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The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10020-1095
U.S.A.
Telephone: (212) 512-2000
Fax: (212) 512-4502
Web site: http://www.mcgraw-hill.com

Public Company

Incorporated: 1909 as McGraw-Hill Book Company
Employees: 17,150
Sales: $4.6 billion (2001)
Stock Exchanges: New York Pacific
Ticker Symbol: MLIN
NAIC: 511120 Periodical Publishers; 511130 Book Publishers; 511210 Software Publishers; 514191 Online Information Services; 513120 Television Broadcasting

Perhaps best known for its textbooks, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. was formed initially from the merger of McGraw Publishing Co. and Hill Publishing Company. The business has always aimed to provide technicians, scientists, and business people complete, accurate, and up-to-date information of both specialized and general interest. The company carried on that tradition in the late 20th and early 21st centuries with mergers and acquisitions that increased market share, reached new markets, and expanded its global reach. Guided by Harold Terry McGraw III, great-grandson of founder James H. McGraw, the company employs the latest media technologies to keep its customers in education, business, industrial, professional, and government markets abreast of their disciplines.

Beginnings: 1880s to 1915

Born in 1858, John A. Hilltypesetter, silver prospector, newspaper publisher, and railroad engineercame to the attention of the publisher of American Machinist with his contribution of letters and articles on practical aspects of railroading. When the publisher began Locomotive Engineering in 1888, Hill was his choice for editor. By 1889, Hill had become part owner of both magazines, and in 1897, divesting his interest in Locomotive Engineering, he took over full ownership of American Machinist, and established the American Machinist Press in 1898. In 1902, he incorporated Hill Publishing Company, going on to acquire Power, Engineering and Mining Journal, and Engineering News. By 1909, Hill was a leading trade publisher of not just magazines but of books such as Colvin and Stanleys American Machinists Handbook (1908) and Herbert Hoovers Principles of Mining (1909).

Hills chief competitor was onetime teacher and subscription salesman James H. McGraw. McGraw was an advertising salesman for the American Railway Publishing Company in 1884, where he rose to vice-president by 1886. On resigning from American Railway, McGraw began to acquire magazines that reported on technological progress. Titles included the American Journal of Railway Appliances; Electrical Industries (later retitled American Electrician), Electrical World, Electrical Engineer, Electrochemical Industry; and Engineering Record. In 1899, McGraw incorporated McGraw Publishing Company; its first engineering handbook, the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, was published in 1907.

In the years following the Civil War, the United States evolved from an agrarian to an industrial society. Both McGraw and Hill found a growing market of technicians concerned with the practical applications of science to transportation, lighting, and engineering, among other facets of daily life. In 1909, Edward Caldwell and Martin M. Foss, the respective heads of the book departments of the two firms, agreed that a merger would serve both companies well. After the two men persuaded their bosses, a coin toss decided whose name would come first in naming the new company, the loser becoming president. The McGraw-Hill Book Company, with John A. Hill as president, was thus born, locating itself in McGraw Publishings building in New York City.

The two companies, however, were still distinct, entities: the magazines that formed the chief interests of both and supplied articles for many of the books remained separate concerns. In 1914, as World War I broke out in Europe, Hill moved his company into an air-conditioned building in New York City, one specially constructed to house his publications and their printing facilities. By 1910, the McGraw-Hill Book Company had established itself with its first publication, The Art of Engineering, and its first series, Electrical Engineering Texts. This series marked the beginning of a company trend toward publishing series of books by multiple authors covering an entire range of knowledge in a specific field.

A New Era: 1916-28

A more complete merger of the McGraw and Hill interests came in 1916 when John A. Hill died at the age of 57. Arthur Baldwin, Hills attorney, led Hill Publishing for a brief time following Hills death. McGraw became president of the book company; the two established the McGraw-Hill Publishing Company in 1917, with its offices located in the Hill Building, publishing Electrical World, Electric Railway Journal, Electrical Merchandising, Engineering Record, Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, The Contractor, American Machinist, Power, Engineering and Mining Journal, Coal Age, and Engineering News. This concentration of interests, along with the enlargement of the book company, now a subsidiary of McGraw-Hill Publishing, made McGraw-Hill the largest technical publisher in the world at that time.

The United States entered World War I in 1917, and this was a particularly good time for technical publishers. The first McGraw-Hill title to benefit from increased wartime demand was the American Machinists Handbook, originally published before the war. There was also increased demand for engineering books in radio communication, aviation, construction and maintenance, chemical warfare, trench construction, automotive transportation, aerial photography, and antisubmarine tactics. McGraw-Hill responded quickly to this market; an example was its record response to the U.S. Army Educational Commissions order for 150,000 technical books, which were printed, bound, specially packed, and shipped to France in a matter of days.

After World War I, McGraw-Hill expanded rapidly. With Foss in charge of editorial and sales activities and Caldwell heading up finances and production, the book company had grown by establishing close contacts with the faculties of various universities and engineering schools, not only to make sales but also to find new authors. With the addition of a series designed for educational use, McGraw-Hill formed a college department in 1927, thus establishing a lasting emphasis on textbooks. Foss was equally innovative in finding new ways to market the technical books that seldom found space in general bookstores. By both advertising at cost in the parent firms magazines and sending letters and circulars to subscribers, Foss offered interested parties a chance to examine a book for ten days without payment, an approach that quickly resulted in increased book sales.

The publisher also grew through acquisition during the 1920s, purchasing the Newton Falls Paper Co. in 1920. McGraw-Hill opened offices in Great Britain and California as well. With the purchase of the A.W. Shaw Company of Chicago in 1928, McGraw-Hill extended its reach into the field of business books and magazines. The editorial staff turned one of Shaws monthlies, the Magazine of Business, into a weekly, covering and interpreting news of specific interest to business people. Now named Business Week, it would become the best known of all McGraw-Hill publications.

During the 1920s James McGraw began to shift some of his authority in the company to other people. The first shift came when he named himself, his son James McGraw, Jr., and Malcolm Muir to a governing board of trustees. Then, in 1925, McGraw turned over the presidency of the book company to Edward Caldwell, who was succeeded by Martin M. Foss the next year. In 1928, Malcolm Muir became president of the publishing company; James McGraw remained chairman of the board.

New Ventures: 1929-45

McGraw-Hill stock was first traded publicly in 1929. Just after the stock market crash that same year, The Business Week (as it was then known) predicted, in its November 2, 1929 issue, that business will gradually and steadily recover as businessmen regain their perspective and go back to work. Following this optimistic line of thought, McGraw-Hill established four new magazines in 1930, opened a West Coast office and book depository in San Francisco, and, under the imprint of Whittlesey House (named after James McGraws father-in-law) entered the trade book field for the first time. The first title under the new imprint, selected to distinguish this division from trade publications, was Ernest Minor Pattersons The Worlds Economic Dilemma.

