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Tulsa: Economy

Tulsa: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Tulsa's central location in the United States makes it a desirable place to locate nearly any type of business, from manufacturing to retail, telecommunications, and service-oriented industries. Operating costs generally run well below the national average. According to a 2004 study published by Forbes magazine, the Tulsa metropolitan area ranks as the third lowest metro area in terms of cost-of-living in the United States.

Tulsa was literally the "Oil Capital of the World" from the early 1920s until World War II. By the time the companies moved operations closer to offshore production, Tulsa had begun to develop the aircraft and aerospace industry, which is now the region's largest industry. Today Tulsa has more than 300 aviation-related companies, contributing to more than 32,000 Tulsa jobs and 140,000 statewide jobs in aviation. The industry generates $960 million in annual payroll and contributes an additional $3.3 billion annually to the region. In addition, two insurance companies are major employers, as are major manufacturers such as Ford Glass and Whirlpool. Three car rental company headquarters and a major car rental reservation center are located in Tulsa. Telecommunications is also a major industry, employing about 15,000 people annually.

In early 1971, Tulsa opened the Tulsa Port of Catoosa on the Verdigris River, thereby becoming a major inland port along the 445-mile McClellan-Kerr Navigation System. The port provides low-cost shipping for such products as oil, coal, fertilizer, and grain to the Mississippi River, and from there on to the Great Lakes or the Gulf of Mexico and around the world.

In 2004 the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) had a gross product of $27.1 billion, about one-third of the Oklahoma economy. Healthcare has become big business in Tulsa, employing over 30,000 people and contributing $1.4 billion in payroll income to the Tulsa economy. Employment figures reveal Tulsa industries as major employers on the national scene. The Tulsa MSA ranks nationally in the areas of aircraft engines and aircraft, ranked 6th and 17th respectively; oil and gas products and services, ranked 7th; fabricated platework, ranked 2nd; metal pumps, ranked 4th; and hoists and cranes, fabricated metal pipe, and laundry and cleaning appliances all ranked 3rd.

Items and goods produced: airplane parts, appliances, metal pipes and pumps, fiber optics, meat, feed, boilers, burners, fishing rods, natural gas

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies

Local programs

The Tulsa Port of Catoosa has been designated an Enterprise Zone and can offer businesses tax credits for job creators, tax exemptions of up to 6 years for qualifying businesses, and low-interest loans. Most incentive programs are at the state level.

State programs

In 2002 Oklahoma became the nation's 22nd state to adopt the Right-to-Work law, creating a business friendly environment that has directly benefited state workers. State officials credit the law with creating 94 percent more jobs due to start-ups and expansions, as well as raising average hourly wages for workers in manufacturing and bringing the state to the lead in household income growth. In 2004 Pollina Real Estate Corporation ranked Oklahoma third in the nation in its list of Top Ten Pro-Business States. The Oklahoma Tax and Incentives Guide, published by the Oklahoma Department of Commerce, summarizes state tax advantages and business incentives. For instance, Oklahoma's Quality Jobs Program pays cash payments up to five percent of payroll to companies that create new jobs in the state. It is targeted toward manufacturers and certain service companies that have a new payroll investment of $2.5 million or more. A lower payroll threshold is available for certain food processing and research and development projects or as a result of location in targeted areas. Investment/Jobs Income Tax Credit and Construction Sales Tax Refunds Package is geared primarily toward manufacturing. It allows a five-year tax credit on the greater of one percent per year of investment in qualified new depreciable property or a credit of $500 per year per qualified new job. The Sales Tax Refunds are available on construction materials for certain manufacturers and aircraft maintenance repair facilities; on purchases of computers, data processing equipment for certain aircraft facilities; and for purchases of computer services and data processing for qualified computer services or research and development companies. Additional incentives include five-year ad valorem tax exemption for manufacturing, research and development, certain computer/data services, and certain distribution services; customized employee training; key sales tax exemptions; Freeport Law; Industrial Access Road Assistance; Foreign Trade Zones; and financing through various programs and agencies.

Job training programs

Customized industrial training programs, at no cost to the employer, are provided by the Oklahoma State Department of Vocational and Technical Education. Management training is also available through vocational-technical schools at 48 sites statewide.

Development Projects

Tulsa voters approved a one-cent sales tax increase in 2003 to fund several Tulsa 2025 initiatives; the fund would create tax incentives that would benefit two key area employersBoeing and American Airlines, among others. Of the $885 million, nearly 40 percent was earmarked as incentives for Boeing Corp. to land the final assembly plant for Boeing's new 7E7 jetliner. Another $22.3 million in incentives was slotted to retain and expand American Airlines' Tulsa maintenance center. The proposal also designates 40 percent of the penny tax, or $350.3 million, for economic development, education, and updates to the highly valuable Tulsa County EXPO Square facility and a new and modernized convention and events center to sustain and grow Tulsa's meeting and events industry. The remaining 17.5 percent, or $157.4 million, would go toward community enrichment projects ranging from two low water dams, to new soccer fields, parks, museums, swimming pools, and community centers. The low water dams stand to enrich the development of Tulsa's Arkansas River, which runs next to the downtown region and connects Tulsa's suburban communities.

