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Baez, Joan

Joan Baez

Singer, songwriter, guitarist

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

The voice can be a powerful instrument in music and social activism. For Joan Baez, through many years of performance, writing, and speaking out, the voice is a symbol of an individuals power to effect change. She was born in Staten Island, New York, January 9, 1941, the daughter of Dr. Albert Baez, a physicist. Baezs autobiography, And a Voice to Sing With, details her childhood as a faculty child in Ithaca, New York, and in Bagdad, Redlands, and Palo Alto, California, where she attended high school and began to play the guitar. Relocated to the Boston area, where her father had joined the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, she attended Boston University and began to perform professionally at small clubs, such as Tullas Coffee Grinder. Her two years of apprenticeship in the Boston area brought her to the attention of Bob Gibson, who invited her to participate in the 1959 Newport Folk Festival.

Baez began a long association with Vanguard Records, then Americas foremost folk label, in 1960 with her album Joan Baez. It brought acclaim and invitations to perform in folk clubs and concert halls throughout the college circuit and major cities. She soon became a symbol of the folk revival and was featured on the cover of Time. Her voice, described by Robert Shelton in a 1960 review of an early concert in the New York Times, was a a soprano voice, surprisingly never trained, that has a purity, penetrating clarity and control that not a few art singers would envy. With seeming effortlessness, Miss Baez produced a purling, spun-gold tone particularly suited to the lyric Anglo-American songs and ballads that made up most of her program. The phrase, achingly pure soprano, cited often by critics over the last 25 years, also dates from this first concert tour. She has denied the importance of the purity of her voice in interviews throughout her long career. In a 1963 article by Nat Hentoff, for example, she praised interpretation over mere quality: I think of a rural folk singerDoc Watsons motherwhose voice might not seem beautiful to some people. But her voice has a straightness, an honesty, a purity. On the other hand, a voice may have all the tone quality and all the vibrato you could ask for, and yet itll sound so bland that it has no beauty at all. Baezs voice, her songs, guitar style, and even her long flowing hair set a pattern for a generation of young folk singers and balladeers. The hair was cut in 1968, and the soprano has darkened and mellowed but the influence remains strong.

Her tour of campuses was also noteworthy for Baezs refusal to perform in segregated arenas and concert hallsa decision that led her to limit the Southern part of her tours to black colleges. Raised as a Quaker, she also refused to pay that part of her Federal Income Tax which, the Society of Friends believed, was used for

For the Record

Born January 9, 1941, in Staten Island, N.Y.; daughter of Albert (a physicist) and Joan (Bridge) Baez; married David Harris (an anti-war activist), 1968 (divorced, 1971); children: Gabriel. Education: Attended Boston University. Politics: Pacifist. Religion: Quaker.

Began to play guitar in high school; in college, began to perform professionally at clubs in Boston, Mass.; began recording, 1959; has toured extensively throughout the world; president of Diamonds & Rust Productions, Inc., 1975. Social activist; arrested and jailed for protests against the Vietnam war; founder of Resource Center for Nonviolence, 1965; active in Amnesty International, 1972; founder and president of Humanitas International, 1979.

Awards: Chicago Business Executives Move for Vietnam Peace Award, 1971; Joan Baez Day was established by city of Atlantic, Ga., 1975; Thomas Merton Award, 1976; Public Service Award, Third Annual Rock Music Awards, 1977; named best female vocalist, Bay Area Music Awards, 1978 and 1979; Earl Warren Civil Liberties Award, ACLU, 1979; honorary D.H.L., Antioch University and Rutgers University, 1980; Jefferson Award, 1980; Lennon Peace Tribute Award, 1982; Americans for Democratic Action award, 1982; SANE Education Fund Peace Award, 1983; Academie Charles Cros Award (France) for best live album, 1983.

Addresses: Office Diamonds & Rust Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1026, Menlo Park, CA 94026. Agent Triad, 10100 Santa Monica Blvd., 16 Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90067.

military spending. Part of her income from performing and recording went to found the Institute for the Study of Nonviolence (now called the Resource Center for Nonviolence) in Carmel Valley, California. Her social activism also led to her support for the civil rights movement and its concurrent voting rights protests, as well as anti-war events around the world. She was arrested and jailed for non-violent protests of the Vietnam-era draft, as was her husband, David Harris, who spent much of their marriage in jail. Her focus throughout her life has been on nonviolent protest as a means of ending wars, war-related industries and national budgets, and discrimination. She has worked through Amnesty International since 1972 and Humanitas since its founding in 1979.