McGraw-Hill commissioned a new office building designed by Raymond Hood and located on West 42nd Street in New York City. Nicknamed Big Green because of the blue-green cast of its Art Deco exterior, the new McGraw-Hill building aroused controversy because of the horizontal banding of its windows, now a standard feature of many modern office buildings. When first occupied in 1931, Big Green included a complete production plant taking up four floors. The increasing severity of the economic depression during the early 1930s, however, forced McGraw-Hill not only to make deep cuts in personnel and salaries but to sell its press machinery and equipment in 1933. In 1932, the parent companys deficit ran to $239,137.

Company Perspectives:

Our mission worldwide is to enhance the professional and personal development of our customers and help them to reach their potential

That same year, Whittlesey House had its first bestseller, Life Begins at Forty, by Walter B. Pitkin. The companys other publications made themselves useful sources of information for business people by providing hard facts and analysis of the economic situation. The vocational-education department of the book company helped those seeking new skills. Established in 1930, it concentrated on mechanical arts, agriculture, and home economics. The 1930s also saw major shifts at the executive level of McGraw-Hill; in 1935 James H. McGraw handed the chairmanship over to James McGraw, Jr. During the next two years, Malcolm Muir failed to get along with the McGraw family; in 1937, he left to run Newsweek magazine, and James H. McGraw, Jr., became both president and chairman of the board. By 1937, the company had an annual profit of more than $1 million.

With the coming of World War II in the 1940s, McGraw-Hill was in an advantageous position. Because its technical publications were especially important to the war effort, its paper requirements received special priority. The companys magazines began to cover a range of relevant wartime topics from accelerated training in the use of metalworking power tools to dehydrated foods. The company also added titles in the fields of aviation, health, and atomic energy. In addition, the company began to publish special wartime titles, such as En Guardia, a Spanish-language paper promoting Latin American relations, and Overseas Digest, excerpting articles from other McGraw-Hill titles for distribution to military personnel posted abroad.

It was in the area of special training manuals, however, that McGraw-Hill was to make a special effort. As untrained men and women poured into industry and the armed services, accelerated technical training became increasingly important to the war effort. By 1943, the book company had published 231 titles for the Engineering and Science Management War Training Program. Of the 304 books published by 1944 to further the war effort, many dealt with radio and electronics, a newly important part of warfare. One title, Mathematics for Electricians and Radiomen by Nelson M. Cooke, first published in 1942, continued to be successful after the war, and by 1964, under the new title of Basic Mathematics for Electronics, had total sales in excess of 485,000 copies.

Although McGraw-Hill had been present in the United Kingdom and Germany as well as other countries since before World War I, the company made use of the opportunities World War II offered to increase its foreign activities. In 1943, the book company opened a book-export department, which by 1944 had a foreign-language translation office. The same year, McGraw-Hill acquired the Embassy Book Company Ltd. of Toronto, which was renamed the McGraw-Hill Company of Canada, Ltd. and later designated McGraw Ryerson. In 1945, to provide its magazines with international coverage, the company started the World News Service.

After World War II: 1946-59

After the war, the book company prospered under the presidency of Curtis G. Benjamin, who succeeded James S. Thompson, president for only two years. Benjamin developed a text-film department, a venture inspired by the use of educational films during World War II to supplement textbook materials. As teachers discovered the value of motion pictures and film strips in the classroom, the market expanded, and by 1965 McGraw-Hill was the leader in the field. Another wartime dividend for the company was the 13-volume U.S. Navy Flight Preparation Training series printed for the Bureau of Aeronautics during the war.

With the growth of commercial aviation in the postwar period, McGraw-Hill found a large market for civilian editions of the series. Building on the close contacts with governmental agencies in research and development made during World War II, the company contracted to publish the Radiation Laboratory series, 27 volumes concentrating on the results of wartime research into radar. According to Charles A. Madisons 1966 Book Publishing in America, this series, published in 1949 and costing more than $1.2 million, set a precedent for the commercial publication of government-financed projects. Although McGraw-Hill lost money on another project, the National Nuclear series, the company made an arrangement with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to produce an eight-volume compilation of scientific reference materials that was presented at the first International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy at Geneva in August 1955.

Another project started in the late 1940s was the publication of James Boswells manuscripts. Consisting of the voluminous collection of original manuscripts of the eighteenth-century Scottish author collected by Colonel Ralph H. Isham, the project was guided through negotiations with its purchaser, Yale University, by Edward Aswell, Whittlesey Houses editor-in-chief since 1947. Publication of a projected 40 volumes began in 1950. It was not to be under the Whittlesey imprint, however, as Yale preferred to have the McGraw-Hill name on the books. Thus began the relegation of Whittlesey House to juvenile titles. Another milestone, this one commercial, proved to be the publication in 1950 of Betty Crockers Picture Cook Book, which achieved sales of more than 235,000 copies in its first two years.

By the time its cofounder, James H. McGraw, died in 1948 at age 87, McGraw-Hill Publishing was well on its way to developing a departmentalized organizational structure. An independent technical-education department had been established in 1941, then a text-film department in 1945. The acquisition of the Gregg Publishing Company, publisher of vocational textbooks, in 1949 transformed the companys business-education department into the Gregg division. In response to the need for training literature during the Korean War, beginning in 1950, the book company established a technical-writing division to produce specialized materials for both government and industry. The next year, following a reorganization of the handbook, technical, and professional publishing department, the industrial- and business-book department was born, and the medical publishing department was formed in 1945. It was not until 1954, when it acquired Blakiston Company from Doubleday, which specialized in medical titles, that McGraw-Hill began to have a major share of the medical market under the newly named Blakiston division.

What proved by far to be the most important division for company progress in the postwar period was the international division, established in 1946. In less than 15 years, book exports trebled, with a profitable business in text-films, filmstrips, and the sale of foreign-language rights. A major force in the international growth of the company was Curtis Benjamin, who proceeded along lines mapped out by James Thompson. Benjamin succeeded, along with B.G. Dandison, head of the international division, in making the company successful in foreign countries: in 1962, McGraw-Hill was presented by President John F. Kennedy with a presidential E-for-Export award, making McGraw-Hill the first commercial publishing firm to be so honored.

James McGraw, Jr., who had headed up the company since 1935, retired in 1950 and was replaced by another son of the first McGraw, Curtis. Curtis led the company for three short years before his sudden death in 1953. He was succeeded by his brother, Donald C. McGraw.

Just before the death of Curtis, the company purchased the National Petroleum Publishing Company, the W.C. Piatt Company, and Piatts Price Service, Inc., all from Warren C. Piatt. The book company then began three major encyclopedia projects in the late 1950s, each continuing on into the 1960s: The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, The Encyclopedia of World Art, and The New Catholic Encyclopedia. When in 1959 the publishing company commemorated its 50th year, revenues exceeded $100 million.