Economic Development Information: Metropolitan Tulsa Chamber of Commerce, 616 S. Boston, Suite 100, Tulsa, OK 74119; telephone (918)585-1201. Oklahoma Department of Commerce, Office of Business Location Division, PO Box 26980, Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0980; telephone (405)815-6552

Commercial Shipping

The Tulsa Port of Catoosa is an inland port and foreign trade zone along the Arkansas River, with more than 2,000 acres of adjacent industrial parks. Barge tonnage through the port was more than 2.3 million tons in 2004. Five railroad systems network throughout the region.

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

A 2002 Labor Market Survey commissioned by the Tulsa Metro Chamber revealed that the Tulsa region is a somewhat undiscovered area for employers seeking office, high-technology, distribution, and manufacturing labor. The local population is generally well-educated and growing, with the number of workers in the key 12-15 years of education range exceeding the national average. Tulsa workers were found to be above state and national averages in terms of computer and technology skills, experience, and diversity of skills. Professional and managerial talent can be recruited to the area with relative ease. Contributing to this favorable recruiting climate is a large number of students enrolled in and graduating from the region's post-secondary institutions. Tulsa has 6 technology centers and 4 two-year institutions that graduate 2,800 students annually, 8 four-year schools that graduate 4,800 annually, and one medical college. The overall payoff for employers is excellent, with labor costs at only about 75 percent of the national average. Present and future economic growth areas are primarily in the service and trade sectors, specifically reservations, data and credit card processing, telecommunications, aviation and aerospace, transportation, communications, and utilities.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Tulsa metropolitan area labor force, 2003 annual averages.

Size of nonagricultural labor force: 381,400

Number of workers employed in . . .

natural resources and mining: 4,200

construction: 19,300

manufacturing: 45,900

trade, transportation and utilities: 81,000

information: 12,100

financial activities: 24,100

professional and business services: 47,600

educational and health services: 51,100

leisure and hospitality: 32,400

other services: 19,800

government: 44,000

Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $16.65

Unemployment rate: 4.2% (December 2004)

Largest employers Number of employees
American Airlines 9,100
Tulsa Public Schools 7,000
City of Tulsa 4,220
St. Francis Hospital 4,100
St. John Medical Center 4,050
Bank of Oklahoma 2,520
Hillcrest Medical Center 2,350
Tulsa Community College 2,200

Cost of Living

In 2005 the Tulsa Chamber of Commerce reported that Tulsa's cost of living was 8% below the national average while per capita income was 11% above the national average. Tulsa remained below the national average in unemployment with gains in net new job growth.

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors for the Tulsa area.

2004 (3rd Quarter) Average House Price: $201,365

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 93.6 (U.S. average = 100.0)

State income tax rate: Ranges from 0.5% to 6.75%

State sales tax rate: 4.5%

Local income tax rate: none

Local sales tax rate: 3.0% (county sales tax rate: 1.417%)

Property tax rate: the average effective tax rate for locally assessed property is about 1.0% of the value of the property (2005)

Economic Information: Metropolitan Tulsa Chamber of Commerce, 616 S. Boston, Suite 100, Tulsa, OK 74119; telephone (918)585-1201

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Tulsa: Recreation

Tulsa: Recreation

Sightseeing

Tulsa boasts one of the nation's largest city-owned parks, 2,800-acre Mohawk Park. Along with picnic and recreation areas, the park contains the Tulsa Zoological Park with its Nocturnal Animal Building, Chimpanzee Colony, Children's Zoo, and North American Living Museum showcasing Native American artifacts and replicas of dinosaurs. The Tulsa Zoo has emerged as one of the most impressive zoos in the region and was named "America's Favorite Zoo" by the Microsoft Corporation. The Tulsa Garden Center features beautiful dogwood and azalea plantings. Nearby is the award-winning Tulsa Rose Garden. Tulsa's oldest landmark is a tree, the Council Oak, which still stands in the Creek Nation Council Oak Park as a memorial to the Lachapokas and Tallassee Creek tribes, the first settlers of what later became Tulsa.

Industrial tours of Tulsa are offered by several facilities, including the Frankhoma Pottery Factory, which uses Oklahoma clay for its creations; the Sun Petroleum Products Company; and the American Airlines Maintenance Engineering Base, which overhauls and repairs aircraft. Sight-seers may also tour the campus of Oral Roberts University with its unique Prayer Tower.

