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Bell, Michael 1938–

Bell, Michael 1938–

PERSONAL

Full name, Michael Patrick Bell; born July 30 (some sources cite April 10), 1938, in Brooklyn, New York, NY; married Victoria Carroll (an actress), January 1, 1968; children: one daughter. Avocational Interests: Political and social causes, especially organizations supporting animal welfare.

Addresses: Agent—Cunningham/Escott/Slevin & Doherty Talent Agency, 10635 Santa Monica Blvd., Suite 140, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (voice work).

Career: Actor and voice artist. Worked as a voice director for animation projects. Appeared in and provided voice work for advertisements; appeared at conventions. Cofounder of Last Chance for Animals and the Internet site MetroPetTracker.com; leader of Coalition for a Humane Los Angeles.

CREDITS

Television Appearances; Series:

Les Crowley, Dallas (also known as Oil), CBS, 1980–81, 1991.

Narrator, The E! True Hollywood Story (also known asTHS), E! Entertainment Television, between 1999 and 2002.

Television Appearances; Animated Series:

Voice of chief, The Houndcats, NBC, 1972–73.

Voice, The Barkleys, NBC, 1972–73.

Voice of Mark, Speed Buggy, CBS, 1973–75, ABC, 1975–76, NBC, 1976–77, CBS, 1978, CBS, 1982–83.

Voice of Ernie Devlin, Devlin, ABC, 1974–76.

Voice of chief, C.B. Bears (also known as CB Bears), CBS, 1977–78.

Voices of Zan and Gleek (the Wonder Twins), The All–New SuperFriends Hour (also known as The All–New Superfriends Hour, SuperFriends II, and Super–friends II), ABC, 1977–78.

Voice of the Riddler, Challenge of the SuperFriends (also known as Challenge of the Superfriends), ABC, 1978–79.

Voices of Merlin, Sinbad, and Super Samurai, Tarzan and the Super 7, CBS, 1978–80.

Voice of George for The Bungle Brothers segment and voice of Dr. Ben Cooper for Jana of the Jungle segment, The Godzilla Power Hour (also known as Godzilla, The Godzilla/Dynomutt Hour, The Godzilla/Globetrotters Adventure Hour, The Godzilla/Hong Kong Phooey Hour, and The Godzilla Show), NBC, 1978–81.

Voice of Dr. Ben Cooper, The All–New Popeye Hour, CBS, 1978–83.

Voice of Plastic Man, The Plastic Man Comedy/Adventure Show, ABC, 1979–81, CBS, 1983–84.

Voices of Zan and Gleek (the Wonder Twins) and the Riddler, The World's Greatest SuperFriends (also known as Challenge of the SuperFriends, Challenge of the Superfriends, SuperFriends IV, Superfriends IV, Super–Friends Hour, and The World's Greatest Super Heroes), ABC, 1979–83 and 1984–85.

Voices of Merlin, Sinbad, and Super Samurai, Batman and the Super Seven (also known as Batman and Batman and the Super 7), NBC, 1980–81.

Voice, The Heathcliff and Dingbat Show (also known as Heathcliff and Dingbat), ABC, 1980–81.

Voices of Lance and Sven for English version, Hyakuju o Go–Rion (anime; also known as Beast King GoLion and King of Beasts Go–lion), beginning 1981, originally broadcast in Japan.

Voice of Grubb Trollmaine, Trollkins, CBS, 1981–82.

Voice of George for The Bungle Brothers segment and voice of Ranger Rangerfield, The Kwicky Koala Show, CBS, 1981–82.

Voice of Space Ace for Astro and the Space Mutts segment (also known as Space Mutts), Space–Stars, NBC, 1981–82.

Voices of Dr. Octopus/Dr. Otto Octavius and Dr. Bruce Banner/the Incredible Hulk, Spider–Man and His Amazing Friends (also known as The Amazing Spider–Man and the Incredible Hulk and The Incredible Hulk and the Amazing Spider–Man), NBC, 1981–82 and 1984–86.

Voices of Grouchy Smurf, Handy Smurf, Lazy Smurf, and Johan, The Smurfs (also known as Smurfs' Adventures), NBC, 1981–90.

Voices of Duke and Dash, The Scooby and Scrappy–Doo Puppy Hour (also known as The Scooby–Doo Puppy Hour and Scooby & Scrappy–Doo/The Puppy's New Adventures), ABC, beginning 1982.

Voices of Dr. Octopus/Dr. Otto Octavius and Dr. Bruce Banner/the Incredible Hulk, The Incredible Hulk (also known as The All New Incredible Hulk), NBC, 1982–83.

Voice of Ruby Rodriguez, Rubik the Amazing Cube, broadcast as part of The Pac–Man/Rubik the Amazing Cube Hour, ABC, 1983–85.

Voices of Lance Charles McClain and Sven Holgersson, Voltron: Defender of the Universe (also known asThe New Adventures of Voltron and Voltron), syndicated, 1984–85.

Voices of Allstar Seaworthy, Bigweed, Elder 4, and others, The Snorks, NBC, 1984–86.

Voice of Duke, G.I. Joe (also known as Action Force, G.I. Joe: A Great American Hero, and Chijo saikyo no Expert Team G.I. Joe), syndicated, beginning 1984, 1990–92.

Voices of Prowl, Bombshell, Brainstorm, First Aid, Sideswipe, Scrapper, and Swoop, Transformers (also known as Super God Robot Force, Transformers: Generation, Transformers: 2010, and Tatakae! Cho robot seimeitai Transformer), syndicated, 1985.

Voice, The New Jetsons, syndicated, 1985.

Voices of Kontor, Lupus, Traxis, and Venturak, Robotix, syndicated, 1985–86, broadcast on the Super Saturday and Super Sunday programming blocks.

Voice of John Thunder, The Centurions (also known as Centurions), syndicated, 1986.

Voice, The New Adventures of Jonny Quest (also known as Jonny Quest), syndicated, 1986.

Voices of Auger, Blackthorne Shore, and Edward "Eddie" Augutter, InHumanoids, syndicated, 1986, broadcast on the Super Saturday and Super Sunday programming blocks, also edited and released as the animated feature film InHumanoids: The Movie, Hasbro/Marvel Productions/Sunbow Productions, 1986.

Voices of Dash and Duke, The Puppy's Further Adventures, CBS, c. 1986.

Voice of the Yukkster, The Flintstone Kids, ABC, 1986–88 and 1990.

Voices of Grogar and Sting, My Little Pony and Friends, syndicated, 1986–90.

Voice of Hiro Taka, Spiral Zone, syndicated, 1987.

Voice, Saber Rider and the Star Sheriffs (anime; also known as Bismarck the Star Musketeers), syndicated, 1987–88, originally broadcast in Japan by NTV, 1984–85.

Voice, The New Adventures of the Snorks (also known as The Snorks), NBC, 1987–89.

Voice of Lex Luthor, Superman, CBS, 1988–89.

Voice of Sebastian, Midnight Patrol: Adventures in the Dream Zone (also known as Midnight Patrol and Potsworth & Co.), syndicated, 1990, broadcast as part of the programming block The Funtastic World of Hanna–Barbera.

Voice, The Adventures of Don Coyote and Sancho Panda, syndicated, 1990–91.

Voice, The Tom and Jerry Kids Show (also known as Tom & Jerry Kids Show), Fox, 1990–93.

Voices of Colonel Grogg, Mr. Perry, and others, TaleSpin (also known as Tale Spin), syndicated, 1990–94.

Voices of Yuri, Drossler Chemical representative, and radio dispatcher, Captain Planet and the Planeteers (also known as The New Adventures of Captain Planet), TNT and syndicated, 1990–96.

Voices of Mr. Banana Brain, Mr. History Doll, and Quackerjack, Darkwing Duck, ABC and syndicated, 1991–93.

Voices of Andrew "Drew" Pickles, Charles "Chaz" Finster, Sr., Grandpa Boris, and others, Rugrats (also known as Adventures in Diapers, Aventuras en panales, Ipanat, Las diabluras de Tommy, Les razmoket, and Rollinger), Nickelodeon, 1991–2003.

Voice of Naugus, Sonic the Hedgehog (also known as The Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog and Sonic), ABC and syndicated, 1993–95.

Voice of father, What–a–Mess, ABC, 1995–96.

Voice of the title role, Ace Ventura: Pet Detective (also known as Ace Ventura detective), CBS, 1996–97.

Voices of Ezekiel Rage and others, The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest (also known as Jonny Quest: The Real Adventures), TBS, Cartoon Network, and syndicated, 1996–97.

Voices of Coran, Lance Charles McClain, and Sven Holgersson, Voltron: The Third Dimension, Fox, 1998–2000.

