed, but when the United States entered World War I in 1917, things changed. Prohibitionists could argue that the liquor industry was unpatriotic because it drained resources like grain that should be used for food, that the use of alcohol undermined the effectiveness of soldiers, and that many of the families who owned breweries and distilleries were ethnic Germans.

The resolution to prohibit the manufacture, sale, transportation, and importation of alcoholic beverages passed Congress in early 1918. Just a year later it was ratified as the Eighteenth Amendment when on January 16, 1919, Nebraska became the thirty-sixth state to approve it. The enforcement law, commonly known as the Volstead Act, passed Congress on October 29, 1919, and prohibition officially went into effect on January 17, 1920.

The national prohibition experiment was in effect for 13 years from 1920 to 1933. It was a disastrous failure in most parts of the country although in certain sections like the rural South it more or less worked because it had popular support. Generally however the results were not good. Smuggling increased during the early years followed by a rapid increase in crime as "bootleggers"'the manufacturers of illegal liquor sought to meet the overwhelming demand.

It is estimated that by 1930 the illegal manufacturing establishments numbered over 280,000, and illegal saloonsknown as Speakeasiesnumbered between 200,000 and 500,000. Moreover, people manufactured "home brew" in vast but unknown quantities and doctors issued prescriptions for equally vast quantities of whiskey to be used for "medical purposes." Contemporary estimates believe that doctors earned $40 million in 1928 alone by writing such prescriptions.

Because Congress never appropriated sufficient funds, the Volstead Act could not be effectively enforced and probably would have been repealed eventually under any conditions, but it was the coming of the Great Depression that hastened its demise. This was because the Depression triggered demands for increased employment and tax revenues.

By 1929 it was clear that prohibition was a failure and President Hoover (19291933) appointed a special commission to study the issue. Chaired by George W. Wickersham, a former Attorney General, the commission issued its report in 1931. Oddly enough, even though the commission recognized all the problems with prohibition, they nevertheless recommended that it be continued. This however was not to be.

At their 1932 national convention the Democrats advocated for the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment and their presidential candidate, Governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt (19331945) of New York, agreed. Roosevelt was easily elected and the repeal amendment was introduced in Congress on February 14, 1933, before the inauguration. It was approved by both Houses within a few days and submitted to the states for ratification. It was quickly approved and adopted by Congress on December 5, 1933.

Even though the national prohibition experiment failed, there remained millions of people in this country who thought alcohol and its use were sinful, wasteful and dangerous. Thus prohibition in one form or another persisted. The Prohibition Party, though minuscule, continued to campaign, certain churches demanded that their members practice abstinence from alcohol, and 40 states continued to permit the local option.

See also: Black Market, Great Depression, Illegal Drugs

FURTHER READING

Cherrington, E. H. The Evolution of Prohibition in the United States of America. Westerville, OH: American Issue Press, 1920.

Clark, Norman H. Deliver Us From Evil: An Interpretation of American Prohibition. New York: Norton, 1976.

Dobyns, F. The Amazing Story of Repeal. Chicago: Willett, Clark and Company, 1940.

Furnas, J.C. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. New York: Putnam, 1965.

Krout, J. A. Pressure Politics: The Story of the Anti-Saloon League. New York: Columbia University Press, 1928.

Sinclair, Andrew. The Era of Excess. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962.

Thornton, Mark. The Economics of Prohibition. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1991.

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prohibition

pro·hi·bi·tion / ˌprō(h)əˈbishən/ • n. 1. the action of forbidding something, esp. by law: they argue that prohibition of drugs will always fail. ∎  a law or regulation forbidding something: those who favor prohibitions on insider trading. 2. (Prohibition) the prevention by law of the manufacture and sale of alcohol, esp. in the U.S. between 1920 and 1933. DERIVATIVES: pro·hi·bi·tion·ar·y / -ˌnerē/ adj. Pro·hi·bi·tion·ist / -nist/ n.

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"prohibition." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-prohibition.html

Prohibition

Prohibition (1919–33) Period in US history when the government prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic drinks. The 18th Amendment to the US Constitution, confirmed by the Volstead Act (1919), brought in Prohibition. Smuggling, illicit manufacture, corruption of government officials and police, and the growth of organized crime financed by bootlegging made it a failure. The 21st Amendment (1933) repealed Prohibition.

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"Prohibition." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Prohibition." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Prohibition.html

"Prohibition." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved July 24, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Prohibition.html

Prohibition

Prohibition the prevention by law of the manufacture and sale of alcohol, especially in the US between 1920 and 1933. In the US, it was forbidden by the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, but led to widespread bootlegging of illicit liquor by organized gangs, and was repealed by the 21st Amendment.

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ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "Prohibition." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "Prohibition." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-Prohibition.html

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "Prohibition." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Retrieved July 24, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-Prohibition.html

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