Arts and Culture

Long known as a cultural center and leading the state in the number and quality of cultural events, Tulsa offers the visitor year-round entertainment. A blooming arts scene is happening in the new Greenwood Cultural Center in the historic Greenwood District. Stage performances, art galleries, and the annual Juneteenth Jazz Festival are part of this area's resurgence. In 2004 the county announced the purchase of the district's Tulsa Union Depot, an historic train station, as the new home of the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame. The Hall was created to educate the public about the significant contributions of Oklahoma's jazz musicians. During Greenwood's heyday, such notable jazz and blues performers as Nat "King" Cole, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Dizzy Gillespie, and Lionel Hampton, all visited Tulsa to play at white clubs and then jam afterwards with local musicians on Greenwood Avenue. For performances of theater, dance, and music, the six-level Performing Arts Center (or PAC), located in the Williams Center in downtown Tulsa, seats 2,400 people in its music hall and 450 people in the performing theater. Among groups and programs in residence are the Tulsa Philharmonic Orchestra, Tulsa Ballet, Tulsa Opera, Tulsa Philharmonic, Tulsa Town Hall, and the Broadway series. Ten miles from Tulsa is the Discoveryland! Outdoor Theater, which presents the popular musical classic "Oklahoma!" during the summer.

Among the many museums and galleries in the Tulsa area is the Thomas Gilcrease Museum, which features more than 10,000 works by American artists from colonial times to the present. The centerpiece is the country's most impressive collection of works by famous western artists such as Frederic Remington, Charles Russell, and George Catlin, plus maps, manuscripts, rare books, and prehistoric and modern Indian artifacts. The Tulsa County Historical Society Museum displays photographs, rare books, furniture, and tools representative of Tulsa's early days. Objects of Jewish art, history, ceremony, and everyday life are presented at the Gershon and Rebecca Fenster Museum of Jewish Art. The Philbrook Museum of Art exhibits Chinese jades, paintings of the Italian Renaissance and of nineteenth-century England and America, plus Native American basketry, paintings, and pottery. The center is surrounded by several acres of formal gardens. The Alexandre Hogue Gallery of Art at Tulsa University showcases traveling art collections as well as works by local artists, including students and instructors. The Tulsa Air and Space Center museum promotes Tulsa's rich aviation history; the center planned to move into a brand new facility near the Tulsa Zoo and Mohawk Park in late 2005.

Arts and Culture Information: Arts & Humanities Council of Tulsa, 2210 S. Main, Tulsa, OK 74114; telephone (918)584-3333; email tulsaarts@mail.webtek.com

Festivals and Holidays

Mayfest, a celebration of spring held in late May, is Tulsa's most prominent downtown event. The festivities include arts, crafts, music, and food. In late May, the Gilcrease Rendezvous Fair at the Gilcrease Museum is patterned after long-ago fur-trading events. The Tulsa Powwow, one of the largest Native American powwows in the world, takes place in early June. Highlights include authentic arts and crafts plus ceremonial dances and fancy-dress competitions. Every June, the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame inducts new members into its ranks during the Juneteenth Heritage Festival on Greenwood Avenue. The yearly festival draws more than 50,000 people. The end of September brings the Tulsa State Fair; with more than 1 million fairgoers, it is one of the largest in the country. Other celebrations include the Tulsa Indian Arts Festival (February), the Boom River Celebration (4th of July), the Bok/Williams Jazz Festival (August), the Chili Cookoff/Bluegrass Festival (September), Oktoberfest, and the Christmas Parade of Lights.

Sports for the Spectator

Fans of professional sports will find the Double A Tulsa Drillers, a farm team of the Texas Rangers, rounding the bases from April through August at renovated Drillers Stadium, where a capacity of 10,997 makes it the largest Double A ballpark in the country. The Tulsa Talons have been playing professional arena football since 2000, and the Tulsa Oilers of the Central Hockey League take to the ice, both at the Tulsa Convention Center from November through March. In collegiate sports, the University of Tulsa fields Golden Hurricane football and basketball teams. The football season lasts from September through November and games are played at Skelly Stadium. Both the Golden Hurricane and the Oral Roberts University Golden Eagles play basketball from November through March. The Oral Roberts University Lady Titans play baseball at the Mabee Center from mid-February to mid-May.

Tulsa's numerous equestrian events include the Longhorn Championship Rodeo, in which the top money-winners on the rodeo circuit compete. Tulsa also plays host to several prestigious golf tours and championships at its challenging Southern Hills Country Club, including the 2007 PGA championship. Other spectator sports include tennis and horse racing as well as stock-car races.

Sports for the Participant

Public recreation opportunities abound on and around the seven large lakes surrounding Tulsa. The area has become known locally as "Green Country," encompassing thousands of miles of shoreline on Grand Lake, Lake Eufala, Keystone Lake, Lake Tenkiller, and others. In the River Parks system along the Arkansas River in the heart of Tulsa, visitors can enjoy more than 50 miles of hiking/biking trails as well as picnic and playground areas. Mohawk Park offers bridle trails and a polo field. Other facilities include several golf courses, more than 100 tennis courts, several municipal swimming pools, Bell's Amusement Park, and Big Splash Water Park.