Voice of Pongo, House of Mouse (also known as Disney's "House of Mouse," Mickey's Club, and Musehus), ABC, 2001–2002.

Voice of Mr. McNoggin, Lloyd in Space (also known as Disney's"Lloyd in Space"), ABC, 2001–2004.

Voice of Mina's father, Mina and the Count, Nickelodeon, 2003, originally broadcast on Oh Yeah! Cartoons, Nickelodeon.

Voice of Charles "Chaz" Finster, Sr., All Grown Up (also known as Rugrats All Grown Up, Les razbitume, Los nuevos rugrats, and Rugratazo), Nickelodeon, beginning 2003.

Voice of Ahn Docona, Detroit Docona, beginning c. 2004.

Voice, Sealab 2021, Cartoon Network, 2004–2005.

Voices of Drake, Crimson, Mama, and others, W.I.T.C.H., ABC Family Channel, 2005–2006.

Television Appearances; Miniseries:

Narrator, Expeditions to the Edge (documentary), National Geographic Channel, 2004.

First ranger, Category 7: The End of the World, CBS, 2005.

Television Appearances; Animated Miniseries:

Voices of the Artful Dodger and fishmonger, "Oliver and the Artful Dodger: Parts1&2," The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie (also known as The New Saturday Superstar Movie), ABC, 1972.

Voices of Clutch, Duke, Dr. Vandermeer, and Major Bludd Clutch, G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero (also known as G.I. Joe, G.I. Joe: The M.A.S.S. Device, and The M.A.S.S. Device), syndicated, 1983.

Voices of Blowtorch, Clutch, Duke, Major Bludd, and Scrap Iron, G.I. Joe: The Revenge of Cobra (also known as G.I. Joe, G.I. Joe: The Weather Dominator, and The Weather Dominator), syndicated, 1984.

Voices of Blowtorch, Duke, Lift Ticket, and Xamot, G.I. Joe: Arise, Serpentor, Arise! (also known as Action Force: Arise, Serpentor, Arise! ), syndicated, 1986.

Television Appearances; Movies:

Elliot Morse, A Clear and Present Danger, NBC, 1970.

Mike, See the Man Run (also known as The Second Race), ABC, 1971.

John Cadiski, The Heist, ABC, 1972.

Cliff Wilson, The Law, NBC, 1974.

Bradley, The President's Mistress, CBS, 1978.

Nestor, Go West, Young Girl, ABC, 1978.

Phil, Take Your Best Shot, CBS, 1982.

Television Appearances; Animated Movies:

Voices of Freddy Flawless, Frump, and Spectre, Star Fairies, syndicated, 1985.

Voices of Ribo the fat troll and Krill the prosecuting attorney, The Little Troll Prince, 1985.

Voice of Quazar, Rockin' with Judy Jetson, syndicated, 1988, part of the Hanna–Barbera Superstars 10 film series, also broadcast on Boomerang Theater, Boomerang.

Voice of Mr. Pyrite, Hollyrock–a–Bye Baby, ABC, 1993.

Television Appearances; Specials:

Bill Kenyon, America, You're On, ABC, 1975.

Narrator, Bullet Catchers, The Learning Channel, 1999.

Narrator, Medal of Honor, TNT, 1999.

Narrator, Mysteries of Asia, The Learning Channel, 1999.

Television Appearances; Animated Specials:

Voice of Honey Bear, The Bear Who Slept through Christmas, CBS, 1973.

Voices of Duke and Dash, " The Puppy Who Wanted a Boy," ABC Weekend Specials, ABC, 1978.

Voices of Jesse Rotten and Vice president Jackie Carlson, Scooby–Doo Goes Hollywood, ABC, 1979.

Voice of Butch, "Scruffy," ABC Weekend Specials, ABC, 1980.

Voice, Daniel Boone, CBS, 1981.

Voice, The Smurfs Christmas Special, NBC, 1982.

Voice, The Smurfs Springtime Special, 1982.

Voices of Duke and Dash, "The Puppy's Further Adventures," ABC Weekend Specials, ABC, 1983.

Voice, My Smurfy Valentine, NBC, 1983.

Voice of Bollo, "The Bollo Caper," ABC Weekend Specials, ABC, 1985.

Voice of Otis, "Robbut: A Tale of Tails," CBS Storybreak (also known as Video Storybreak), CBS, 1985.

Voices of Grouchy Smurf, Handy Smurf, and Lazy Smurf, Smurfily Ever After, NBC, 1985.

Voices of king and Gold Eyes, "Yeh–Shen: A Cinderella Story from China," CBS Storybreak (also known as Video Storybreak), CBS, 1985.

Voice of Lance, Voltron: Fleet of Doom, 1986.

Voice, "Ratha's Creature," CBS Storybreak (also known as Video Storybreak), CBS, 1987.

Voice of Opus, A Wish for Wings That Work (also known as Opus and Bill: A Wish for Wings That Work), CBS, 1991.

Voice, A Rugrats Passover, Nickelodeon, 1995.

Voices of Charles "Chaz" Finster, Sr. and Grandpa Boris, A Rugrats Chanukkah, Nickelodeon, 1996.

Television Appearances; Awards Presentations:

Narrator, The Eighth Annual Genesis Awards, The Discovery Channel, 1994.

Television Appearances; Episodic:

Captain of the guard, "The Garrison," Sir Francis Drake (also known as The Adventures of Sir Francis Drake), NBC, 1962.

Garson, "PFC Gomer Pyle," Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. (also known as Gomer Pyle), CBS, 1965.

Artist, "Art for Monkees' Sake," The Monkees, NBC, 1967.

Brute, "The Mild Ones," Get Smart (also known as Superagent 86), NBC, 1967.

Roger Hale, "A Christmas Place," Here Comes the Brides, ABC, 1968.

Captain Anders, "The Exchange," Mission: Impossible, CBS, 1969.

Charlie Travis, "Joshua Watson," The Big Valley, ABC, 1969.

Motorcyclist, "To Catch a Rufus," The Good Guys, CBS, 1969.

Al Carter, "Little Jerry Jessup," Ironside (also known as The Raymond Burr Show), NBC, 1970.

Corbett, "Chapter Fifteen," The Survivors (also known as Harold Robbins' "The Survivors"), NBC, 1970.

Driver, "Sunburst," Mannix, CBS, 1970.

Lenny Josephs, "The Man on the Inside," Ironside (also known as The Raymond Burr Show), NBC, 1970.

"Take as Directed for Death," The Silent Force, ABC, 1970.

Casey Davenport, "The Girl with the Broom," Longstreet, ABC, 1971.

Paul Morrissey, " Reprisal," The Man and the City, ABC, 1971.

Seamus Brennan, "Murder Impromptu," Ironside (also known as The Raymond Burr Show), NBC, 1971.

Ernest, "Green Fingers," Night Gallery (also known as Rod Serling's "Night Gallery"), NBC, 1972.

Firefighter, "Where There's Smoke, There's Rhoda," Mary Tyler Moore (also known as The Mary Tyler Moore Show and Oh Mary), CBS, 1972.

Greer, "To Draw the Lightning," Mannix, CBS, 1972.

Harry Collins, "Touch of Madness," Ghost Story (also known as Circle of Fear), NBC, 1972.

Lieutenant Morris, "Shadow Soldiers," Ironside (also known as The Raymond Burr Show), NBC, 1972.

Grant, "It's So Peaceful in the Country," The Girl with Something Extra, NBC, 1973.

Parent, "Fatal Reunion," The F.B.I., ABC, 1973.

Steve Hall, "Joyride to Nowhere," Tenafly, NBC, 1973.

Tex, "The Guilt Complex," Diana, NBC, 1973.

Delaney, "The Hit Man," Cannon, CBS, 1974.

Larsen, "Picture of a Shadow," Mannix, CBS, 1974.

Rick, "Two Hundred Large," Ironside (also known as The Raymond Burr Show), NBC, 1974.

Television director, "Run Scared," Ironside (also known as The Raymond Burr Show), NBC, 1974.

Frank Kaiser, "Death Ride," Petrocelli, NBC, 1975.

Frank Kaiser, "Terror by the Book," Petrocelli, NBC, 1975.

Frank Kaiser, "To See No Evil," Petrocelli, NBC, 1975.

Glenn Hiller, "Vengeance in White," Petrocelli, NBC, 1975.

Robert O'Brien, " No Place to Hide," The Streets of San Francisco, ABC, 1975.

Thomas Lockner (some sources cite role as Thomas Lochner), " The Deadly Conspiracy," Cannon, CBS, 1975.

Thomas Lockner (some sources cite role as Thomas Lochner), "The Deadly Conspiracy: Part 2," Barnaby Jones, CBS, 1975.

"Conspiracy of Silence," Kate McShane, CBS, 1975.