Although most of her audience supported the same beliefs that she did, Baezs activities were often criticized publically by others. Her parodied but recognizable image was included in Al Capps Lil Abner comic strip as Joanie Phonie in 1967. Also that year, in a move that reminded many of the banning of famed black soprano Marian Anderson thirty years earlier, she was denied permission by the Daughters of the American Revolution to perform in Constitution Hall (capacity: 3800), and so she appeared instead before a crowd of over 30,000 at the Washington Monument. Baezs most controversial activity was her participation in a tour of (then North) Vietnam in 1972, which produced the album Where are You, My Son?

The almost continuous concert tours and recordings for a decade brought Baez and her message to an ever wider audience. In a 1979 joint interview with Judy Collins, she told the New York Times that performance and the message are interrelated: The concert becomes a context of its own, and thats whats beautiful about being able to stand up therethat I can say what I want, put the songs where I want them and, hopefully, give people an evening of beautiful music as well. She has appeared on most college campuses, in Carnegie Hall and major concert halls, and in outdoor festivals. Baez was one of only four musical acts that participated in both Woodstock, the defining event of the late 1960s music scene, and in LiveAid, the 1985 international rock concert to raise money for African relief, an irony that she described in her autobiography. Both events reached a wide audienceWoodstock became a film from Warner Brothers; LiveAid was broadcast on worldwide television. Many of Baezs solo tours were also filmed as documentaries, among them, the Rolling Tunder Revue (with Bob Dylan, 1975) and Live Europe 83, which produced a French television film and an award-winning album of the same name. A 1970 documentary, Carry It On covers her life at the time of Harriss arrest, but also includes 13 songs in concerts.

The folk revival of the 1960s brought widespread attention to traditional folk forms and to the young folksingers who were writing new music, most notably, Baez and Bob Dylan. They performed together often at the start of their careers, as in her 1963 Forest Hills Music Festival concert in New York at which she devoted half of the program to Dylan songs, sung by him, by her, and as duets. The New York Times review of that summer concert praised her programming decision: To have her so closely align herself with Mr. Dylans charismatic poetry resulted in an unforgettable evening. They also toured together in the mid-1970s. Her performance of his Blowin in the Wind, was included on the Grammy Award presentations of 1983 as an example of Music has a message. Other Dylan songs, such as Thats Allright and A Hard Rains a-Gonna Fall, remain in her repertory.

Baez was criticized at the onset of her career for mixing her musical messages and not limiting herself to music on a specific theme or from a specific genre, as was traditional with folk singers in the 1950s. she defended herself to Nat Hentoff in the November 1963 HiFi-Stereo Review: [The historical] aspect of folk music has always been so secondary with me. Its as if there were a mysterious string in me. If something I hear plucks that string, then Ill sing that song. It can be funny or serious, or it can be in another language. I cant analyze what qualities a song must have to do that to me. This generalism has become a major selling point in her later career. Baezs albums, like her concert appearances, always mix genres, including new songs (often about her son, Gabriel), American spirituals, Scottish hymns, and protest statements from different cultures. She has made recordings of folk songs paired with country-and-western numbers, as on her Davids Album, which featured Carry It On, as well as her popular cut of Green Grass of Home. She stresses ballads and anthems by her and other contemporary writers, such as Leonard Cohens Suzanne, and Len-non/McCartneys Imagine and Long and Winding Road; but also includes ballad standards from the 1940s and 1950s, including Julie Londons Cry Me a River on her Blowin Away album. Her music follows its sources into their music heritages, and she was one of the first American singers to perform reggae songs, like her 1983 Warriors of the Sun, Latin American non-salsa styles, and the now-popular new African genres.

A 1977 Village Voice feature suggested that Baezs diversity had rescued her career and praised her use of rock-and-roll rhythms. In her 1987 Recently and on its tour, her repertory included, as it was described in the New York Times: a spare, moving rendition of Dire straits pacifist hymn, Brothers in Arms, a version of the Marian Anderson staple, Let Us Break Bread Together, that finds the singer buoyed by a gospel chorus, and two equally strong renditions of songs evoking the agony of South Africa: Peter Gabriels elegaic incantation Biko and John Cleggs passionate Asimbonanga.