Shopping and Dining

From nationally known stores to specialty shops, Tulsa provides shoppers with a wide range of choices. Three large malls serve the metro area, including the largest, Woodland Hills, as well as Eastland Mall and Tulsa Promenade. Utica Square is a tree-lined avenue of posh stores and diverse retailers. Just northwest of Utica Square, trendy boutiques and restaurants cater to more Bohemian tastes, while the Brookside area, a little south of the Square, offers still more individualized shopping, with some of Tulsa's best dining. The Cherry Street historic district has been restored and many small shops have opened there. Jenks, America is the city's antiques center near the downtown Jenks neighborhood. Smaller shops featuring Native American crafts and Oklahoma memorabilia abound. Saturday's Flea Market at Expo Square is also a favorite shopping destination.

Dozens of restaurants offer menus ranging from traditional American cuisine to those with an international flavor. Regional specialties include chicken-fried steak, Santa Fe-style Mexican food, and authentic western barbecues.

Visitor Information: Tulsa Convention & Visitors Bureau, 616 S. Boston Ave. #100, Tulsa, OK 74119-1298; telephone (918)585-1201; toll-free (800)558-3311; fax (918)592-6244; email TulsaCVB@tulsachamber.com

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Tulsa: Education and Research

Tulsa: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

The largest public school system in the state of Oklahoma, the Tulsa Public Schools (TPS) system has received national acclaim for its voluntary desegregation plan, which includes magnet schools and open-transfer. Tulsa Public Schools offers a wide range of curriculum to students living in a 172.78 square mile radius, spread throughout Tulsa, Wagoner, Osage and Creek counties. More than 80 percent of students reside inside Tulsa city limits. Approximately 39 percent of TPS teachers have advanced degrees and 47 percent have more than 10 years of experience. Overall the state of Oklahoma teachers rank in the top 10 in certification and top 5 in No Child Left Behind requirements; the state ranks 4th in classroom internet connectivity. TPS owns its own fiber optic network. In addition to the district's 81 schools, a number of special and alternative programs are also in operation, such as the Street School, Project 12, Margaret Hudson and Franklin Youth Academy. Tulsa County Area Vocational-Technical Schools, recognized as one of the leading model programs in the nation, offers more than 200 subject areas for approximately 3,000 high school students and more than 15,000 adults.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Tulsa Public Schools as of the 20042005 school year.

Total enrollment: 43,029

Number of facilities

elementary schools: 57

junior high/middle schools: 15

senior high schools: 9

Student/teacher ratio: 16:1

Teacher salaries

average: $43,810

Funding per pupil: $7,322 (2003)

There are more than 20 private religious schools or secular secondary and elementary schools in greater Tulsa.

Public Schools Information: Tulsa Public Schools, PO Box 470208, Tulsa, OK 74147; telephone (918)746-6298

Colleges and Universities

Metropolitan Tulsa has five major state and several private institutions of higher learning. Public institutions include Oklahoma State University at Tulsa (enrollment 2,600), the University of Oklahoma at Tulsa, Oklahoma City University at Tulsa, Rogers State University (enrollment 3,600), and Tulsa Community College (enrollment 22,866).

Tulsa's three private universities are the University of Tulsa (enrollment 4,072), Oral Roberts University (enrollment 5,700), and Oklahoma Wesleyan University (enrollment 799). The University of Tulsa, the state's oldest private university, was founded as a school for Indian girls. Today it offers programs through the doctoral level to its more than 4,200 students. The most popular recent majors are liberal arts/general studies, elementary education, and nursing. Oral Roberts University is a Christian-centered liberal arts college, education students from 50 states and more than 50 countries in 138 areas of study, including business administration/commerce/management, telecommunications, and elementary education. Southern Nazarene is another private institution that offers undergraduate and graduate programs for business people who can only attend classes in the evening.

The renowned Spartan School of Aeronautics, one of the oldest continually operating aviation schools in the world, has graduated more than 80,000 in its 75 years of education in the fields of aviation maintenance technology, avionics technology, communications technology, quality control, and aviation. Other kinds of specialized education and training are available at the Tulsa Technology Center, which trains high school juniors and seniors as well as adults. Students in Tulsa also attend several business and trade schools.