"Shadow of Fear," Petrocelli, NBC, 1975.

Detective Bull Duncan, "Target: Angels," Charlie's Angels (also known as The Alley Cats), ABC, 1976.

Dub Dailey, "Prairie Woman," The Quest, NBC, 1976.

Stehler, "The Fourth Man," The Rockford Files (also known as Jim Rockford, Jim Rockford, Private Investigator, and Rockford), NBC, 1976.

Agent Mike Krasny, "The Dog and Pony Show," The Rockford Files (also known as Jim Rockford, Jim Rockford, Private Investigator, and Rockford), NBC, 1977.

Detective Bill Duncan, "The Blue Angels," Charlie's Angels (also known as The Alley Cats), ABC, 1977.

Nick Malone, "One Last Trick," The Streets of San Francisco, ABC, 1977.

Willie Stratton, "Souvenirs," M*A*S*H (also known as MASH), CBS, 1977.

Jeff August, "The Love Connection," The Next Step Beyond, syndicated, 1978.

Rama Mageesh, "Chrissy and the Guru," Three's Company (also known as Herzbube mit zwei Damen, Tre cuori in affitto, and Un hombre en casa), ABC, 1978.

"The Broken Badge," Police Story, NBC, 1978.

"Flashpoint," David Cassidy–Man Undercover, NBC, 1978.

Margolis, "Mait Team," CHiPs (also known as Chips and CHiPs Patrol), NBC, 1979.

Petrov, "Checkmate," Benson, ABC, 1980.

Michael, "Some of that Jazz," Three's Company (also known as Herzbube mit zwei Damen, Tre cuori in affitto, and Un hombre en casa), ABC, 1981.

Ralph Sweeney, "Blackout," Hotel (also known as Arthur Hailey's Hotel"), ABC, 1983.

Hoskins, "A Way of Winning," Fame, syndicated, 1984.

Bill Miles, "Steele in the Chips," Remington Steele, NBC, 1985.

King Edmund Spencer, "The Boy Who Could Be King," Scarecrow and Mrs. King, CBS, 1986.

"Dead on Target: Parts1&2," Hunter, NBC, 1988.

Andy, "Shiva Me Timbers," Mancuso, F.B.I., NBC, 1990.

Borum, "The Homecoming," Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (also known as Deep Space Nine, DS9, and Star Trek: DS9), syndicated, 1993.

Xepolite captain, "The Maquis: Part 2," Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (also known as Deep Space Nine, DS9, and Star Trek: DS9 ), syndicated, 1994."

"Alpine Ski Crevasse; Falling Glass," Rescue 911, CBS, c. 1994.

Floor director, "The Case of the Exploding Puppet," The Adventures of Shirley Holmes (also known as The Adventures of Shirley Holmes: Detective and Shirley Holmes), YTV (Canada) and Fox Family Channel, 1998.

Quaker man, "Singing for Our Lives," Six Feet Under, HBO, 2005.

Uncle Miles photo double, " Uncle Miles," Naked Brothers Band, Nickelodeon, 2008.

Appeared as Jerry, Morning Star, NBC; and appeared as Frank Kaiser in " Jubilee Jones," an unaired episode ofPetrocelli, NBC. Some sources cite appearances in other programs.

Television Appearances; Animated Episodes:

Voice of Mark, "The Weird Winds on Winona," The New Scooby–Doo Movies (also known as Scooby– Doo Meets the Harlem Globetrotters and Scooby– Doo's New Comedy Movie Pictures), CBS, 1973.

Voices of Mr. Mxyzptlk and the Wizard, "The Planet of Oz," The World's Greatest SuperFriends (also known as Challenge of the SuperFriends, Challenge of the Superfriends, SuperFriends IV, Superfriends IV, Super–Friends Hour, and The World's Greatest Super Heroes), ABC, 1979.

Voice of Yondo, " Master of the Stolen Sunsword,"Thundarr the Barbarian, ABC, 1981.

Voices of Ariel's father and hospital doctor, "Spidey Meets the Girl from Tomorrow," Spider–Man and His Amazing Friends (also known as The Amazing Spider–Man and the Incredible Hulk and The Incredible Hulk and the Amazing Spider–Man), NBC, c. 1984.

Voice of Harvey, " Nothing to Sneeze at," Foofur, NBC, 1986.

Voice of Harvey, "A Royal Pain," Foofur, NBC, 1986.

Voice of Harvey, "Russian through New York," Foofur, NBC, 1986.

Voice of Harvey, " This Little Piggy's on TV," Foofur, NBC, 1986.

Voice of Link, "Roxy Rumbles," Jem (also known as Jem! and Jem and the Holograms), ABC, 1987, broadcast on the Super Saturday and Super Sunday programming blocks.

Voice of Lieutenant Garlic, "Duckworth's Revolt," DuckTales (also known as Disney's"DuckTales" ), syndicated, 1988.

Voices of Vincent Thorne and Stinkweed, " Lights, Camera, Monster!," A Pup Named Scooby–Doo, ABC, 1988.

Voice of alien, "Close Encounters of the Garfield Kind," Garfield and Friends (also known as Garfield), CBS, 1990.

Voice of Batman, "Hollywood Plucky," Tiny Toon Adventures (also known as Steven Spielberg Presents _ “Tiny Toon Adventures" and Tiny Tunes), syndicated, 1990.

Voice of Dutch Spackle, "A Pizza the Action," Goof Troop (also known as Disney's"Goof Troop" ), ABC and syndicated, 1992.

Voice of Captain Grimalken, " When Strikes Mutilor," Swat Kats: The Radical Squadron, syndicated, 1993, broadcast as part of the programming block The Funtastic World of Hanna–Barbera.

Voice of Hydra's good side, "I, Warmonger," Mighty Max, syndicated, 1993.

Voices of Julio Calamari, "Tune Pig," Bonkers (also known as Disney's "Bonkers" and Disney's "Raw Toonage"), syndicated, 1993.

Voice of Aziz, "Destiny on Fire," Aladdin (also known as Disney's "Aladdin," Aladdin de Disney, and Aladino), CBS and syndicated, 1994.

Voice of Aziz, "Seems Like Old Crimes: Parts1&2," Aladdin (also known as Disney's "Aladdin," Aladdin de Disney, and Aladino), CBS and syndicated, 1994.

Voice of Pal Joey, "Deadly Force," Gargoyles, syndicated, 1994.

Voice of Pal Joey, "Protection," Gargoyles, syndicated, 1994.

Voice of Pal Joey, "Turf," Gargoyles, syndicated, 1994.

Voice, "T.V. or Not to Be," Duckman (also known as Duckman: Private Dick/Family Man), USA Network, 1994.

Voice of airship captain, "Showdown," Batman: The Animated Series (also known as The Adventures of Batman & Robin and Batman: The Animated Series), Fox, 1995.

Voice of Martin Hacker, "Revelations," Gargoyles, syndicated, 1995.

Voice of Owl, "Neogenic Nightmare Chapter 1: The Insidious Six," Spider–Man (also known as New Spiderman and Spiderman), Fox, 1995.

Voice of old man, "A Bronx Tail," Gargoyles: The Goliath Chronicles, syndicated, 1996.

Voices of Mitch McCutcheon and ZZZAX, "Raw Power," The Incredible Hulk (also known as Incredible Hulk ), UPN, 1996.

Voice of Ace Ventura, " The Aceman Cometh," The Mask, CBS, 1997.

Voice of Zan (a Wonder Twin), "Very Personal Injury," Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law, Cartoon Network, 2001.

Voice of National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) inspector, " Metamorphosis: Part 1," Justice League (also known as JL, JLA, Justice League of America, and Justice League Unlimited ), Cartoon Network, 2002.

Voice of second crime boss, "Traction," The Batman, The WB, 2004.

Voice of Allstar Seaworthy, "Brian the Bachelor," Family Guy (also known as Padre de familia and Padre del familia ), Fox, 2005.

Voices of first bunny and first man, " Wishbones," Grim& Evil (also known as The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy), Cartoon Network, 2005.

Voices of radio announcer and teacher, "The Mudslugs," W.I.T.C.H., ABC Family Channel, 2005.

Voices of rebels, "The Battle of Meridian Plains," W.I.T. C.H., ABC Family Channel, 2005.

Voice of Tynar, "A Is for Anonymous," W.I.T.C.H., ABC Family Channel, 2006.

Voice of Althor, "B Is for Betrayal," W.I.T.C.H., ABC Family Channel, 2006.

Voice of Tracker, "Z Is for Zenith," W.I.T.C.H., ABC Family Channel, 2006.

Voices of reporter and guard, "Thunder," The Batman, The WB, 2006.

Voices of tattoo man and first police officer, "Bart Oates," Aqua Teen Hunger Force (also known asATHF ), Cartoon Network, 2006.