Baezs achingly pure soprano has deepened into a richer, more dramatic and fluid alto in recent years. A New York Times review of a 1983 concert praised her rendition of the spiritual Swing Low Sweet Chariot: Her rendition swept through two octaves with an authority and passion that few other singers could hope to muster.

The dual role of Joan Baez as a performer and as, in the words of Rolling Stones John Grissim, Jr., as a purveyor of an enjoined social consciousness and responsibility, has given her a place in American music that supports her activism. Like Pete Seeger and the folk singers of the earlier generation, her voice is her conscience. But for Baez, like Marian Anderson, the quality of her vocal production brings authority to her message.

Selected discography

Joan Baez, Vanguard, 1960.

Joan Baez 2, Vanguard, 1961.

In Concert, Vanguard, 1962.

In Concert 2, Vanguard, 1963.

Joan Baez 5, Vanguard, 1964.

Farewell, Angelina, Vanguard, 1965.

Noel, Vanguard, 1966.

Portrait, Vanguard, 1966.

Joan, Vanguard, 1967.

Baptism, Vanguard, 1968.

Any Day Now, Vanguard, 1968.

Davids Album, Vanguard, 1969.

One Day at a Time, Vanguard, 1970.

First Ten Years, Vanguard, 1970.

Blessed Are, Vanguard, 1971.

Carry It On, Vanguard, 1972.

Come from the Shadows, A&M, 1972.

Where Are You Now, My Son?, A&M, 1973.

Gracias a la Vida (Heres to Life), A&M, 1974.

Diamonds & Rust, A&M, 1975.

Live in Japan, Vanguard, 1975.

Love Song Album, Vanguard, 1976.

From Every Stage, A&M, 1976.

Gulf Winds, A&M, 1976.

Blowin Away, Portrait, 1977.

Golden Hour, Pye, 1972.

Hits: The Greatest and Others, Vanguard, 1973.

Best of Joan Baez, A&M, 1977.

Golden Hour 2, Pye.

House of the Rising Sun, Musidisc, 1978.

Honest Lulaby, Portrait, 1979.

Country Music, Vanguard, 1979.

Spotlight on Joan Baez, Portrait, 1980.

Live in Concert, Portrait, 1980.

The Magic of Joan Baez, K Tel, 1981.

Early Joan Baez I and II, Metronome.

Recently, Goldcastle, 1987.

Joan Baez in Concert, Vanguard, 1988.

Sources

Books

Baez, Joan, And a Voice to Sing With, Summit Books, 1987.

Periodicals

Hi Fi/Stereo Review, November, 1963.

New York Times, November 7, 1960; August 19, 1963; March 14, 1966; July 6, 1979; November 18, 1983; July 8, 1987; October 12, 1987; November 21, 1987.

Rolling Stone, December 7, 1968.

Time, June 1, 1962; November 23, 1962.

Village Voice, May 30, 1977.

Barbara Stratyner

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Stratyner, Barbara. "Baez, Joan." Contemporary Musicians. 1989. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Stratyner, Barbara. "Baez, Joan." Contemporary Musicians. 1989. Encyclopedia.com. (July 1, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3491900012.html

Stratyner, Barbara. "Baez, Joan." Contemporary Musicians. 1989. Retrieved July 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3491900012.html

Joan Baez

Joan Baez

American folk singer Joan Baez (born 1941) was recognized for her non-violent, anti-establishment, and anti-war positions. She used her singing and speaking talents to denounce violations of human rights in a number of countries.

By the age of 22, Joan Baez was already known as the "queen of folk singers." Her rich and varied early experiences contributed significantly to her later "anti-establishment" attitudes. Her father, Albert V. Baez, was a physicist who came to the United States from Mexico at a very early age, and her mother was of West-European descent. Joan inherited her father's dark complexion, and the occasional racial prejudice she suffered as a child probably led to her later involvement in the civil rights movement. Although as an adult she claimed not to share her parents' Quaker faith, it undoubtedly contributed to what some called her keen "social conscience."