Growth and Diversification: 1960-79

While Curtis Benjamin remained chairman of the board and CEO of the book company, Edward Booher, who had joined the company in 1936, became president in 1960. They doubled overall sales within five years, contributing 39 percent of the total income of the parent company in 1965. The F.W. Dodge Corporation, information provider to the construction industry, was purchased in 1961. The following year, the general book division was formed by merging the industrial-and-business-book department with the trade department. The purchase of Webster Publishing Company in 1963 marked the companys entry into the elementary school and high school textbook markets.

In 1964, the book company and the F.W. Dodge Corporation merged with McGraw-Hill Publishing Company to form McGraw-Hill, Inc. The reorganization created a single corporation, the parent company, with three operating divisions: book publishing, the Dodge complex, and magazines and news services. The company established an Australian publishing unit the same year. With the acquisition of the California Test Bureau in 1965, McGraw-Hill strengthened its K-12 educational services just in time to benefit from the postwar baby boom. The company moved into two new fields in 1966: one was legal publishing with the purchase of Shepards Citations, Inc.; the other was financial information services through the acquisition of Standard & Poors Corporation. Other acquisitions were Schaum Publishing Company, Capitol Radio Engineering Institute, and Postgraduate Medicine magazine, all in 1967. The company also expanded into Mexico in 1967 and into Japan in 1969.

A key figure in this expansion was Shelton Fisher. Beginning as promotion manager for Business Week in 1940, by 1968 Fisher had succeeded Donald McGraw as president and CEO of McGraw-Hill. His goal was to change the perception of McGraw-Hill as an old-fashioned publisher of trade magazines into that of a dynamic media giant. Fisher further extended the companys reach into Canada, Brazil, and India, bought four television stations from Time Inc., and moved the company out of Big Green and into a new, 50-story international headquarters in 1972. While increasing the companys prestige, the large capital outlay came at a time when a recession caused a loss in revenues for the McGraw-Hill magazines. After a period of uncertainty during which the McGraw family worked out a succession, Harold McGraw, Jr., became president of the parent company and Fisher assumed the chairmanship. This changed within a year when Fisher retired and Harold McGraw, Jr., became chairman in addition to his other positions.

The picture of McGraw-Hill, Inc. at the end of the 1970s, according to John Tebbels History of Book Publishing in America, was of an extremely healthy, well-managed conglomerate, composed of several operating divisions. Along with the book and publications companies, there was the information system company, composed of the F.W. Dodge division, Sweets division, and Datapro Research Corporation. Two other divisions were Standard & Poors Corporation and the McGraw-Hill Broadcasting Company. Total operating revenues amounted to more than $761 million, crossing the $1 billion threshold in 1980.

Its very success made McGraw-Hill the target of a takeover attempt by the American Express Company in 1979. The chairman of American Express, James D. Robinson III, and its president, Roger H. Morley, were shocked by the ferocity with which Harold McGraw fought the attempted stock buyout. Concerted action by the McGraw family, along with various legal actions, defeated the bid for ownership. Although American Express had failed, McGraw-Hill remained a prime target for a takeover. Harold McGraw was planning to retire in four years and, while another generation of McGraws waited in the wings, none were as yet ready to run the corporation. By appointing Joseph L. Dionne, who had been in charge of planning, to the newly created position of vice-president of operations, McGraw sought to improve management organization and put someone in charge who could generate the fast growth needed to discourage further takeover attempts.

Dawn of the Electronic Age: 1980-90

Dionne became president and CEO in 1983, while McGraw remained chairman. A former history teacher, Dionne proved a visionary intent on transforming McGraw-Hill from a simple publishing company into an information turbine for the digital age. Under this model, McGraw-Hills content would flow seamlessly throughout the companys vast information-gathering and disseminating machine. As Suzanne Oliver described it in a 1990 Forbes article, Housing statistics, say, could go into the turbine and come out as a feature story in a magazine and then as a new bond rating on a home builder. Like a packing house of old, McGraw-Hill would turn the same basic raw material into dozens of different products. Under his guidance, the company was reorganized into market focus groups as opposed to groupings by media. In 1985, Dionne created 20 market-focused business units.

Although still committed to print publishing, Dionne planned to reduce the 80 percent of the business that was print-oriented in 1983 to 65 percent or 70 percent over several years. The company had made a halting step toward this goal with the acquisition of Data Resources, Inc. in 1979. Dionne was convinced that DRI held not only a vast share of the worlds business and economic data but also the expertise required to translate McGraw-Hills hard copy into malleable electronic information. Although the DRI acquisition would prove to be a misstepthe company actually made most of its money from renting computer spaceDionne pressed on with his plan. During this same period, McGraw-Hill entered the computer publishing field by acquiring BYTE, Unixworld, and LAN Times magazines, as well as Osborne Books, all of which provided support information to computer users. As the company moved into the electronic information marketplace, much of the data supplied by the news service, magazines, Standard & Poors, Dodge, Piatt, and Shepards was made available in computerized form and in various configurations.

Despite his reservations, Harold McGraw approved of the direction in which Dionne was taking the company; in 1988, Harold McGraw became chairman emeritus and Dionne added the title of chairman to those of president and CEO. In its attempt to weather the communications revolution, McGraw-Hill had undergone three major reorganizations in four years, resulting in an organization centered around 14 market-focus groups. These reorganizations, the automation of F.W. Dodge, and the shutdown of the general-book division, ending the companys involvement in the trade book market, resulted in a layoff of more then 1,000 workers.

The company expanded globally and had success with the Standard & Poors Marketscope and with other online, real-time services. Early in 1990, however, two online services, McGraw-Hill News and Standard & Poors News, were discontinued. Some acquisitions resulted in costly write-offs, notably Nu-merax Inc., an electronic data and services operation. Yet McGraw Hill continued to invest in strong growth markets and divest itself of publications and units connecting it with its past. American Machinist & Automated Manufacturing, Coal Age, and Engineering & Mining Journal were sold in 1987. Although it took years of acquisitions and divestments, not a few stumbles, and intensive development from within, Dionnes model proved not only successful but prescient.

In 1988, McGraw-Hill celebrated its centennial, acquired Random Houses college division for over $200 million and created the Harold W. McGraw Jr. Prize in Education to honor the chairman emerituss efforts on behalf of education and literacy. Operating revenues for the year were just shy of $1.7 billion. The next year, 1989, McGraw-Hill entered into a 50/50 joint venture with Macmillan, combining the elementary, secondary, and vocational education businesses of both companies. In 1990, a new electronic textbook publishing system known as Primis was implemented, allowing teachers to custom design textbooks with the results printed, bound, and shipped within 48 hours. Primis quickly became Americas leading custom publisher.