Provided the voice of Andrew "Drew" Pickles for "Secret Agent Dad," Angelica and Susie's Pre–School Daze(also known as Pre–School Daze), Nickelodeon; provided the voices of Colonel Corn and the promo announcer, The New Woody Woodpecker Show, multiple channels, including YTV (Canada) and BBC. Some sources cite appearances in other programs.

Television Appearances; Pilots:

Petty, Then Came Bronson, NBC, 1969.

Madhouse 90, ABC, 1972.

Bobby, Egan, ABC, 1973.

Kibbee and Fitch, NBC, 1973.

Al Held, Flo's Place, NBC, 1976.

Sergeant Bill "Cigar" Seeger, The 25th Man, NBC, 1982.

Groppler Zorn, "Encounter at Farpoint," Star Trek: The Next Generation (also known as The Next Generation and Star Trek: TNG), syndicated, 1987.

Markus, "Infiltrator," CBS Summer Playhouse, CBS, 1987.

Television Appearances; Animated Pilots:

Voices of Craig Robinson and Tyrano Guard, "Lost in Space," The ABC Saturday Superstar Movie (also known as The New Saturday Superstar Movie), ABC, 1973.

Voice of B. B. Beegle, The B. B. Beegle Show, syndicated, 1980.

Voices of Scott Summers/Cyclops and cab driver, Pryde of the X-Men, Fox, 1989.

Voice of the collector, " Going Bonkers" (also known as "Gone Bonkers" ), Bonkers (also known as Disney's"Bonkers" and Disney's"Raw Toonage"), syndicated, 1993.

Voices of Andrew "Drew" Pickles and Charles "Chaz" Finster, Sr., The Rugrats: All Growed Up, Nickel-odeon, 2001.

Television Additional Voices for Animated Series:

Scooby–Doo and Scrappy–Doo, ABC, 1979–80.

He–Man and the Masters of the Universe (also known as He–Man), syndicated, 1983.

Mister T, NBC, 1983–86.

Challenge of the GoBots, syndicated, 1984–85.

Rambo, syndicated, 1986.

A Pup Named Scooby–Doo, ABC, 1988–91.

TaleSpin (also known as Tale Spin), syndicated, 1990–94.

The Pirates of Dark Water (also known as Dark Water and Pirates of Dark Water), ABC, 1991–93.

Capitol Critters, ABC, 1992.

Bonkers (also known as Disney's"Bonkers" and Disney's"Raw Toonage"), CBS, 1992–93, syndicated, beginning 1993.

Sonic the Hedgehog (also known as The Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog and Sonic), ABC and syndicated, 1993–95.

Oh Yeah! Cartoons, Nickelodeon, 1998–2001.

Provided additional voices for the series The Jetsons.

Television Work; Other; Series:

Casting director and voice director, Kidd Video (live action, animated, and music videos), NBC, 1984–87, CBS, 1987.

Voice director, Peter Pan and the Pirates (animated; also known as Fox's"Peter Pan and the Pirates" andPeter Pan & the Pirates), Fox, 1990–92.

Television Additional Voices for Animated Movies:

I Yabba–Dabba Do!, ABC, 1993.

Television Dubbing Work; Movies:

Dubbing for Peter Criss, KISS Meets the Phantom of the Park (also known as Attack of the Phantoms, KISS in Attack of the Phantoms, KISS Phantoms, andPhantom of the Park), NBC, 1978.

Television Additional Voices for Animated Episodes:

"The Crossword Mystery," Mister T, NBC, 1983.

"Heart of Ice," Batman: The Animated Series (also known as The Adventures of Batman & Robin andBatman: The Animated Series), Fox, 1992.

Provided additional voices for other animated programs, including Galtar and the Golden Lance,syndicated.

Film Appearances:

(Uncredited) American, I Was Monty's Double (also known as Hell, Heaven or Hoboken), National Telefilm, 1958.

New Mexico state police officer, First Man in Space, Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer, 1959.

Soldier, Subway in the Sky, United Artists, 1959.

Garfield, Great Van Robbery, 1959, United Artists, 1963.

(Uncredited) Too Young to Love, Go Pictures, 1960.

Dr. Monk Monahan (the narrator), V.D. (also known as Damaged Goods, Damaged Goods: The Hard Road, and Summer of '63), 1961, also released in 1972, included in Sex Hygiene Scare Films Vol. 2, Something Weird Video, 1996.

Seldon, War Is Hell (also known as War Hero), Allied Artists, 1963.

Leroy Johnson, Thunder Alley (also known as Hell Drivers), American International Pictures, 1967.

Second penthouse lobby guard, Point Blank, Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer, 1967.

Jim Benton, Blue, Paramount, 1968.

(Uncredited) Bus driver, Airport, Universal, 1970.

Cleve, Brother John, Columbia, 1971.

Eric, The Proud Rider, Cinepix, 1971.

Demerest, Rollercoaster, Universal, 1977.

Chuck Randall, Fast Company, Topar Films, 1978.

(Uncredited) Voice of Claude Rosso, Revenge of the Pink Panther (also known as Blake Edwards' "Revenge of the Pink Panther" and The Curse of the Pink Panther), United Artists, 1978.

Tom, How to Beat the High Co$t of Living, American International Pictures, 1980.

Mr. Williams, C.H.U.D. II–Bud the Chud (also known as C.H.U.D. 2), Lightning Pictures, 1989.

Marvis, A Thin Line between Love and Hate, New Line Cinema, 1996.

Voice of Stokey, Homeward Bound II: Lost in San Francisco, Buena Vista, 1996.

Voices of Kitty and Xylophone, The Stupids, New Line Cinema, 1996.

Voice of Hoppy, It Waits, New Arc Entertainment, 2005.

Narrator, Gamers, Sideshow Production, 2006.

Your Mommy Kills Animals (documentary), Halo8 Releasing, 2007.

Pets on Your Plate (documentary), Pets on Your Plate, 2008.

Some sources cite appearances in other films.

Animated Film Appearances:

Voice of Willie, Heidi's Song, Paramount, 1982.

Voice, "David and Goliath," The Greatest Stories of the Bible (also known as Greatest Adventure Stories from the Bible: David and Goliath, The Greatest Adventure: Stories from the Bible: David and Goliath, and The Greatest Adventures of the Bible: David and Goliath), 1985.

Voice of Grundle, My Little Pony: The Movie, De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, 1986.

Voices of Blackthorne Shore and Edward "Eddie" Augutter, InHumanoids: The Movie (edited from episodes of InHumanoids), Hasbro/Marvel Productions/ Sunbow Productions, 1986.

Voices of Bombshell, Junkion, Prowl, Scrapper, and Swoop, The Transformers: The Movie (also known as Matrix Forever, The Transformers, Transformers: Matrix yo eien ni, and Transformers the Movie: Mokushiroku Matrix yo eien ni), De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, 1986.

Voices of Granite, Narligator, and Slimestone, GoBots: War of the Rock Lords (also known as GoBots: Battle of the Rock Lords), VCI Home Video, 1986.

Voice, "Joshua and the Battle of Jericho," The Greatest Stories of the Bible (also known as The Greatest Adventure: Stories from the Bible: Joshua and the Battle of Jericho), 1986.

Voices of Duke, Xamot, Blowtorch, and Lift Ticket, G.I. Joe: The Movie (also known as Action Force: The Movie), Marvel Productions, 1987.

Voice of Oompy, Little Nemo: Adventures in Slumber–land, dubbed version released by Hemdale Film, 1988, also released in Japan.

Voice of bailiff, The Good, the Bad, and Huckleberry Hound, 1988.

Voice, Betty Boop's Hollywood Mystery, BIG Pictures/King Features Entertainment, 1989.

Voice of board member, Jetsons: The Movie, Universal, 1990.

Voices of Abner, Ferdinand, and stray catcher, Tom and Jerry, Miramax, 1992.

Voices, Kurenai no buta (anime; also known as Crimson Pig, Porco rosso, Porco rosso–O ultimo heroi romantico, and Punainen sika), Studio Ghibli/Tokuma Shoten, 1992, Manga Films, 1994, dubbed version released by Buena Vista Home Video.

Voices of Andrew "Drew" Pickles, Grandpa Boris, and Charles "Chaz" Finster, Sr., A Rugrats Vacation, Paramount Home Video, 1997.

Voices of Andrew "Drew" Pickles, Grandpa Boris, and Charles "Chaz" Finster, Sr., The Rugrats Movie (also known as Ipanat, Les razmoket, Les razmoket, le film, Ratjetoe, de rugrats film, Rollinger, Rugrats, aventuras en panales, Rugrats–Der Film, Rug–rats–Il film, Rugrats: La pelicula–Aventuras en panales, Rugrats mozi–Fecsegoe tipegoek, and Rugrats: O filme), Paramount, 1998.