Libraries and Research Centers

The Tulsa City-County Library has a Central Library, four regional libraries, and 19 branches. Approximately 308,000 cardholders check out more than 3.7 million volumes annually. In addition to its permanent collection of 1.7 million volumes and 2,600 periodical subscriptions, the library houses government documents, maps, art reproductions, and audio/videotapes, plus talking and large-print books. Special collections include the Land Office Survey Map Collection and the Shakespeare Collection. The Library's American Indian Resource Center provides cultural, educational, and informational resources, and activities and services honoring American Indian heritage, arts, and achievements. The center provides access to more than 7,000 books and media for adults and children by and about American Indians, including historical and rare materials, new releases, videos and music compact discs. Subjects include American Indian languages, art, culture, fiction, genealogy, history, and religion. In 2005 the Center held its American Indian Festival of Words. Among the special collections at the Thomas Gilgrease Institute of American History and Art Library are Hispanic documents from the period 15001800 and the papers of Cherokee Chief John Ross and Choctaw Chief Peter Pitchlynn. Tulsa has 27 other libraries offering reference materials on a wide range of topics, many having to do with petroleum. Research centers affiliated with the University of Tulsa conduct projects in such fields as women's literature and petroleum engineering, while a center affiliated with Oral Roberts University researches the Holy Spirit, among other topics.

Public Library Information: Tulsa City-County Library, 400 Civic Center, Tulsa, OK 74103; telephone (918)596-7977

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Tulsa: History

Tulsa: History

City's Native American Roots

French traders and plains-culture Osage tribes occupied the region now surrounding Tulsa when the United States bought the land from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Soon the federal government sought to remove communities of the Five Civilized TribesCherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminolefrom their traditional lands in the southeastern United States to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. After violent protest, in 1826 the Osages ceded their land in the Tulsa area to the U.S. government, which in turn gave it to exiled Creeks and Cherokees. Many of the Native Americans who were forced to resettle in Oklahoma brought black slaves with them. In 1836 Archie Yahola, a full-blood Creek, presided over the region's first council meeting, held under an oak tree that came to be known as the Council Oak. The tree still stands in Tulsa's Creek Nation Council Oak Park.

The settlement convened at the Council Oak was first named Tallassee-Lochapoka, for the Alabama regions the Creeks had left behind; eventually it became known as Tulseyor TulseeTown. The name Tulsa became official for the settlement in 1879 with the establishment of the post office, which also marked the beginning of Tulsa as an economic force in the area. When a railroad connection reached Tulsa in 1882, the town began to supply beef and other staples to the East, South, and Midwest. Ranching and farmingmostly by Creeks or Cherokeesflourished. Tulsa grew steadily and became incorporated as a municipality on January 18, 1898.

Oil Spurs White Settlement; Racial Uneasiness Surfaces

In 1901 oil reserves were discovered in Red Fork, across the Arkansas River from Tulsa. Enterprising Tulsans built a toll bridge to connect their city with the oil country, and oil men crossed the river to make Tulsa their home. Despite Indian Territory laws that discouraged white settlement, the region became increasingly open to whites, and Tulsa grew into a business and residential center. Oil gushed again in 1905, this time from the Glenn Pool well. Oil companies built headquarters in Tulsa, bringing families of corporate executives, urban tastes, and money. In 1906 the U.S. Congress passed the Enabling Act, which merged Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory, achieving statehood for Oklahoma and bringing down the last barriers to settlement of the region. The decade of the 1920s was a tumultuous period for Oklahoma as a whole, with oil wells gushing, whites and Native Americans becoming fabulously wealthy, and the Ku Klux Klan boasting close to 100,000 members statewide. A race riot erupted in Tulsa in 1921 that has been described as one of this country's worst incidents of racial violence. Some 300 people died and 35 city blocks of Tulsa's Greenwood section, known as "the Black Wall Street," were destroyed after a black man was arrested for allegedly assaulting a white woman. In 1997 the Oklahoma state legislature named an 11-member Tulsa Race Riot Commission to unearth the facts behind the incident. In early 2000 the commission recommended direct payments to survivors and victims' descendants, scholarships, a tax checkoff program to fund economic development in the mostly black Greenwood district, and a memorial to the dead.

Modern Economy Diversified

Between 1907 and 1930, Tulsa's population grew by 1,900 percent. By the 1920s Tulsa was being called the Oil Capital of the World. But not content to be an oil capital only, Tulsa continued its expansion into other commercial and industrial areas as well. In fact, several of Tulsa's firms had a part in the U.S. moon-thrust endeavor, Project Apollo. Today, oil retains importance but Tulsa primarily relies on aerospace, telecommunications, energy, and environmental engineering/manufacturing for its industrial base. In 1996 Nation's Cities Weekly described Tulsa as "a unique social, cultural and corporate melting pot that somehow maintains a 'downhome' feeling."

Due in large part to planning and intelligent growth, as well as a general demographic shift that has seen continued growth in the southern and southwestern states, Tulsa joins a number of other mid-sized cities enjoying revitalization in the early 21st century. In 2004, based on Tulsa's strides in preparing itself for the new global economy and its opportunities for tourism, business investment, relocation, education, retirement, and better quality of life, the city was selected as one of America's Most Livable Communities by the Partners for Livable Communities in Washington, D.C.