Keeping the World Up to Speed: The 1990s

The early 1990s found McGraw-Hill growing steadily in its quest to provide information in a wide range of formats for persons of all ages. In 1993, the company bought out Macmillans half of the Macmillan/McGraw-Hill School Publishing Company for $160.8 million, and by the following year McGraw-Hills three business segmentsEducational and Professional Publishing, Financial Services, and Information and Media Serviceshelped the company rake in almost $2.8 billion in revenue, a sizeable leap from the previous years $2.2 billion. The Educational/Professional unit accounted for the most revenue (42 percent) while Financial Services dominated income with over 48 percent (despite the worst bond market since 1927 and rising interest rates).

For McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995 proved a pivotal year, a year in which the company ceased to exist, at least in its previous form. To reflect its ongoing diversity, the company changed its name from McGraw-Hill, Inc. to The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. followed by a broadcast media campaign showcasing how the company was keeping the world up to speed. Other milestones for 1995 were an all-time high stock price and a two-for-one stock split; additional ratings services and new alliances for Standard & Poors; a myriad of new CD-ROM products, including Harrisons Principals of Internal Medicine (the worlds best-selling medical textbook); a joint venture between the companys secondary school publisher, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, National Geographic, and Capital Cities/ABC; the acquisition of UCB Canada and Hospital Practice; and new offices in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.

McGraw-Hills most famous periodical, Business Week, experienced a phenomenal year in 1995 with exceptional circulation (one million-plus with a readership of nearly seven million) and pumped up advertising volume and revenue. Additionally, Business Week Online gained in popularity and Business Week Enterprise, a magazine for small-business executives, published international editions in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. With so many new opportunities swirling about, McGraw-Hill, inevitably, let others go: Shepards publishing operations and SRA Technology were sold, while Open Computing ceased publication. And despite a disastrous showing in Mexico after the pesos collapse, McGraw-Hill still managed to increase overall earnings by nearly 12 percent to $227.1 million while revenue topped $2.9 billion, a 6.3 percent increase over 1994s stellar performance.

In 1996, McGraw-Hill continued to expand its operations globally, with several high profile acquisitions, including Open Court Publishing Company for its K-8 elementary education division; Healthcare Informatics and InfoCare magazines from Wiesner Publishing for its Healthcare Information unit; and the Times Mirror Higher Education Group, which prompted the formation of the Higher Education and Consumer Group to house it and McGraw-Hills well established college division. The Times-Mirror acquisition made McGraw-Hill Americas top college publisher, with leading positions in 12 disciplines and a particular strength in business. The college divisions emphasis on business and finance meshed well with the corporations financial services operations. Around that same time, the Financial Information Services unit was renamed to reflect its most important asset, Standard & Poors, to Standard & Poors Financial Information Services.

A McGraw at the Helm: Late 1990s and Beyond

When CEO Joe Dionne retired in 1998, he could look back on a 15-year record of innovation and growth. He was succeeded in April 1998 by Harold Terry McGraw, a great-grandson of the founder who had logged thirteen years at McGraw-Hill before ascending to president in 1993. Although McGraws climb to the top spot was viewed by some with skepticism, he quickly proved to be a big picture leader for a new era. He focused on enlivening the companys identity through a $4.5 million promotion targeting industry analysts and investors. In-house, he concentrated on cutting costs and investing in growth businesses. He consolidated McGraw-Hills divisions from 15 down to three and sacked two-thirds of the companys senior managers. A 1998 article in Crains New York Business called Terry McGraws global expansion of Standard & Poors his most meaningful accomplishment. His efforts paid off in higher returns, for while revenues increased only slightly from 1997 to 1998, earnings increased by 15.6 percent.

In 2000, McGraw-Hill moved to challenge Pearson Education for the top spot in educational publishing with the acquisition of Tribune Education. The nations top publisher of K-12 supplements, Tribune was one of McGraw-Hills largest purchases in years, at $635 million. The horserace for leadership of the textbook industry continued, however, when rival Thomson Corp. acquired Harcourts higher-education and professional/corporate divisions from Reed-Else vier in 2001.

With sales of $4.6 billion in 2001, McGraw-Hill stood as Americas top K-12 education publisher and led the world in financial analyses and risk assessments though its Standard & Poors financial services. Although the Media and Information services division proved a drag on earnings, it still boasted the powerhouse Business Week brand as well as four network television stations. But with a 20 percent decline in net income from 2000 to 2001, the company announced a year-end restructuring that cut 5 percent of the global workforce, or 925 employees. In 2002, McGraw-Hill hoped to increase earnings via an emphasis on business-to-business media as well as growth in its core elementary education group.

Principal Subsidiaries

CM Research Inc.; Calificadora de Valores, S.A. de C.V.; Capitol Radio Engineering Institute, Inc.; Columbia Administration Software Publishing Corporation; Computer and Communications Information Group, Inc.; DRI Europe, Inc.; DRI/McGraw-Hill; Editora McGraw-hill de Portugal, Ltda.; Editorial Interamericana, S.A.; Editoriales Pedagogicals Associadas, S.A.; International Advertising/McGraw-Hill Inc.; J.J. Kenney Company, Inc.; Liberty Brokerage Investment Corp.; MHFSCO, Ltd.; MMS International; McGraw-Hill Broadcasting Company, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Capital Corporation; McGraw-Hill Capital, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Data Services-Ireland, Ltd.; McGraw-Hill Financial Publications, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Holdings (U.K.) Limited; McGraw-Hill Information Systems Company of Canada Limited; McGraw-Hill Interamericana, Inc.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de Chile Limitada; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de Espana, S.A.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de Venezuela S.A.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana, S.A.; Inc.; McGraw-Hill International Enterprises, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Libri Italia; McGraw-Hill News Bureaus, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Publications Overseas, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited; Medical China Publishing Limited; Money Market Directories, Inc.; Nueva Editorial Interamericana, S.A. de C.V.; Rock/McGraw, Inc.; Standard & Poors Compustat; S&Ps ComStock; Standard & Poors-ADEF; Standard & Poors Consumer Investor Network; Standard & Poors Equity Investor Services; Standard & Poors Index Services; Standard & Poors International Ratings, Inc.; Standard & Poors International, S.A.; Standard & Poors Investment Advisory Services, Inc.; Standard & Poors Ltd.; Standard & Poors-Nordisk Rating AB; Standard & Poors Securities, Inc.; Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Private Limited; Tower Group International, Inc.

Principal Operating Units

McGraw-Hill Education (School Education Group: SRA/McGraw-Hill, Wright Group/McGraw-Hill, Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, CTB/McGraw-Hill, McGraw-Hill Childrens Publishing, Educators Professional Development, McGraw-Hill Digital Learning; Higher Education); Professional and International Group (McGraw-Hill/Contemporary, McGraw Hill Higher Education, McGraw-Hill Professional, McGraw-Hill International, McGraw-Hill Lifetime Learning); Financial Services (Credit Market Services, Corporate Value Consulting, Investment Services); McGraw-Hill Information and Media Services {Business Week, Broadcast, McGraw-Hill Construction, Platts, Aviation Week, Healthcare Information).