Voice of Dr. Frankenstein, Alvin and the Chipmunks Meet Frankenstein (also known as Frankenstein Meets the Chipmunks), Universal Studios Home Video, 1999.

Voices of Andrew "Drew" Pickles and Charles "Chaz" Finster, Sr., Rugrats in Paris: The Movie (also known as Rugrats in Paris: The Movie–Rugrats II and Rug–rats in Paris–Der Film), Paramount, 2000.

Voice of Dark Skull, Scooby–Doo! And the Legend of the Vampire (also known as Scooby–Doo and the Legend of the Vampire), Warner Home Video,2003.

Voices of Andrew "Drew" Pickles and Charles "Chaz" Finster, Sr., Rugrats Go Wild (also known as Rescue Me, The Rugrats Meet the Wild Thornberrys, The Rugrats Movie III, Rugrats 3: Rescue Me, Les razmoket rencontrent les Delajungle, Los rugrats: Vacaciones salvajes, Os rugrats e os Thornberrys vao aprontar, and Ratjetoe en de Thornberrys–Bij de beesten af), Paramount, 2003.

Voices of Duncan MacGubbin and Mcintyre, Scooby–Doo and the Loch Ness Monster, Warner Home Video, 2004.

Voices, Home on the Range, Buena Vista, 2004.

Voice of estate client, Bloodz vs. Wolvez, Warner Home Video, 2006.

Voice of PT flea car, Cars (also known as The Cars and Route 66), Buena Vista, 2006.

Film Work:

Additional voices, Jetsons: The Movie, Universal, 1990.

Chimpanzee sounds, Race to Space (also known as Race to Space—Mission ins Unbekannte), 2001, Lions Gate Films, 2002.

Stage Appearances:

Appeared in various productions, including An Almost Perfect Person, Fun City, and Opposite You.

RECORDINGS

Videos:

Dr. Monk Monahan (the narrator) from the film V.D. (also known as Damaged Goods, Damaged Goods: The Hard Road, and Summer of '63), Sex Hygiene Scare Films Vol. 2, Something Weird Video, 1996.

Voice, "Someone to Watch over Me," Adventures in Odyssey (also known as Adventures in Odyssey: Someone to Watch over Me, AIO, Odyssey, andOdyssey USA), 1996.

Appeared in other videos.

Video Games:

Voice of Dark Fact, Ys: Book 1 & 2, Hudson Soft, 1990.

Voice, Bouncers, 1994.

Voice, Blazing Dragons, 1996.

Voices of Galkin, Gatewarden, and Nimbul, Baldur's Gate, Interplay Productions, 1998.

Voices of Elahni, Khaga, and Miyamoto, Revenant, 1999.

Voices of Mechiah and Raziel, Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver, 1999.

Voice, Star Trek: New Worlds, 1999.

Voice, Star Trek: Starfleet Command, 1999, also released as Star Trek: Starfleet Command, Gold Edition.

Voice, Y2K: The Game, 1999.

Voices, Command & Conquer: Tiberian Sun Firestorm, 1999.

Voice of Guts, Sword of the Berserk (also known asBerserk), 2000.

Voice of Raziel, Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver II, 2000.

Voices of General Taskeen and Tatooine farmer, Star Wars: Force Commander, 2000.

Voices of Haer'Dalis and Vittorio, Forgotten Realms: Baldulr's Gate II–Shadows of Amn, 2000.

Voices of Larrel and others, Icewind Dale, 2000.

Voices of Larrel and others, Forgotten Realms: Icewind Dale, 2000.

Voices of Obanak, the wraith Obanak, and Bajoran man, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine–The Fallen, 2000.

Voices of Wallace Davidson and others, Ground Control: Dark Conspiracy, 2000.

Voice, Fallout Tactics: Brotherhood of Steel, Interplay Productions, 2000.

Voice, Sacrifice, 2000.

Voice, Star Trek: Starfleet Command: Volume II: Empires at War, Interplay Productions, 2000.

Voices, Giants: Citizen Kabuto, 2000.

Voice of Karne, Forgotten Realms: Baldur's Gate–Dark Alliance, 2001.

Voice of Russian soldier, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty (also known as Metal Gear Solid 2 andMGS2), 2001.

Voices of the Druid and Nihlathak, Diablo II: Lord of Destruction, 2001.

Voices of Haer'Dalis and Omar Haraad, Baldur's Gate II: Throne of Bhaal (also known as Baldulr's Gate II), 2001.

Voices of spy, sniper, and Allied infantry personnel member, Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 (also known as Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2–Yuri's Revenge), 2001.

Voice, Command & Conquer: Yuri's Revenge (also known as Red Alert 2 Expansion Pack: Yuri's Revenge), 2001.

Voices, Star Trek: Armada II, 2001.

Unit response voice, Emperor: Battle for Dune, Electronic Arts, 2002.

Voice of Dr. Dmitri Sestrogor, Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix, Activision, 2002.

Voice of Peter Jacob, Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem (also known as Eternal Darkness), Nintendo of America, 2002.

Voice of Russian soldier, Metal Gear Solid 2: Substance, Konami of America, 2002.

(Uncredited) Voice of Shenlong, Bloody Roar Extreme (also known as Bloody Roar: Primal Fury), Activision, 2002.

(Uncredited) Voices of Dr. Dell and Osmond, Dark Chronicle (also known as Dark Cloud 2), Sony Computer Entertainment America, 2002.

Voices of Medivh and the Druid of the Talon, WarCraft III: Reign of Chaos, Blizzard Entertainment, 2002.

Voice of Diekbeck, Arc the Lad: Seirei no koton (also known as Arc the Lad: Twilight of the Spirits), Sony Computer Entertainment America, 2003.

Voice of Echo, Alter Echo,THQ, 2003.

Voice of Raziel, Legacy of Kain: Defiance (also known as Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver III), Eidos Interactive, 2003.

Voices of Medivh and Druid of the Talon–Recycled, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne, Blizzard Entertainment/Sierra, 2003.

Voices of Saijiro Makabe, Kusabi, Ryokan Kurosawa, and others, Rei: Beni chou (also known as Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly and Project Zero 2: Crimson Butterfly), Tecmo, 2003, reissued as Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly–Director's Cut.

Voices of security system, interview announcer, biker, mutant crab, and Protopet announcer, Ratchet & Clank: Going Commando (also known as Ratchet & Clank: Locked and Loaded and Ratchet & Clank 2: Locked and Loaded), Insomniac Games, 2003.

Voices of Sergeant Pavlov and others, Call of Duty, Activision, 2003.

Voice, Command & Conquer: Generals Zero Hour, Electronic Arts, 2003.

Voice, I–Ninja, Namco Hometek, 2003.

Voices, Enter the Matrix, Atari/Infogrames Entertainment, 2003.

Voice of the fear, Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater (also known as Metal Gear Solid 3 and MGS3), Konami Digital Entertainment America, 2004.

Voice of Howell, ShellShock: Nam '67, Eidos Interactive, 2004.

Voice of Muramasa, Ninja Gaiden (also known as Ninja Gaiden Black), Tecmo, 2004.

Voice of patriarch, Xenosaga Episode II: Jenseits von Gut und Boese, Namco Hometek, 2004.

Voices of Jabez, Calverly, and treasurer, Galleon, Atlus ISA, 2004.

Voices of Lawrence, comic narrator, and troopers, Ratchet & Clank: Up Your Arsenal, Sony Computer Entertainment America, 2004.

Voices of vault dweller, Cain, Nightkin, and Super Mutant, Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel, Interplay Productions, 2004.

Voice, Champions of Norrath: Realms of EverQuest, Sony Online Entertainment, 2004.

Voices, The Bard's Tale, InXile Entertainment, 2004.

Voices, Doom3 (also known as Doom III), Vicarious Visions, 2004.

Voices, Shark Tale, DreamWorks, 2004.

Voice of Cartwright, Darkwatch: Curse of the West, Capcom Entertainment, 2005.

Voice of Enorym, Advent Rising, Majesco Entertainment, 2005.

Voice of the fear, Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence, Konami Digital Entertainment America, 2005.

Voice of John Black, Age of Empires III, Ensemble Studios/Microsoft Studios, 2005.

Voice of Maibisi, Rise of the Kasai, Sony Computer Entertainment America, 2005.

Voices of Julius Caesar and others, Shadow of Rome, Capcom Entertainment, 2005.

Voices of Nick the camel, a frog, and first ostrich, Madagascar, Activision, 2005.

Voices of supplier, thug, police officer, jumper, and bum, Narc, Midway Games, 2005.

