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Lotka–Volterra equations
Lotka–Volterra equations Mathematical models of competition, devised in the 1920s by A. J. Lotka and V. Volterra, between resourcelimited species living in the same space with the same environmental requirements. They have been modified subsequently to simulate simple predator–prey interactions. The competition model predicts that coexistence of such species populations is impossible; one is always eliminated, as was verified experimentally by G. F. Gause. The predation model predicts cyclic fluctuations of predator and prey populations. Reduction of predator numbers allows prey to recuperate, which in turn stimulates the population growth of the predator. Increasing predator numbers depress the prey population, leading eventually to a reduction in the predator population. This was also tested experimentally by Gause in 1934 and more recently and more convincingly by S. Utida in 1950 and 1957. See also competitive exclusion principle. 

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MICHAEL ALLABY. "Lotka–Volterra equations." A Dictionary of Ecology. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. MICHAEL ALLABY. "Lotka–Volterra equations." A Dictionary of Ecology. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. (November 28, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O14LotkaVolterraequations.html MICHAEL ALLABY. "Lotka–Volterra equations." A Dictionary of Ecology. 2004. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O14LotkaVolterraequations.html 
LotkaVolterra equations
LotkaVolterra equations Mathematical models of competition between resourcelimited species living in the same space with the same environmental requirements. They have been modified subsequently to simulate simple predator–prey interactions. The competition model predicts that coexistence of such species populations is impossible: one is always eliminated, as was verified experimentally by G. F. Gause. The predation model predicts cyclic fluctuations of predator and prey populations. Reduction of predator numbers allows prey to recuperate, which in turn stimulates the population growth of the predator. Increasing predator numbers depress the prey population, leading eventually to a reduction in the predator population. This was also tested experimentally by Gause (1934) and more recently and more convincingly by S. Utida (1950, 1957). See also COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE. 

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MICHAEL ALLABY. "LotkaVolterra equations." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. MICHAEL ALLABY. "LotkaVolterra equations." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. (November 28, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O7LotkaVolterraequations.html MICHAEL ALLABY. "LotkaVolterra equations." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O7LotkaVolterraequations.html 
LotkaVolterra equations
LotkaVolterra equations Mathematical models of competition between resourcelimited species living in the same space with the same environmental requirements. They have been modified subsequently to simulate simple predatorprey interactions. The competition model predicts that coexistence of such species populations is impossible; one is always eliminated, according to the competitiveexclusion principle. The predation model predicts cyclic fluctuations of predator and prey populations. Reduction of predator numbers allows prey to recuperate, which in turn stimulates the population growth of the predator. Increasing predator numbers depress the prey population, leading eventually to a reduction in the predator population. 

Cite this article
MICHAEL ALLABY. "LotkaVolterra equations." A Dictionary of Zoology. 1999. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. MICHAEL ALLABY. "LotkaVolterra equations." A Dictionary of Zoology. 1999. Encyclopedia.com. (November 28, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O8LotkaVolterraequations.html MICHAEL ALLABY. "LotkaVolterra equations." A Dictionary of Zoology. 1999. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O8LotkaVolterraequations.html 