One of three sisters, Baez was born on January 9, 1941, in Staten Island, New York. She was exposed to an intellectual atmosphere with classical music during her childhood, but rejected piano lessons in favor of the guitar and rock and roll.

Her father's research and teaching positions took the family to various American and foreign cities. She attended high school in Palo Alto, California, where she excelled in music more than in academic subjects. Shortly after her high school graduation in 1958, her family moved to Boston where Baez's interest in folk music surfaced after visiting a coffeeshop where amateur folk singers performed.

From Boston Coffee Houses to Newport

She briefly attended Boston University where she made friends with several semi-professional folk singers from whom she learned much about the art. In addition to simple folk songs, she began to sing Anglo-American ballads, blues, spirituals, and songs from various countries. As she worked to develop her technique and repertoire, Baez began to perform professionally in Boston coffeehouses and quickly became a favorite of Harvard students. She was also noticed by other folk singers, including Harry Belafonte, who offered her a job with his singing group.

In the summer of 1959 she was invited to sing at the Newport (Rhode Island) Folk Festival. That performance made her a soaring phenomenon—especially to young people—and led to friendships with other important folk singers such as the Seeger family and Odetta. Although that performance brought her offers to make recordings and concert tours, she decided to resume her Boston coffeeshop appearances.

After her second Newport appearance in 1960, Baez made her first album for Vanguard Records, simply labelled Joan Baez, which was an immediate success. She was then such a "hot item" that she could tell CBS what songs she would sing and what props she would use in her appearance. In the following years Baez sang to capacity crowds on American college campuses and concert halls and on several foreign tours. Her eight gold album and one gold single awards attested to her popularity as a singer.

Her soprano voice has been described as "so clear and so luminously sensual that it reminded everyone of their first loves." She had no need to take lessons to enhance her voice, which ranged over three octaves, but she needed practice in order to achieve command of the guitar.

Politics a Source of Controversy

While many critics agreed that her untrained singing voice was unusually haunting, beautiful, and very soothing, they saw her spoken words, lifestyle, and actions as discordant and sometimes anti-American. In the turbulent 1960s, Baez became a center of controversy when she used her singing and speaking talents to urge non-payment of taxes used for war purposes and to urge men to resist the draft during the Vietnam War. She helped block induction centers and was twice arrested for such violations of the law. She had already studied, understood, and adopted non-violent strategies as a way to effect changes where she perceived injustices to exist.

She was married to David Harris, a draft resister, in March 1968. She was pregnant with their son, Gabriel, in April 1969 and three months later saw her husband arrested for refusing induction into the military forces. (He spent the next 20 months in a federal prison in Texas.)

Baez Creates A Stir Among American Left

In the early 1970s, Baez began to speak with less stridence and by the end of the decade had offended dozens of her former peace-activist allies, such as Jane Fonda and attorney William Kunstler, when she publicly denounced the atrocities in Vietnam's Communist "re-education" centers. As she had done in the case of Chile and Argentina (without public outcries from former associates), Baez called for human rights to be extended to those centers in post-war Vietnam. Although her position seemed similar to that of Western intellectuals, it nevertheless created a stir among the American left (some of whom called for her own re-education). When some asked what right any American had to criticize the Communist government for anything it was doing after what the United States had done to the Vietnamese, she responded: "The same right we have to help anyone anywhere who is a prisoner of conscience."

Baez' Career Through the 1980s and '90s

In later years Baez' singing career faltered despite various attempts to revive it. Her 1985 effort featured a more conventional hairstyle and attire. Her supporters believed she would regain her prominence in the entertainment industry because her voice, although deeper, retained the same qualities which earlier made her so successful. Meanwhile, she was quite busy throughout the world as the head of the Humanitas International Human Rights Committee, which concentrated on distracting (in any possible non-violent way) those whom it believed exercised illegitimate power.