Voices of Vox and Lawrence, Ratchet: Deadlocked, Sony Computer Entertainment America, 2005.

Voices, Champions: Return to Arms, Snowblind Studios, 2005.

Voices, Doom 3: Resurrection of Evil, Activision, 2005.

Voice, Syphon Filter: Dark Mirror, Sony Computer Entertainment America, 2006.

Voice of Muramasa, Ninja Gaidein Sigma, Tecmo, 2007.

Voice of Sed, Lost Odyssey, Microsoft Game Studios, 2007.

Voice of Sergeant Woolard, Universe at War: Earth Assault, Petroglyph Entertainment, 2007.

Voices of magic man and president, Condemned 2: Bloodshot, 2008.

Voice of Alan Parker, Alpha Protocol, Sega of America, 2009.

Albums; with Others:

(Voice of the young man in the track "The Story of Halloween Horror") Various artists, Halloween Horrors, A&M, 1977.

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"Bell, Michael 1938–." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. 26 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bell, Michael 1938–." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. (August 26, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3069800016.html

"Bell, Michael 1938–." Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3069800016.html

Bell, Michael 1955–

Michael Bell 1955

Fire department chief

Promoted Safety and Diversity as Chief

Fire Chief Tenure Marked by Success

Faced New Challenges

Sources

In 1990, when he was named chief of the Toledo Fire Department, Michael Bell earned two distinctions: At the age of thirty-five, he became the youngest fire chief among the nations metropolitan fire departments. As an African American, he also became the first such person to helm a major fire department in the state of Ohio. Unfazed by the attention on his pioneering role, Bell worked effectively to deal with budgetary, management, and public relations challenges during his first decade as the chief of Toledos fire department and survived three changes in the citys political administration while helping to make Toledo a safer place. Indeed in 2001 the city recorded no fire deaths, the first time in a century that the feat had been accomplished. Stressing diversity, Bell also worked to maintain the presence of minorities on the departments force and increased minority representation in the Toledo fire department above the citys minority population as a whole.

Michael Bell was born in Louisiana in 1955 to Norman and Ora Bell. He was one of four sons in the Bell family, who relocated to Toledo, Ohio, around 1960. Bell attended public schools in Toledo and graduated from the north sides Woodward High School, where he would later be inducted into an alumni hall of fame. Entering the University of Toledo, Bell played for the schools football team and earned his bachelors degree in education in 1978. On March 21, 1980, Bell joined the Toledo Fire Department, where he held a variety of positions over the next decade. The six-foot, 240-pound rookie first worked as a water rescue diver and paramedic before moving into the departments managerial ranks as a paramedic shift supervisor, training officer, and recruiter. At the time that he was promoted to chief of the Toledo fire department by then-City Manager Thomas Hoover, Bell had risen to the position of captain in the departments Training Bureau.

Promoted Safety and Diversity as Chief

When Bell took the reins of the Toledo Fire Department on August 21, 1990, the thirty-five-year-old became the youngest leader of any metropolitan fire department in the United States. He also made history by becoming the first African American to helm a fire department in one of Ohios cities. Both feats presented particular challenges to the new chief. Because he had risen through the ranks so rapidlygoing from rookie to chief in just ten years on the forcesome observers were skeptical that Bell had enough experience to handle his new job. Others wondered if the rank-and-file would accept Bells leadership, as he was part of the first wave of firefighters hired after the department was placed under a consent decree to increase its minority staffing levels. Although seventeen percent of the Toledo Fire Departments firefighters were African American at the time Bell took over as chief in 1990, the consent decree remained in place to ensure that that level did not drop off.

Like many urban centers, Toledo faced a number of challenges in the 1980s that had a direct impact on its public services around 1990. A declining population

At a Glance

Born in 1955 in LA; son of Norman and Ora Bell. Education: University of Toledo, BA, 1978. Religion: Baptist.

Career: Toledo Fire Department, officer, 1980-90, chief, 1990; Joint Regional Terrorism Task Force, Lucas County, Ohio, chairman, 2001.

Awards: Presidents Recognition Award, International Association of Fire Chiefs, 2000; inductee, Woodward High School Hall of Fame.

Address: Office Toledo Fire Department, 545 North Huron Street, Toledo, OH 43604. Phone: (419) 245-1125.

and industrial base meant that its tax base was shrinking, which translated into budgetary problems for new equipment and effective staffing levels. The city also had a growing stock of abandoned houses, business, and factories that not only added to the dilapidated appearance of some of its older neighborhoods but presented serious arson risks as well. The structure of the citys government also complicated the management of the Toledo Fire Department. Although Bell, as chief, was on the front lines in negotiating with the Toledo Firefighters Union, Local 92, he was also accountable to the city manager, who had hired him. In the background of this confusing arrangement were the citys mayor and city council, who as elected officials had no direct authority over Bell besides the power of their offices to sway public opinion on public-safety issues.

Bell dealt with the issue of budgetary constraints by keeping staffing levels at the fire department around 560 members and adding to the training they received to ensure better and more efficient service to the public. After negotiating with the union, Bell succeeded in increasing the number of trained paramedics on the force and worked to have at least one paramedic assigned to each fire station. With eighty percent of the forces 50,000 fire runs each year pertaining to medical emergencies, the improved training helped to save lives while making the department more efficient in its response and recovery times.

In order to address the potential for deadly fires in the citys older neighborhoods, Bell continued efforts to educate the public about fire prevention and to maintain a high level of inspections by fire department officials. The department also benefited from an aggressive demolition program instituted by the city in 1994, which began to eliminate the stock of abandoned buildings that were potential arson targets. As he reflected in a 2002 interview with Fire Chief magazine, The citys goal is to demolish three hundred vacant buildings per year, and weve been doing it for eight years now. This lessens the potential for vagrants to be in the buildings and trapped by fire.

Fire Chief Tenure Marked by Success

Another significant challenge to Bell was surviving the citys sometimes sharp political currents. After voters approved a strong mayor form of government, Bell came directly under the authority of newly-elected Mayor Carty Finkbeiner in 1993. Finkbeiner, whose bottom-line management style resulted in the departure of almost every department head during his eight years as mayor, ended up being one of Bells biggest supporters, despite his initial reservation about retaining the young chief. I would not trade Michael Bell for any fire chief in the United States of America, Mayor Finkbeiner told the Toledo Blade in August of 2000, We are very, very fortunate. I can unashamedly say I love the man.

Bell also earned positive coverage for his extensive volunteer efforts outside of the fire department. A member of the board of directors of St. Vincents Hospital, Bell also worked with the Boys and Girls Clubs of Toledo, the Salvation Army, the Boy Scouts of America, the Red Cross, and the Easter Seals Society, among other nonprofit organizations. A member of the True Vine Missionary Baptist Church, Bell enjoyed worshipping at other churches on the weekends. Bell also made frequent appearances in newspaper society columns at various civic and private functions.

After ten years as the chief of the Toledo fire department, Bell looked back with satisfaction over the progress he had made in his position. As he reflected in an interview with the Toledo Blade in August of 2000, My perception of the job when I first took it, I may have underestimated. I didnt realize how much of a disadvantage I was coming in at, based on the elements of my time on the job, rank on the job, color of my skin, and my being single. But I can honestly say today that I have no regrets about coming in that way and all the hurdles put in front of me. Theyve actually made me a better person and a better fire chief.

More important than his tenth anniversary on the job was the accomplishment that the Toledo Fire Department reached the following year, when the city recorded no deaths from fire-related accidents for the first time in at least a century. In part the accomplishment resulted from the departments fire detector giveaway program, which distributed 600 of the devices to low-income Toledo residents in 2001 alone. Bell also took pride in the fact that no fire fighters had died in the line of duty during his tenure in office.

Faced New Challenges

In the wake of the terrorist events of September 11, 2001, Bell, like other public-safety officials, faced new challenges in protecting the public from lethal attacks. The month after the attacks, Mayor Finkbeiner appointed Bell as the head of the newly created Joint Regional Terrorism Task Force, the agency responsible for formulating and implementing emergency-response programs in case of such an attack. Bells management experience and the respect he had earned from his colleagues helped him get the new board off to a solid start, although he admitted that the lack of federal funding was worrisome. If we train people off-shift, thats overtime. Those costs are not anticipated in anyones budget, he told the Toledo Blade in March of 2002, adding, Im not saying were unprepared. Im saying we can do it better.

Bell encountered another challenge in late 2002 when a group of Toledo fire fighters, the Glass City Black Brothers United, raised allegations that the department was not meeting its affirmative-action goals in its hiring practices. Although the racial composition of the fire departments personnel exceeded the minority percentage of the population in Toledo, the group claimed that the department had hired only 26 African-American fire fighters since 1992. In response Bell explained that most of the African Americans who took the recruitment test did not receive a passing score and that of the ten recruits to the fire class of 2002, nine failed to pass background checks and one failed the departments fitness test. He also noted that the minority composition of the latest class of recruits was forty percent, although it did not contain any African Americans. Bell agreed, however, that more mentoring and outreach efforts would help maintain a significant minority presence on the departments staff.