Principal Competitors

Reed Elsevier Group plc; Moodys Corporation; Pearson plc; The Thomson Corporation.

Further Reading

Burlingame, Roger, Endless Frontiers: The Story of McGraw-Hill, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.

Callahan, Sean, McGraw-Hill Ready to Bulk Up B-to-B, ? to B, May 6, 2002, p. 1.

Holt, Donald D., The Unlikely Hero of McGraw-Hill, Fortune, May 21, 1979.

Imprint on an Era: The Story of the McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Industry Speculation Swirls as Clock Ticks, Thomson Puts Thirty-Eight Titles on the Block, Educational Marketer, July 9, 2001.

Kerwin, Ann Marie, McGraw-Hill Ties Biz Week and S&P Together on Web: Financial-Info Site will Raise Brands Profiles, Advertising Age, July 19, 1999, p. 3.

Madison, Charles A., Book Publishing in America, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1966.

McGraw, Harold III, The Global Information Revolution, Vital Speeches, August 15, 2000, p. 655.

Milliot, Jim, New Media Helps Spur Sales at McGraw-Hill Cos., Publishers Weekly, April 15, 1996, p. 20.

, MHC-TM-Reed Deal Driven By Need for Heft in Marketplace, Publishers Weekly, July 15, 1996, p. 16.

Oliver, Suzanne, Management by Concept, Forbes, November 26, 1990, p. 37.

Picker, Ida, Joseph Dionne of McGraw-Hill Cos.: A Place in Cyberspace, Institutional Investor, December 1996, p. 27.

Schwartz, Matthew, McGraw-Hill Eyes Growth After Cuts, B to B, January 14, 2002, p. 12.

Tebbel, John, A History of Book Publishing in the United States, 4 vols., New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1972-81.

Ward, Sandra, Brave New World: Searching for Growth, McGraw-Hill Looks-Warily-at the Mutual Fund Business, Barrons, October 21, 1996, p. 31.

Waters, Richard, McGraw Hill Margins Improve, Financial Times, February 3, 1995, p. 22.

Young, Alison, Publisher Gets a Read on Economys Moods, Investors Business Daily, March 8, 2002.

Wilson B. Lindauer

updates: Taryn Benbow-Pfalzgraf, April Gasbarre

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The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10020-1095
U.S.A.
(212) 512-2000
Fax: (212) 512-3514
Web site: http://www.mcgraw-hill.com

Public Company
Incorporated:
1909 as McGraw-Hill Book Company
Employees: 15,004
Sales: $3.3 billion (1996)
Stock Exchanges: New York Pacific
SICs: 2721 Periodicals Publishing and Printing; 2731 Book Publishing and Printing; 7375 Information Retrieval Services; 4833 Television Broadcasting

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., a leading international multimedia publishing and information company, caters to the education, business, industrial, professional, and government markets through books, magazines, film, and a myriad of worldwide electronic networks. Formed initially from the merger of McGraw Publishing Company and Hill Publishing Company, the business always aimed to provide technicians, scientists, and business people complete, accurate, and up-to-date information of both specialized and general interest. Almost from its beginning the company pursued acquisitions and mergers that would increase market share, reach new markets, and expand its global reach.

The Early Written Word, 1860s to 1915

Born in 1858, John A. Hilltypesetter, silver prospector, newspaper publisher, and railroad engineercame to the attention of the publisher of American Machinist with his contribution of letters and articles on practical aspects of railroading. When the publisher began Locomotive Engineering in 1888, Hill was his choice for editor. By 1869 Hill had become part owner of both magazines and in 1897, divesting his interest in Locomotive Engineering, Hill took over full ownership of American Machinist, and established the American Machinist Press in 1898. In 1902 he incorporated Hill Publishing Company, going on to acquire Power, Engineering and Mining Journal, and Engineering News. By 1909, Hill was a leading trade publisher of not just magazines but of books such as Colvin and Stanleys American Machinists Handbook (1908) and Herbert Hoovers Principles of Mining (1909).

Hills chief competitor was onetime teacher and subscription salesman James H. McGraw. McGraw was an advertising salesman for the American Railway Publishing Company in 1884, where he rose to vice president by 1886. On resigning from American Railway, McGraw began to acquire magazines that reported on technological progress. Titles included the American Journal of Railway Appliances; Electrical Industries (later retitled American Electrician); Electrical World; Electrical Engineer; Electrochemical Industry; and Engineering Record. In 1899 McGraw incorporated McGraw Publishing Company; its first engineering handbook, the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, was published in 1907.

In the years following the Civil War, the United States changed from an agrarian to an industrial society. Both McGraw and Hill found a growing market of technicians concerned with the practical applications of science to transportation, lighting, and engineering, among other facets of daily life. In 1909 Edward Caldwell and Martin M. Foss, the respective heads of the book departments of the two firms, agreed that a merger of the two book departments would serve both companies well. After the two men persuaded their bosses, a coin toss decided whose name would come first in naming the new company, the loser becoming president. The McGraw-Hill Book Company, with John A. Hill as president, was thus born, locating itself in McGraw Publishings building in New York City.

The two companies, however, were still distinct, different entities: the magazines that formed the chief interests of both and supplied articles for many of the books remained separate concerns. In 1914, as World War I broke out in Europe, Hill moved his company into an air-conditioned building in New York City, one specially constructed to house his publications and their printing facilities. By 1910 the McGraw-Hill Book Company had established itself with its first publication, The Art of Engineering, and its first series, Electrical Engineering Texts. This series marked the beginning of a company trend toward publishing series of books by multiple authors covering an entire range of knowledge in a specific field.

A New Era, 191628

A more complete merger of the McGraw and Hill interests came in 1916 when John A. Hill died at the age of 57. Arthur Baldwin, Hills attorney, led Hill Publishing for a brief time following Hills death. McGraw became president of the book company; the two established the McGraw-Hill Publishing Company in 1917, with its offices located in the Hill Building, publishing Electrical World, Electric Railway Journal, Electrical Merchandising, Engineering Record, Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, The Contractor, American Machinist, Power, Engineering and Mining Journal, Coal Age, and Engineering News. This concentration of interests, along with the enlargement of the book company, now a subsidiary of McGraw-Hill Publishing, made McGraw-Hill the largest technical publisher in the world at that time.

The U.S. entered World War I in 1917, and this was a particularly good time for technical publishers including McGraw-Hill. The first title to benefit from increased wartime demand was the American Machinists Handbook, originally published before the war. There was also increased demand for engineering books in radio communication, aviation, construction and maintenance, chemical warfare, trench construction, automotive transportation, aerial photography, and antisubmarine tactics. McGraw-Hill responded quickly to this market; an example was its record response to the U.S. Army Educational Commissions order for 150,000 technical books, which were printed, bound, specially packed, and shipped to France in a matter of days.