Historical Information: Tulsa Historical Society, 2445 South Peoria, Tulsa, OK 74114; telephone (918)712-9484

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Tulsa: Population Profile

Tulsa: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents

1980: 657,000

1990: 708,954

2000: 803,235

Percent change, 19902000: 13.3%

U.S. rank in 1980: 52nd

U.S. rank in 1990: 56th

U.S. rank in 2000: 58th

City Residents

1980: 360,919

1990: 367,302

2000: 393,049

2003 estimate: 387,807

Percent change, 19902000: 7.03%

U.S. rank in 1980: 38th

U.S. rank in 1990: 43rd (State rank: 2nd)

U.S. rank in 2000: 52nd (State rank: 2nd)

Density: 2,103.4 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 275,488

Black or African American: 60,794

American Indian and Alaska Native: 18,551

Asian: 7,150

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 202

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 28,111

Other: 13,564

Percent of residents born in state: 56.2% (2000)

Age characteristics (2000)

Poplation under 5 years old: 28,318

Poplation 5 to 9 years old: 27,606

Poplation 10 to 14 years old: 25,980

Poplation 15 to 19 years old: 27,180

Poplation 20 to 24 years old: 31,286

Poplation 25 to 34 years old: 58,659

Poplation 35 to 44 years old: 58,916

Poplation 45 to 54 years old: 52,383

Poplation 55 to 59 years old: 18,179

Poplation 60 to 64 years old: 14,034

Poplation 65 to 74 years old: 25,982

Poplation 75 to 84 years old: 18,256

Population 85 years and older: 6,270

Median age: 34.5 years

Births (2002, Tulsa County)

Total number: 9,288

Deaths (2002, Tulsa County)

Total number: 5,225

Money income (2000)

Per capita income: $21,534

Median household income: $35,401

Total households: 165,881

Number of households with income of . . .

less than $10,000: 17,625

$10,000 to $14,999: 13,268

$15,000 to $24,999: 26,886

$25,000 to $34,999: 24,407

$35,000 to $49,999: 28,203

$50,000 to $74,999: 26,638

$75,000 to $99,999: 12,766

$100,000 to $149,999: 9,249

$150,000 to $199,999: 2,977

$200,000 or more: 3,862

Percent of families below poverty level: 10.9% (51.9% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 30,199

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Tulsa: Transportation

Tulsa: Transportation

Approaching the City

Visitors arriving by air will touch down at Tulsa International Airport, just nine miles northeast of downtownapproximately 15 minutes by taxi. Employing more than 17,000 people, the modern 22-gate facility is served by 10 passenger air carriers and supports about 170 daily arrivals and departures. South of the city is the Richard Lloyd Jones, Jr., Airport, a smaller facility serving general aviation traffic. For those traveling to Tulsa by car, the major direct routes are Interstate Highways 44 from the east and southwhich merges with U.S. Highway 75-Alternate and State Highway 33 a few miles southwest of the cityand 244 from the eastwhich intersects with I-44 a few miles east of Tulsa and leads directly into the city, then merges with U.S. 75 southwest of the city; U.S. Highway 75 from the north and south, 64 from the southeastwhich merges with State 51 southeast and northwest of the cityand 169 from the northeast; and by State highways 412an east-west highway south of the cityand 51 from the east and west. Four toll expressways radiate from the city, the Red Fork and Crosstown (both are Interstate 244), Cherokee (U.S. 75), and Broken Arrow (U.S. 64/State 51).

Traveling in the City

Downtown Tulsa is bounded on the north by Interstate 244/U.S. 64/State 51, on the east by U.S. 75, on the south by U.S. 64/State 51, and on the west by Interstate 244/U.S. 75.

Tulsa's bus-based mass transit system, Tulsa Transit, has routes to most business, shopping, and recreation areas and is operated by the Metropolitan Tulsa Transit Authority. Unique to the system are trackless trolleys. To make commuting easier, the city also offers Rideshare, a free computerized service matching individuals who drive similar routes daily.

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Tulsa: Communications

Tulsa: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

Tulsa's morning and Sunday newspaper is the Tulsa World. In addition, an African American community newspaper, The Oklahoma Eagle, two business newspapers, and several suburban and metro area weeklies serve the city. Tulsa also publishes a wide variety of periodicals, including Geophysics: The Leading Edge of Exploration, James Joyce Quarterly, and others covering such topics as science, petroleum, dentistry, and medicine.

Television and Radio

Seven television stations broadcast from Tulsaaffiliates of NBC, PBS, CBS, ABC, and Fox, plus two independents. Other stations operate in the area from nearby towns. In addition, Tulsa radio provides listeners with a choice of 23 AM and FM stations broadcasting religious programs, country music, oldies and contemporary hits, talk, and sports.