Baez has continued to make music and to influence younger performers. In 1987, Baez released Recently, her first studio solo album in eight years. She was nominated for a 1988 Best Contemporary Folk Recording Grammy Award for the song "Asimbonanga" from the album. Also in 1988, Baez recorded Diamonds and Rust in the Bullring in Bilbao, Spain. The album was released the following April. In 1990, Baez toured with the Indigo Girls and the threesome were recorded for a PBS video presentation, Joan Baez In Concert. In 1991, she released a compilation album, Brothers In Arms, featuring two new tracks. In 1993, two more Baez recordings were released: Play Me Backwards, consisting of new material; and Rare, Live & Classic, a retrospective of her career from 1958 to 1989, featuring 22 previously unreleased tracks. Another compilation CD, Live At Newport, containing previously unreleased performances from the 1963, 1964 and 1965 Newport Folk Festivals was released by Vanguard records in 1996. Baez released another solo album, Gone from Danger, in early 1997.

The singer's interest in politics and human rights has continued as well. In 1993, she was invited by Refugees International to travel to Bosnia-Herzegovina in order to help bring attention to the suffering there. In September of that same year, Baez became the first major artist to perform in a professional concert on Alcatraz Island (the former Federal Penitentiary) in San Francisco to benefit her sister Mimi Farina's organization, Bread & Roses. She returned to the island for a second benefit in 1996 along with the Indigo Girls and Dar Williams. She has also supported the gay and lesbian cause, joining Janis Ian in a performance at the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force's Fight the Right fund-raising event in San Francisco in 1995.

Further Reading

Bits of biographical data about Joan Baez may be found in her book Daybreak (1968) and in Coming Out (1971), which she co-authored with husband, David Harris. The latter chronicles a brief period after Harris's release from prison for draft evasion. The best sources for additional information about her anti-war activities are news and popular periodicals from 1968 to 1977.

Baez's 1987 autobiography, And A Voice To Sing With, isan excellent source of information as well. Other current sources include the January 17, 1997 issue of Goldmine in which she is profiled in an extensive 14-page cover story by Bill Carpenter.

Baez can be found on the web at http://baez.woz.org and on the A&E Biography site at http://www.biography.com/find/find.html. □

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Baez, Joan

Joan Baez

Born: January 9, 1941
Staten Island, New York

American musician, singer, and activist

American folk singer Joan Baez is recognized for her nonviolent, antiestablishment (against a nation's political and economic structure), and anti-war positions. She has used her singing and speaking talents to criticize violations of human rights in a number of countries.

Early life

Joan Baez was born on January 9, 1941, in Staten Island, New York. Her father, Albert V. Baez, was a physicist who came to the United States from Mexico at a very early age, and her mother was of western European descent. Joan inherited her father's dark complexion, and the occasional racial prejudice (hatred of a race) she suffered as a child probably led to her later involvement in the civil rights movement, a movement that called for equal rights for all races. Although as an adult she claimed not to share her parents' strict religious faith, it undoubtedly contributed to what some called her keen "social conscience."

Baez was exposed to an intellectual atmosphere with classical music during her childhood, but rejected piano lessons in favor of the guitar and rock and roll. Her father's research and teaching positions took the family to various American and foreign cities. When Joan was ten, she spent a year in Iraq with her family. There she was exposed to the harsh and intensely poor conditions of the Iraqi people, something that undoubtedly had an affect on her later career as a singer and activist. Baez went on to attend high school in Palo Alto, California, where she excelled in music more than in academic subjects. Shortly after her high school graduation in 1958, her family moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where Baez's interest in folk music surfaced after visiting a coffee shop where amateur folk singers performed.

From Boston coffeehouses to Newport,

Rhode Island

Baez briefly attended Boston University, where she made friends with several semi-professional folk singers from whom she learned much about the art. In addition to simple folk songs, she began to sing Anglo American ballads, blues, spirituals, and songs from various countries. As she worked to develop her technique and range of songs, Baez began to perform professionally in Boston coffeehouses and quickly became a favorite of Harvard University students. She was also noticed by other folk singers, including Harry Belafonte (1927), who offered her a job with his singing group.

In the summer of 1959 Baez was invited to sing at the Newport Folk Festival in Rhode Island. This performance made her a starespecially to young peopleand led to friendships with other important folk singers such as the Seeger family and Odetta. Although the performance brought her offers to make recordings and concert tours, she decided to resume her Boston coffee shop appearances.

After Baez's second Newport appearance in 1960, she made her first album for Vanguard Records. Simply labeled Joan Baez, it was an immediate success. She was then such a "hot item" that she could choose her own songs and prop designs for her performances. In the following years Baez sang to capacity crowds on American college campuses and concert halls and on several foreign tours. Her eight gold albums and one gold single demonstrated her popularity as a singer.