After World War I, McGraw-Hill expanded rapidly. With Foss in charge of editorial and sales activities and Caldwell heading up finances and production, the book company had grown by establishing close contacts with the faculties of various universities and engineering schools, not only to make sales, but also to find new authors. With the addition of a series designed for educational use, McGraw-Hill formed a college department in 1927, thus establishing a lasting emphasis on textbooks. Foss was equally innovative in finding new ways to market the technical books that seldom found space in general bookstores. By both advertising at cost in the parent firms magazines and sending letters and circulars to subscribers, Foss offered interested parties a chance to examine a book for 10 days without payment, an approach that quickly resulted in increased book sales.

During the 1920s James McGraw began to shift some of his authority in the company to other people. The first shift came when he named himself, his son James McGraw Jr., and Malcolm Muir to a governing board of trustees. Then in 1925, McGraw turned over the presidency of the book company to Edward Caldwell, who was succeeded by Martin M. Foss the next year. In 1928 Malcolm Muir became president of the publishing company; James McGraw remained chairman of the board.

With the purchase of the A.W. Shaw Company of Chicago in 1928, McGraw-Hill extended its reach into the field of business books and magazines. The editorial staff turned one of Shaws monthlies, the Magazine of Business, into a weekly, covering and interpreting news of specific interest to business people. Now named Business Week, it has become the best known of all McGraw-Hill publications.

New Ventures, 192945

Just after the stock market crash of 1929, The Business Week (as it was then known) predicted, in its November 2, 1929 issue, that Business will gradually and steadily recover as businessmen regain their perspective and go back to work. Following this optimistic line of thought McGraw-Hill established four new magazines in 1930, opened a West Coast office and book depository in San Francisco, and under the imprint of Whittlesey House, named after James McGraws father-in-law, entered the trade book field for the first time. The first title under the new imprint, selected to distinguish this division from trade publications, was Ernest Minor Pattersons The Worlds Economic Dilemma.

McGraw-Hill commissioned a new office building designed by Raymond Hood and located on West 42nd Street in New York City. Nicknamed Big Green because of the blue-green cast of its Art Deco exterior, the new McGraw-Hill building aroused controversy because of the horizontal banding of its windows, now a standard feature of many modern office buildings. When first occupied in 1931, Big Green included a complete production plant taking up four floors. The increasing severity of the economic depression during the early 1930s, however, forced McGraw-Hill not only to make deep cuts in personnel and salaries but to sell its press machinery and equipment in 1933. In 1932, the parent companys deficit ran to $239,137.

Company Perspectives:

The McGraw-Hill Companies serves business, professional and educational markets around the world with information products and services. Key markets include finance, business, education, law, construction, medical and health, computers and communications, aerospace and defense. As a multimedia publishing and information company, McGraw-Hill employs a broad range of media, including books, magazines, newsletters, software, on-line data services, CD-ROMS, facsimile and television broadcasting.

That same year Whittlesey House had its first bestseller, Life Begins at Forty, by Walter B. Pitkin. The companys other publications made themselves useful sources of information for business people by providing hard facts and analysis of the economic situation. The vocational-education department of the book company helped those seeking new skills. Established in 1930, it concentrated on mechanical arts, agriculture, and home economics. The 1930s also saw major shifts at the executive level of McGraw-Hill; in 1935 James H. McGraw handed the chairmanship over to James McGraw Jr. During the next two years Malcolm Muir failed to get along with the McGraw family; in 1937 he left to run Newsweek, and James H. McGraw Jr. became both president and chairman of the board. By 1937 the company had an annual profit of more than $1 million.

With the coming of World War II in the 1940s McGraw-Hill was in an advantageous position. Because its technical publications were especially important to the war effort, its paper requirements received special priority. The companys magazines began to cover a range of relevant wartime topics from accelerated training in the use of metal working power tools to dehydrated foods. In addition the company began to publish special wartime titles, such as En Guardia, a Spanish-language paper promoting Latin American relations; and Overseas Digest, excerpting articles from other McGraw-Hill titles for distribution to military personnel posted abroad.

It was in the area of special training manuals, however, that McGraw-Hill was to make a special effort. As untrained men and women poured into industry and the armed services, accelerated technical training became increasingly important to the war effort. By 1943 the book company had published 231 titles for the Engineering and Science Management War Training Program. Of the 304 books published by 1944 to further the war effort, many dealt with radio and electronics, a newly important part of warfare. One title, Mathematics for Electricians and Radiomen, by Nelson M. Cooke, first published in 1942, continued to be successful after the war, and by 1964, under the new title of Basic Mathematics for Electronics, had total sales in excess of 485,000 copies.

Although McGraw-Hill had been present in the United Kingdom and Germany as well as other countries since before World War I, the company made use of the opportunities World War II offered to increase its foreign activities. In 1943 the book company opened a book-export department, which by 1944 had a foreign-language translation office. The same year, McGraw-Hill acquired the Embassy Book Company Ltd. of Toronto, which was later renamed to the McGraw-Hill Company of Canada, Ltd. and then again to McGraw Ryerson. In 1945, to provide its magazines with international coverage, the company started the World News Service.

After World War II, 194659

After the war the book company prospered under the presidency of Curtis G. Benjamin, who succeeded James S. Thompson, president for only two years. Benjamin developed a text-film department, a venture inspired by the use of educational films during World War II to supplement textbook materials. As teachers discovered the value of motion pictures and film strips in the classroom, the market expanded, and by 1965 McGraw-Hill was the leader in the field. Another wartime dividend for the company was the 13-volume U.S. Navy Flight Preparation Training series printed for the Bureau of Aeronautics during the war.

With the growth of commercial aviation in the postwar period, McGraw-Hill found a large market for civilian editions of the series. Building on the close contacts with governmental agencies in research and development made during World War II, the company contracted to publish the Radiation Laboratory series, 27 volumes concentrating on the results of wartime research into radar. According to Charles A. Madisons 1966 Book Publishing in America, this series, published in 1949 and costing more than $1.2 million, set a precedent for the commercial publication of government-financed projects. Although McGraw-Hill lost money on another project, the National Nuclear series, the company made an arrangement with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to produce an eight-volume compilation of scientific reference materials that was presented at the first International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy at Geneva in August 1955.

Another project started in the late 1940s was the publication of James Boswells manuscripts. Consisting of the voluminous collection of original manuscripts of the 18th-century Scottish author collected by Colonel Ralph H. Isham, the project was guided through negotiations with its purchaser, Yale University, by Edward Aswell, Whittlesey Houses editor-in-chief since 1947. Publication of a projected 40 volumes began in 1950. It was not to be under the Whittlesey imprint, however, as Yale preferred to have the McGraw-Hill name on the books. Thus began the relegation of Whittlesey House to juvenile titles. Another milestone, this one commercial, proved to be the publication in 1950 of Betty Crockers Picture Cook Book, which achieved sales of more than 235,000 copies in its first two years.