Media Information: Tulsa World, 315 S. Boulder Avenue, PO Box 1770, Tulsa, OK 74102; telephone (918)582-0921; toll-free (800)444-6552

Tulsa Online

City of Tulsa. Available www.cityoftulsa.org

Metropolitan Tulsa Chamber of Commerce. Available www.tulsachamber.com

Oklahoma Community Links. Available www.state.ok.us/osfdocs/county.html

Oklahoma Department of Commerce. Available www.odoc.state.ok.us

Tulsa City-County Library. Available www.tulsalibrary.org

Tulsa Oklahoma Convention & Visitors Bureau. Available www.tulsachamber.com/cvb.htm

Tulsa Public Schools. Available www.tulsaschools.org

Tulsa World. Available www.tulsaworld.com

Selected Bibliography

Bernhardt, William, Dark Justice (New York: Ballantine Books, 1999)

Johnson, Hannibal B. Black Wall Street: From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa's Historic Greenwood District (Marion Koogler McNay Art Museum, 1998)

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Tulsa: Convention Facilities

Tulsa: Convention Facilities

A moderate climate, abundant hotel spaceapproximately 9,000 rooms in Tulsa and the metropolitan areaand a wide range of leisure, cultural, and recreational opportunities make Tulsa attractive to large and small groups of convention-goers.

In 2005 ground was broken on the city's most exciting development project in many years, the 18,000 seat Regional Convention and Events Center, featuring a stunning, futuristic design by world-renowned architect Cesar Pelli. The Tulsa Convention Center, in the heart of the business district and only six blocks from the Performing Arts Center (which is also available for meetings), offers facilities for sports, banquets, concerts, exhibitions, trade shows, and stage performances. The facility provides 102,000 square feet of exhibit space, a banquet area seating up to 5,100 people, an arena seating 8,992 people plus additional arena floor space, and 25 conference rooms for break-out sessions seating 45 to 275 people. The Tulsa Exposition Center contains four meeting centers providing an exhibit area with a total of 548,798 square feet, a banquet area seating 1,700 to 20,000+ people, 7,523 arena seats, and a race track with 8,900 covered seats.

Among the city's other convention facilities are the Downtown Doubletree Hotel, the Doubletree Hotel at Warren Place, Adam's Mark Tulsa, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa Sheraton, and Grandview.

Convention Information: Tulsa Convention & Visitors Bureau, 616 S. Boston Ave. #100, Tulsa, OK 74119-1298; telephone (918)585-1201; toll-free (800)558-3311; fax (918)592-6244; email TulsaCVB@tulsachamber.com

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Tulsa

Tulsa (tŭl´sə), city (1990 pop. 367,302), seat of Tulsa co., NE Okla., on the Arkansas River east of its junction with the Cimarron; inc. 1898. It became an inland port with the opening (1971) of the McClellan-Kerr Waterway, a 440-mi (708-km) system linking it with the Gulf of Mexico. Tulsa is an important center of the nation's petroleum industry, with refineries and plants that produce petroleum products and related equipment. Although refining functions declined in the late 20th cent., several major oil concerns have their business offices and research laboratories there. The city's many manufactures include air conditioners; asphalt; oil-field, plumbing, and communications equipment; rubber and glass products; metal castings; agricultural chemicals; and power tools. The aerospace industry and banking are also important. An extensive park system and well-planned communities characterize the residential aspect of the city. Tulsa is also a cultural and educational center with a symphony orchestra, opera, and ballet, all of which perform at the Tulsa Performing Arts Center; the Philbrook Museum of Art; and the Gilcrease Museum. The Univ. of Tulsa, Oral Roberts Univ., and campuses of Oklahoma State Univ. and the Univ. of Oklahoma are in the city. Tulsa grew as a cattle-shipping village after the coming of the railroad in 1882 and boomed with the discovery of oil nearby in 1901. In 1921 one of its black districts, Greenwood, was the scene of a notorious race riot by whites.

See J. S. Hirsch, Riot and Remembrance: The Tulsa Race War and Its Legacy (2001).

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Tulsa

TULSA

TULSA, city in northeastern Oklahoma located on the Arkansas River. Sitting in the middle of some of the richest oil fields in the United States, Tulsa grew in conjunction with the rise of the railroad and oil industries in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Settled by the Creek tribe after the Trail of Tears in 1836, it was originally named Tulsee Town from the word Tullahassee or "old town." As more whites began to settle, the town changed its name to Tulsa in 1879 and incorporated as a city in 1898. The discovery of oil in the early 1900s expanded the city's economy. In 1921 racial tensions led to one of the most violent riots of the twentieth century, resulting in the deaths of an official number of thirty-six people, primarily African Americans, though unofficial estimates run as high as 250 to 400 people. The city's economy further benefited as electronics and aircraft manufacturing jobs arrived in the region during World War II. Though no longer the "oil capital of the world," Tulsa continues to have a very close relationship with the energy industry. The city has a total land area of 182.7 square miles and a 2000 Census population of 393,049 persons, up from 367,302 in 1990.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ellsworth, Scott. Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.

Halliburton, R., Jr. The Tulsa Race War of 1921. San Francisco: R and E Research Associates, 1975.