Politics a source of controversy

While many critics agreed that Baez's untrained singing voice was unusually haunting, beautiful, and very soothing, they saw her spoken words, lifestyle, and actions as conflicting and sometimes anti-American. In the changing world of the1960s, Baez became a center of controversy (open to dispute) when she used her singing and speaking talents to urge nonpayment of taxes used for war purposes and to urge men to resist the draft during the Vietnam War (196573; when the United States aided South Vietnam's fight against North Vietnam). She helped block induction centers (which brought in new recruits) and was twice arrested for such violations of the law.

Baez was married to writer and activist David Harris in March 1968. She was pregnant with their son, Gabriel, in April 1969, and three months later she saw her husband arrested for refusing induction into the military forces. He spent the next twenty months in a federal prison in Texas.

In the early 1970s Baez began to speak with greater harshness. By the end of the decade she had offended dozens of her former peace-activist alliessuch as Jane Fonda (1937) and attorney William Kunstlerwith her views on postwar Vietnam. As she had done in the case of Chile and Argentina (without public outcries from former associates), Baez called for human rights to be extended to those centers in the war-torn country.

Baez's career through the 1980s and 1990s

In later years Baez's singing career faltered despite various attempts to revive it. Her 1985 effort featured a more conventional hairstyle and attire. Her supporters believed she would regain her prominence in the entertainment industry because her voice, although deeper, had the same qualities that made her so successful earlier. Meanwhile, she was quite busy throughout the world as the head of the Humanitas International Human Rights Committee, which concentrated on distracting (in any possible nonviolent way) those whom it believed exercised unauthorized power.

Baez has continued to make music and to influence younger performers. In 1987 Baez released Recently, her first studio solo album in eight years. She was nominated for a 1988 Best Contemporary Folk Recording Grammy Award for "Asimbonanga," a song from the album. Also in 1988 Baez recorded Diamonds and Rust in the Bullring in Bilbao, Spain. The album was released the following April. In 1990 Baez toured with the Indigo Girls and the threesome were recorded for a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) video presentation, "Joan Baez In Concert." In 1993 two more Baez recordings were released: Play Me Backwards, consisting of new material; and Rare, Live & Classic, a collection of her career from 1958 to 1989, featuring twenty-two previously unreleased tracks. Baez released Gone from Danger in 1997 and Farewell Angelina in 2002.

The singer's interest in politics and human rights has continued as well. In 1993 she was invited by Refugees International to travel to Bosnia-Herzegovina in order to help bring attention to the suffering there. In September of that same year Baez became the first major artist to perform in a professional concert on Alcatraz Island (the former Federal Penitentiary) in San Francisco, California. It was a benefit performance for her sister Mimi Farina's organization, Bread & Roses. She returned to the island for a second benefit in 1996 along with the Indigo Girls and Dar Williams. She has also supported the gay and lesbian cause. In 1995 she joined Janis Ian in a performance at the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force's Fight the Right fundraising event in San Francisco.

In 2001 Farrar, Straus, and Giroux released Positively Fourth Street by David Hajdu. The book is an intimate portrait that explores the relationships between Joan, Mimi Farina, Richard Farina, and fellow folkster Bob Dylan (1941) during New York City's folk scene of the early 1960s.

For More Information

Baez, Joan. And a Voice to Sing With. New York: Summit Books, 1987.

Garza, Hedda. Joan Baez. New York: Chelsea House, 1991.

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Baez, Joan

Joan Baez (bīpstr;ĕz, bä´–), 1941–, American folk singer and political activist, b. New York City. Baez began singing traditional folk ballads, blues, and spirituals in Cambridge, Mass., coffeehouses in a clear soprano voice with a three-octave range. She made folk music, which had been largely ignored, popular. Baez's records were the first folk albums to become best-sellers. Her later albums include several of her own compositions, e.g., "Song for David" and "Blessed Are." Among the first performers to urge social protest, she sang and marched for civil and student rights and peace. Since the late 1960s she has devoted time to her school for nonviolence in California and has performed at concerts supporting a variety of humanitarian causes.

See her autobiography, Daybreak (1968), and her memoir, And a Voice to Sing With (1987).

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