When its cofounder, James H. McGraw, died in 1948 at age 87, McGraw-Hill Publishing was well on its way to developing a departmentalized organizational structure. An independent technical-education department had been established in 1941, then a text-film department in 1945. The acquisition of the Gregg Publishing Company in 1949 transformed the companys business-education department into the Gregg division. In response to the need for training literature during the Korean War, beginning in 1950, the book company established a technical-writing division to produce specialized materials for both government and industry. The next year, following a reorganization of the handbook, technical, and professional publishing department, the industrial- and business-book department was born, and the medical publishing department was formed in 1945. It was not until 1954, when it acquired Blakiston Company from Doubleday, which specialized in medical titles, that McGraw-Hill began to have a major share of the medical market under the newly named Blakiston division.

What proved by far to be the most important division for company progress in the postwar period was the international division, established in 1946. In less than 15 years, book exports trebled, with a profitable business in text-films, filmstrips, and the sale of foreign-language rights. A major force in the international growth of the company was Curtis Benjamin, who proceeded along lines mapped out by James Thompson. Benjamin succeeded, along with B. G. Dandison, head of the international division, in making the company successful in foreign countries; in 1962 McGraw-Hill was presented by President John F. Kennedy with a presidential E-for-Export award, making McGraw-Hill the first commercial publishing firm to be so honored.

During the 1950s, James McGraw Jr., who had headed up the company since 1935, was replaced by another son of the first McGraw, Curtis. He was followed by Donald C. McGraw, yet another son.

Just before the death of Curtis, the company purchased the National Petroleum Publishing Company, the W.C. Platt Company, and Platts Price Service, Inc., all from Warren C. Platt. The book company then began three major encyclopedia projects in the late 1950s, each continuing on into the 1960s: The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, The Encyclopedia of World Art, and the New Catholic Encyclopedia. When in 1959 the publishing company commemorated its 50th year, revenues exceeded $100 million.

Growth and Diversification, 196079

While Curtis Benjamin remained chairman of the board and CEO of the book company, Edward Booher, who had joined the company in 1936, became president in 1960. They doubled overall sales within five years, contributing 39 percent of the total income of the parent company in 1965. The F.W. Dodge Corporation, information provider to the construction industry, was purchased in 1961. The following year the general book division was formed by merging the industrial-and-business-book department with the trade department. The purchase of Webster Publishing Company in 1963 marked the companys entry into the elementary school and high school textbook markets.

In 1964 the book company and the F.W. Dodge Corporation merged with McGraw-Hill Publishing Company to form McGraw-Hill, Inc. The reorganization created a single corporation, the parent company, with three operating divisions: book publishing, the Dodge complex, and magazines and news services. The company established an Australian publishing unit the same year. With the acquisition of the California Test Bureau in 1965, McGraw-Hill strengthened its educational services. The company moved into two new fields in 66: one was legal publishing with the purchase of Shepards Citations, Inc.; the other was financial information services through the acquisition of Standard & Poors Corporation. Other acquisitions were Schaum Publishing Company, Capitol Radio Engineering Institute, and Postgraduate Medicine magazine, all in 1967. The company also expanded into Mexico in 67 and into Japan in 1969.

A key figure in this expansion was Shelton Fisher. Beginning as promotion manager for Business Week in 1940, by 1968 Fisher had succeeded Donald McGraw as president and CEO of McGraw-Hill. His goal was to change the perception of McGraw-Hill as an old-fashioned publisher of trade magazines into that of a dynamic media giant. Fisher further extended the companys reach into Canada, Brazil, and India, bought four televisions stations from Time Inc., and moved the company out of Big Green and into its present, new 50-story international headquarters in 1972. While increasing the companys prestige, the large capital outlay came at a time when a recession caused a loss in revenues for the McGraw-Hill magazines. After a period of uncertainty during which the McGraw family worked out a succession, Harold McGraw Jr. became president of the parent company and Fisher assumed the chairmanship. This changed within a year when Fisher retired and Harold McGraw Jr. became chairman in addition to his other positions.

The picture of McGraw-Hill, Inc. at the end of the 1970s, according to John Tebbels History of Book Publishing in America, was of an extremely healthy, well-managed conglomerate, composed of several operating divisions. Along with the book and publications companies, there was the information system company, composed of the F.W. Dodge division, Sweets division, and Datapro Research Corporation. Two other divisions were Standard & Poors Corporation and the McGraw-Hill Broadcasting Company. In 1978 total operating revenues amounted to more than $761 million.

Its very success made McGraw-Hill the target of a takeover attempt by the American Express Company in 1979. The chairman of American Express, James D. Robinson III, and its president, Roger H. Morley, were shocked by the ferocity with which Harold McGraw fought the attempted stock buyout. Concerted action by the McGraw family, along with various legal actions, defeated the bid for ownership. Although American Express had failed, McGraw-Hill remained a prime target for a takeover. Harold McGraw was planning to retire in four years and while another generation of McGraws waited in the wings, none were as yet ready to run the corporation. By appointing Joseph L. Dionne, who had been in charge of planning, to the newly created position of vice president of operations, McGraw sought to improve management organization and put someone in charge who could generate the fast growth needed to discourage further takeover attempts.

Dawn of the Electronic Age, 198090

Dionne became president and CEO in 1983, while McGraw remained chairman. Although still committed to print publishing, Dionne planned to reduce the 80 percent of the business that was print-oriented in 1983 to 65 percent or 70 percent over several years. One part of this goal had been achieved years earlier when the company acquired Data Resources, Inc., which held a vast share of the worlds business and economic data. As McGraw-Hill moved into the electronic information marketplace, much of the information supplied by the news service, magazines, Standard & Poors, Dodge, Platt, and Shepards was made available in computerized form and in various configurations.

Another move was to enter the computer publishing field by acquiring BYTE, Unixworld, and LAN Times magazines, as well as Osborne Books, all of which provided support information to computer users. Another part of Dionnes plan for revitalizing the company was shifting from media-based planning to market-focused business units; 20 such units were created in 1985. Although harboring some reservations, Harold McGraw approved of the direction in which Dionne was taking the company; in 1988 he became chairman emeritus and Dionne added the title of chairman to those of president and CEO. In its attempt to weather the communications revolution, McGraw-Hill had undergone three major reorganizations in four years, resulting in an organization centered around 14 market-focus groups. These reorganizations, the automation of F.W. Dodge, and the shutdown of the general-book division, ending the companys involvement in the trade book market, caused a layoff of more then 1,000 workers.

The company expanded globally and had success with the Standard & Poors Marketscope, and with other online, real-time services. Early in 1990, however, two online services, McGraw-Hill News and Standard & Poors News, were discontinued. Some acquisitions resulted in costly writeoffs, notably Numerax Inc., an electronic data and services operation. Yet McGraw Hill continued to invest in strong growth markets and divest itself of publications and units connecting it with its past. American Machinist & Automated Manufacturing, Coal Age, and Engineering & Mining Journal were sold in 1987. To master the new information superhighway meant a continuation of the acquisition strategies, mergers, and innovations that marked the companys birth.