The willingness to continue the dialogue over the affirmative-action issue typified the collegial and inclusive reputation that Bell had earned during his time as chief. As he commented in an interview with Fire Chief magazine in 2002, I guess what I learned is that even as a fire chief, all I need to be able to do is find out which resource to use at what time and well always be successful. There are a lot of people who know a lot of things in this organization, but sometimesand Ive seen this in other organizationstheyre never asked for their opinion, so you end up making a mistake because you end up trying to do it all yourself.

Sources

Books

Porter, Tana Mosier, Toledo Profile: A Sesquicentennial History, Toledo Sesquicentennial Commission, 1987.

Periodicals

Fire Chief, April 1, 2002.

Toledo Blade, May 27, 1997, p. 14; August 20, 2000, p. A13; October 12, 2001, p. A7; March 9, 2002, p. B1; June 20, 2002, p. B2; September 11, 2002, p. A1; December 28, 2002, p. B1.

On-line

Chiefs Office, City of Toledo, www.ci.toledo.oh.us/index.cfm?Dept=Dept6Nav&Page=Page231 (April 4, 2003).

History of Toledo Fire Department, City of Toledo, www.ci.toledo.oh.us/index.cfm?Dept=Dept6Nav&Page=Page235 (April 4, 2003).

Timothy Borden

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Fire Fighting

FIRE FIGHTING

FIRE FIGHTING. After a major fire in Boston in 1631, the first fire regulations in America were established. In 1648, fire wardens were appointed in New Amsterdam (later New York City), thereby initiating the first public fire department in North America. In 1736, Ben Franklin formed the first volunteer fire-fighting company in Philadelphia. Fire fighting was not an easy feat. Fire-fighters numbering up from fifty to one hundred men labored arduously at heavy pumpers of limited effectiveness. The enthusiastic but amateur volunteers were badly organized. Curious onlookers got in the way and looters stole whatever they could. Nearby buildings were often drenched or even pulled down with ropes to stop the fire from spreading; in the 1800s, firefighters also used dynamite to blow up buildings to save cities from complete destruction from a raging fire.

By the 1700s, independent volunteer fire companies began receiving payment for their services from the insurance company or the property owner. Property owners displayed fire markers outside the building to indicate that they were insured; in some cases, no marker meant no effort would be made to fight the fire. In other cases, only the first arriving companies got paid, which led to fierce competition. Volunteers sabotaged each other's equipment and fought off later-arriving companies, often using fire-fighting equipment as weapons. Often, the building burned down while the firemen brawled.

Fire-Fighting Organizations

Early in 1853 the Cincinnati, Ohio, Fire Department Committee formulated a plan that would entirely change the way fires were fought in America. To end the frequently violent competition between companies, the plan called for full-time, paid city employees to fight fires using a horse-drawn steam engine. The steam pumper would allow four or five men to spray more water on a fire than hundreds of volunteers using hand pumpers. The City Council on 16 March 1853 authorized the plan and the creation of a Fire Department, effective 1 April. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, fire department personnel are either volunteer (nonsalaried) or career (salaried). Volunteer firefighters are found mainly in smaller communities, career firefighters in cities. The modern department, with salaried personnel and standardized equipment, became an integral part of municipal administration only late in the nineteenth century. In some cities, a fire commissioner administers the department. Other cities have a board of fire commissioners with a fire chief as executive officer and head of the uniformed force. In still other cities a safety director may be in charge of both police and fire departments. The basic operating unit of the fire department is the company, commanded by a captain. A captain may be on duty on each shift, although in some fire departments, lieutenants and sergeants command companies when the captain is off duty. Fire companies are usually organized by types of apparatus: engine companies; ladder companies; and squad or rescue companies.

Boston installed the first fire-alarm systems, which used the telegraph and Morse code, in 1852. Many communities are still served either with the telegraph-alarm system or with telephone call boxes. Most fires, however, are reported from private telephones. Many large cities have removed all or many of their street alarm boxes because of false alarms and maintenance problems. Alarms are received at a central dispatch office and then transmitted to fire stations, frequently with the use of mobile teleprinters and computers.

Apparatus is dispatched according to the nature of the alarm and location of the fire. Many modern departments are now equipped with computer-aided dispatch systems that track the status of all units and provide vital information about the buildings where fires occur. Typically, on a first alarm, more apparatus is sent to industrial areas, schools and other institutions, and theaters than to private residences. Additional personnel, volunteer or off duty, is called as needed. Fires that cannot be brought under control by the apparatus responding to the first alarm are called multiple-alarm fires, with each additional alarm bringing more firefighters and equipment to the


scene. Special calls are sent for specific types of equipment. Mutual aid and regional mobilization plans are in effect among adjacent fire departments for assisting each other in fighting fires. A superior example of this was exhibited with the 11 September 2001 attack on New York City's World Trade Center, when fire companies from all over Manhattan and from neighboring boroughs responded to the catastrophe.

Fire-Fighting Equipment

Early on, pioneer firefighters fought fires with bucket lines. Men usually formed a line to convey water from the nearest source to the scene of destruction, while the women and children formed a second line to pass empty buckets back to the water source. The first fire engines were developed in the seventeenth century. They were merely tubs carried on runners, long poles, or wheels. The tub functioned as a reservoir and sometimes housed a hand-operated pump that forced water through a pipe or nozzle to waiting buckets. The invention of a hand-stitched leather hosepipe in the Netherlands around 1672 made it possible for firefighters to move nearer to the fire without risking damage to the engine. During the same period, the creation of pumpers made it possible for fire-fighters to use water from rivers and ponds.

In the early 1900s, stitching on hoses gave way to copper rivets and fifty-foot lengths coupled with brass fittings that enabled firefighters to convey water through narrow passages, up stairways, and into buildings while the pumps operated in the street. The pumper threw a stream of water up to 133 feet while twelve men pumped for a few exhausting moments at a time. In about 1870, rubber hoses covered by cotton came into use. The steam-pump fire engine, introduced in London in 1829, gained popularity in many large cities in the 1850s. Most steam pumpers were equipped with reciprocating piston pumps, although a few rotary pumps were used. Some were self-propelled, but most used horses for propulsion, conserving steam pressure for the pump.

After establishing the first professional fire-fighting force, Cincinnati also briefly led the way in technological developments. Cincinnati inventors Able Shawk and Alexander Latta developed "Uncle Joe Ross," the first successful steam fire engine in America. First deployed in 1853, the fire engine had the capacity of the six biggest double-engine hand pumpers and needed only three men to operate it. It could supply three hand companies with water while at the same time shooting a powerful spray of water 225 feet onto the fire. The Ahrens-Fox Manufacturing Company of Cincinnati, an early leader in developing steam engines, replaced the horses with motorized tractors, and produced compressed-air aerial ladders to reach windows of tall buildings. By the 1920s, the last of the horse-drawn engines had disappeared.

With the development of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century, pumpers became motorized. Because of problems in adapting gear rotary gasoline engines to pumps, the first gasoline-powered fire engines had two motors, one to drive the pump and the other to propel the vehicle. The first pumper using a single engine for pumping and propulsion was manufactured in the United States in 1907. Motorized pumpers had almost entirely displaced steam pumpers by 1925. The pumps were originally of the piston or reciprocating type, but these were gradually replaced by rotary pumps and finally by centrifugal pumps, which are used by most modern pumpers. Modern pumpers consist of a powerful pump that can supply water in a large range of volumes and pressures; several thousand feet of fire hose, attached to a hydrant by a short segment of wide hose; and a water tank to be used in places lacking a water supply or to enable firefighters to begin their work while the hose is being attached to a hydrant. In the countryside, pumpers are used along with suction hoses to obtain water from rivers and ponds.

The late nineteenth century saw other innovations in fire fighting including the chemical fire extinguisher. The first was a glass fire extinguisher, the Harden Hand Grenade Extinguisher. The extinguisher, or grenade, contained carbon tetrachloride, later banned because at high temperatures it emitted a hazardous phosphene gas. The grenade, when tossed into the fire, broke open and released the carbon tetrachloride. The sprinkling system also came into use at this time and fireproof construction materials were developed as well. Several catastrophic blazes in the early history of San Francisco, California, led to other innovations. San Francisco's Fire Department Maintenance Shop Supervisors developed the Hayes Aerial Ladder in 1868 and the Gorter Nozzle in 1886, both of which were adopted by fire departments worldwide. The department was among the first to employ fireboats and to place water towers on many roofs. It also recommended sixty-foot height limits for buildings and fire escapes and standpipes on all multistory edifices.