Matthew L.Daley

See alsoCreeks .

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Tulsa

Tulsa

Tulsa: Introduction
Tulsa: Geography and Climate
Tulsa: History
Tulsa: Population Profile
Tulsa: Municipal Government
Tulsa: Economy
Tulsa: Education and Research
Tulsa: Health Care
Tulsa: Recreation
Tulsa: Convention Facilities
Tulsa: Transportation
Tulsa: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1836 (incorporated 1898)

Head Official: Mayor Bill LaFortune (since 2002)

City Population

1980: 360,919

1990: 367,302

2000: 393,049

2003 estimate: 387,807

Percent change, 19902000: 7.03%

U.S. rank in 1980: 38th

U.S. rank in 1990: 43rd (State rank: 2nd)

U.S. rank in 2000: 52nd (State rank: 2nd)

Metropolitan Area Population

1980: 657,000

1990: 709,000

2000: 803,235

Percent change, 19902000: 13.3%

U.S. rank in 1980: 52nd

U.S. rank in 1990: 56th

U.S. rank in 2000: 58th

Area: 186.84 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 700 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 63.0° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 38.77 inches

Major Economic Sectors: aerospace and air transportation, petroleum and natural gas, healthcare, telecommunications, business and financial services, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing

Unemployment rate: 4.2% (December 2004)

Per Capita Income: $21,534 (1999)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 30,119

Major Colleges and Universities: University of Tulsa, Oral Roberts University

Daily Newspaper: Tulsa World

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Tulsa: Health Care

Tulsa: Health Care

Metropolitan Tulsa has 25 hospitals providing a full range of medical treatment including Tulsa Life Flight, 24-hour emergency helicopter service to and from the region's hospitals. Six general hospitals serve Tulsa: Doctors' Medical Center, Hillcrest Medical Center, St. Francis Hospital, St. John Medical Center, Children's Medical Center, and Tulsa Regional Medical Center and Cancer Treatment Center. Most have medical school affiliation and serve as approved learning centers for medical interns and residents. Treatment and consultation are offered in virtually all fields of medicine, including such specialties as burn care, open-heart surgery, cardiac rehabilitation, genetic counseling, and neonatal intensive care. Hospice and long-term-care facilities are also available.

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Tulsa: Geography and Climate

Tulsa: Geography and Climate

Located 90 miles northeast of Oklahoma City and surrounded by gentle hills stretching toward the Ozark foothills, Tulsa lies along the Arkansas River at a latitude providing a moderate climate. Winters are generally mild with light snowfall, and the high temperatures of mid- to late-summer are often moderated by low relative humidity and southerly breezes. Tornadoes and windstorms characterize spring and early summer, but sunny days and cool nights prevail throughout the fall. Rainfall is heaviest in the spring.

Area: 186.84 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 700 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: January, 36.7° F; August, 82.0° F; annual average, 63.0° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 38.77 inches

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Tulsa: Introduction

Tulsa: Introduction

Tulsa is the second largest city in Oklahoma. From its earliest ranching and oil boom days to the present, Tulsa has recognized the need for economic diversity and has continually taken appropriate steps. With a history of steady expansion, a unique geographic location as an important shipping port, and wide range of employment opportunities, Tulsa has made itself attractive to new businesses. It is equally enticing to new residents, with its moderate Sun Belt climate, abundant recreational areas, continuing cultivation of the arts, and educational opportunities. Thus prepared for, and anticipating, steady economic growth, Tulsa enters the twenty-first century with confidence.

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Tulsa: Municipal Government

Tulsa: Municipal Government

Incorporated as a municipality on January 18, 1898, Tulsa operates under a mayor-council form of city government. Nine council members are elected to two-year terms.

Head Official: Mayor Bill LaFortune (since 2002; current term expires 2006)

Total Number of City Employees: 3,862 (2005)

City Information: City of Tulsa, 200 Civic Center, Tulsa, OK 74103; telephone (918)596-7777

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Tulsa

Tulsa Port on the Arkansas River, ne Oklahoma, the state's second-largest city. It developed with the 1882 arrival of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad; the 1901 discovery of oil further accelerated development. Industries: oil refining and research, petroleum products, oilfield equipment, mining, metal goods, aerospace. Pop. (2000) 393,049.

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Tulsa

Tulsaanorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, curiosa, Formosa, grocer, samosa, Via Dolorosa •coaxer, hoaxer •greengrocer •rejoicer, voicer •Abu Musa, Appaloosa, babirusa, inducer, introducer, juicer, producer, reducer, rusa, seducer, sprucer, traducer •discusser, fusser, trusser •propulsor, Tulsa, ulcer •oncer • conveyancer • piercer •influencer • Odense • balancer •silencer • grimacer • trespasser •harasser • remembrancer •licenser, licensor •traverser • canvasser • sequencer •bursar, converser, curser, cursor, disburser, mercer, purser, rehearser, reverser, vice versa

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