In 1988 McGraw-Hill celebrated its centennial, acquired Random Houses college division for over $200 million; and created the Harold W. McGraw Jr. Prize in Education to honor the chairman emerituss efforts on behalf of education and literacy. Operating revenues for the year were just shy of $1.7 billion. The next year, 1989, McGraw-Hill entered into a 50-50 joint venture with Macmillan combining the elementary, secondary, and vocational education businesses of both companies. In 1990 a new electronic textbook publishing system was implemented, allowing teachers to custom design textbooks with the results printed, bound, and shipped within 48 hours.

Keeping the World Up to Speed, 1991 and Beyond

The early 1990s found McGraw-Hill growing steadily in its quest to provide information in a wide range of formats for persons of all ages. In 1993 the company bought out Macmillans half of the Macmillan/McGraw-Hill School Publishing Company for $160.8 million and by the following year, McGraw-Hills three business segmentsEducational and Professional Publishing, Financial Services, and Information and Media Serviceshelped the company rake in almost $2.8 billion in revenue, a sizeable leap from the previous years $2.2 billion. The Educational/Professional unit accounted for the most revenue (42 percent) while Financial Services dominated income with over 48 percent (despite the worst bond market since 1927 and rising interest rates).

For McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995 proved a pivotal year, a year in which the company ceased to existat least in its current form. To reflect its ongoing diversity, the company changed its name from McGraw-Hill, Inc. to The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. followed by a broadcast media campaign showcasing how the company was keeping the world up to speed. Other milestones for 1995 were an all-time high stock price and two-for-one stock split; additional ratings services and new alliances for Standard & Poors; a myriad of new CD-ROM products including Harrisons Principals of Internal Medicine (the worlds best-selling medical textbook); a joint venture between the companys secondary school publisher, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, National Geographic, and Capital Cities/ABC; the acquisition of UCB Canada and Hospital Practice; and new offices in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.

McGraw-Hills most famous periodical, Business Week, experienced a phenomenal year in 1995 with exceptional circulation (one million-plus with a readership of nearly seven million) and pumped up advertising volume and revenue. Additionally, Business Week Online gained in popularity and Business Week Enterprise, a magazine for small-business executives, published international editions in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. With so many new opportunities swirling about, McGraw-Hill, inevitably, let others go: Shepards publishing operations and SRA Technology were sold, while Open Computing ceased publication. And despite a disastrous showing in Mexico after the pesos collapse, McGraw-Hill still managed to increase overall earnings by nearly 12 percent to $227.1 million and revenue topped $2.9 billion, a 6.3 percent increase over 1994s stellar performance.

In 1996 McGraw-Hill continued to expand its operations globally, with several high profile acquisitions, including Open Court Publishing Company for its K-8 elementary education division; Healthcare Informatics and InfoCare magazines from Wiesner Publishing for its Healthcare Information unit; and the Times Mirror Higher Education Group, which prompted the formation of the Higher Education and Consumer Group to house it and McGraw-Hills well established college division. Next came another name change, as the Financial Information Services unit was renamed to reflect its most important asset, Standard & Poors, to Standard & Poors Financial Information Services. For the first nine months of 1996, McGraw-Hill was looking good as net income grew by 8.8 percent and overall revenue increased by 2.7 percent to $2.2 billion, making it an easy assumption that the conglomerate would top $3 billion by years end.

As the worlds largest educational publisher in addition to its financial, business, governmental and professional services, the McGraw-Hill Companies reach is far and vast. Its informational media services, second to none in many disciplines, touches millions every hour and has truly accomplished what the company envisioned as keeping the world up to speed.

Principal Subsidiaries

CM Research Inc.; Calificadora de Valores, S.A. de C.V.; Capitol Radio Engineering Institute, Inc.; Columbia Administration Software Publishing Corporation; Computer and Communications Information Group, Inc.; DRI Europe, Inc.; DRI/McGraw-Hill; Editora McGraw-hill de Portugal, Ltda.; Editorial Interamericana, S.A.; Editoriales Pedagogicals Associadas, S.A.; International Advertising/McGraw-Hill Inc.; J.J. Kenney Company, Inc.; Liberty Brokerage Investment Corp.; MHFSCO, Ltd.; MMS International; McGraw-Hill Broadcasting Company, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Capital Corporation; McGraw-Hill Capital, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Data Services-Ireland, Ltd.; McGraw-Hill Financial Publications, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Holdings (U.K.) Limited; McGraw-Hill Information Systems Company of Canada Limited; McGraw-Hill Interamericana, Inc.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de Chile Limitada; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de Espana, S.A.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de Venezuela S.A.; McGraw-Hill/Interamericana, S.A.; Inc.; McGraw-Hill International Enterprises, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Libri Italia; McGraw-Hill News Bureaus, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Publications Overseas, Inc.; McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited; Medical China Publishing Limited; Money Market Directories, Inc.; Nueva Editorial Interamericana, S.A. de C.V.; Rock/McGraw, Inc.; Standard & Poors Compustat; S&Ps ComStock; Standard & Poors-ADEF; Standard & Poors Consumer Investor Network; Standard & Poors Equity Investor Services; Standard & Poors Index Services; Standard & Poors International Ratings, Inc.; Standard & Poors International, S.A.; Standard & Poors Investment Advisory Services, Inc.; Standard & Poors Ltd.; Standard & Poors-Nordisk Rating AB; Standard & Poors Securities, Inc.; Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Private Limited; Tower Group International, Inc.

Principal Operating Units

Educational and Professional Publishing (Higher Education and Consumer Group, Legal Information Group, Professional Publishing Group, School Publishing Group, McGraw-Hill Software); Standard & Poors Financial Information Services (Corporate, Institutional, International, Municipal, and Retail Sectors); Information and Media Services (Broadcasting Group, Business Week Group, Construction Information Group, Publication Services Group, Tower Group International).

Further Reading

Burlingame, Roger, Endless Frontiers: The Story of McGraw-Hill, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1959.

Holt, Donald D., The Unlikely Hero of McGraw-Hill, Fortune, May 21, 1979.

Imprint on an Era: The Story of the McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York: McGraw-Hill, [n.d.].

Madison, Charles A., Book Publishing in America, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1966.

Milliot, Jim, New Media Helps Spur Sales at McGraw-Hill Cos., Publishers Weekly, April 15, 1996, p. 20.

Tebbel, John, A History of Book Publishing in the United States, 4 vols., New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 19721981.

Waters, Richard, McGraw Hill Margins Improve, Financial Times, February 3, 1995, p. 22.

Wilson B. Lindauer

updated by Taryn Benbow-Pfalzgraf

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"The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc." International Directory of Company Histories. 1997. Encyclopedia.com. 27 Sep. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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