Beginning in the late 1950s, new equipment and materials emerged on the scene: the snorkel truck, equipped with a cherry-picker boom to replace the traditional extension ladder; the super pumper, which is capable of pumping eight thousand gallons of water per minute at very high pressure (used in fighting fires in very tall structures); and foam and other chemicals to fight fires. To fight forest fires, specially equipped airplanes and helicopters are used to drop water or chemicals from the air, and to insert "smokejumpers" (firefighters who parachute in) to fight fires in remote locations. In the 1990s, fire companies began using thermal imaging cameras. Infrared technology allows firefighters to see through smoke to locate the seat of the fire and to quickly locate hazardous hotspots. With thermal imaging, large areas of land or water can be searched quickly and accurately, requiring less manpower than do conventional methods. Searches can be conducted efficiently during nighttime darkness or full sunlight, in a variety of weather conditions. Thermal imagers can be used for searches carried out on foot or from automobiles, watercraft, and aircraft.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ditzel, Paul C. Fire Engines, Fire Fighters: The Men, Equipment, and Machines, from Colonial Days to the Present. New York: Bonanza Books, 1984.

Ingram, Arthur. A History of Fire-Fighting and Equipment. London: New English Library, 1978.

Loeper, John J. By Hook and Ladder: The Story of Fire Fighting in America. New York: Atheneum, 1981.

Marston, Hope Irvin. Fire Trucks. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1984.

Smith, Dennis. Dennis Smith's History of Firefighting in America: 300 Years of Courage. New York: Dial Press, 1978.

James G.Lewis

See alsoChicago Fire ; Disasters ; 9/11 Attack ; Wildfires .

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fire fighting

fire fighting, the use of strategy, personnel, and apparatus to extinguish, to confine, or to escape from fire.

Fire-Fighting Strategy

Fire fighting strategy involves the following basic procedures: arriving at the scene of the fire as rapidly as possible; assessing the nature of the fire by determining its intensity and extent, the type and abundance of fuel, the danger of entering the fire area, and the most effective techniques for extinguishing the fire; locating and rescuing endangered persons; containing the fire by protecting adjacent areas; ventilating the fire area to allow for the escape of heat and toxic gases; and, finally, extinguishing the fire.

Fire-Fighting Personnel

In most cities, firefighters are trained members of government-supported organizations, such as fire departments. Elsewhere, fire-fighting organizations are primarily composed of volunteers, or "vols." Fire-fighting organizations also help design and implement fire-prevention programs, which may include such measures as building codes requiring fire alarms, regularly located fire-extinguishing equipment, internal fire walls to help contain a fire, sprinkler systems, the use of fire-retardant construction materials, and safe electrical wiring. Educating the public about fire safety and fire-prevention practices is an important part of all fire-prevention programs.

Fire-Fighting Apparatus

Fire-fighting vehicles have evolved into highly specialized equipment. Ladder trucks provide access to buildings as much as 100 ft (30 m) high; snorkel trucks enable firefighters to douse fires from above. In addition, modern fire apparatus includes rescue trucks, mobile laboratories, searchlight cars, double-ended tunnel engines, smoke ejectors, high-pressure spray trucks, foam trucks, and even coffee wagons. For fires of long duration there are tank trucks to bring extra fuel to the pumpers. The modern diesel pump delivers about 2,000 gal per min (8,000 liters per min) through lightweight hose 1 in. (2.5 cm) to 2.5 in. (6.3 cm) in diameter, reinforced with artificial fibers. A fireboat, not limited to hydrant supply, can deliver as much as 10,000 gal per min (40,000 liters per min). Airports have specially equipped crash trucks, and refineries have chemical applicators.

The commonly seen metal cylinder with a short hose attached is the soda-and-acid extinguisher; inside it, above a solution of soda and water, is a container of acid. When the extinguisher is inverted, the acid mixes with the solution and reacts with the soda to generate carbon dioxide; gas pressure then forces the solution out of the hose. A foam extinguisher is a cylinder containing water, sodium bicarbonate, an agent (often licorice powder) for strengthening the foam, and an inner container of aluminum sulfate powder. Mixed together, these ingredients form a foam of carbon dioxide bubbles. A carbon dioxide extinguisher consists of a tank of liquid carbon dioxide under pressure. When released, the carbon dioxide forms flakes that vaporize and blanket the fire.

Extinguishing Fires

For a fire to occur, there must be available oxygen, a supply of fuel, and enough heat to kindle the fuel. Therefore, the three basic ways of extinguishing fire are to smother it, to cut off the fuel supply, or to cool it below the flammability temperature. Fires are classified into four types: those in solids, e.g., wood, paper, and cloth; those in flammable liquids, e.g., gasoline, alcohol, oils, lacquers, and paints; those in electrical apparatus; and those in flammable metals such as magnesium. These are called, respectively, class A, B, C, and D fires.

Characteristics of Extinguishing Substances

Certain dry materials that melt and coat the burning material, thus excluding air, are useful against all classes of fire. In certain cases inert gases such as argon or nitrogen are used to fight fires in materials that would react dangerously with water or with other extinguishing agents; sodium and water, for example, is a dangerous combination.

Water, although supplanted somewhat by other materials, is still the most common substance used for quenching class A fires, which are the most common types of fire; water both cools and helps smother the fuel. Buckets of water are the simplest equipment for fighting small fires in solids. More effective are fire extinguishers capable of directing a stream of water. Wetting agents called detergents make water more penetrating, especially for such objects as cotton bales and mattresses.

Class B fires cannot be fought with water unless it is sprayed in a fine mist, for flammable liquids will usually float on water and spread. Foam is most often used to suffocate class B fires, particularly oil fires.

Since both water and foam conduct electricity, neither can be used against class C fires unless a fog nozzle, which produces tiny droplets that burst into a smothering blanket of steam, is employed. Halogen compounds and carbon dioxide are effective agents in fighting class C fires and are also used against flammable liquids and small fires in solids. Halogen compounds such as carbon tetrachloride turn into a vapor that settles over a fire, smothering it. Unfortunately, most halogen vapors are both toxic and corrosive; but for enclosed spaces where water damage would be as disastrous as fire damage, it is the agent of choice. In any case, nearly all professional firefighters today are equipped with oxygen tanks. Dry-chemical extinguishing agents, such as fine sodium bicarbonate, can be used on class B and C fires but are especially effective against class B fires.

Special Equipment and Techniques

Buildings are protected against fire most effectively by protective sprinkler systems. In most sprinkler systems, water circulates through overhead pipes whose outlets are normally closed; at high temperatures the outlets open, spraying water on the fire. Most large buildings also provide water for fire fighting through a standpipe system with hose connections on each floor. Forest and brush fires are fought by making a firebreak and by covering the fire with extinguishing substances. A narrow strip is cut and cleared in front of the fire down to mineral soil. Embers flying into the strip are put out, while water and other fire-extinguishing substances are spread from land-based vehicles or are dropped on the fire from the air. Oil-field fires demand multiple approaches: water streams, fogs, foams, and explosives may all be used simultaneously to quench a fire and prevent its reignition.

History of Fire Fighting

Ancient Rome is known to have had a fire department consisting by the 1st cent. of approximately 7,000 paid firefighters. These fire brigades not only responded to and fought fires, but also patrolled the streets with the authority to impose corporal punishment upon those who violated fire-prevention codes. The inventor Ctesibius of Alexandria devised the first known fire pump c.200 BC but the idea was lost until the fire pump was reinvented about AD 1500. The only equipment available to fight the London fire in 1666 were two-quart hand syringes and a similar, slightly larger syringe; it burned for four days. Elsewhere in Europe and in the American colonies fire fighting equipment was equally rudimentary. The London fire stimulated the development of a two-person operated piston pump on wheels.

In 1648, Governor Peter Stuyvesant of New Amsterdam (New York City) was the first in the New World to appoint fire inspectors with the authority to impose fines for fire code violations. Boston imported (1679) the first fire engine to reach America. For a long time the ten-person pump devised by the English inventor Richard Newsham in 1725 was the most widely used. The inventor Thomas Lote of New York built (1743) the first fire engine made in America. About 1672 leather hose and couplings for joining lengths together were produced; though leather hose had to be sewn like a fine boot, fabric and rubber-treated hose did not come into general use until 1870. A steam fire engine was built in London in 1829, but the volunteer fire companies of the day were very slow to accept it. When a group of insurance companies in New York had a self-propelled engine built in 1841, the firefighters so hindered its use that the insurance companies gave up the project. Finally, in Cincinnati, Ohio, the public forced a steam engine on the firefighters.

The aerial ladder wagon appeared in 1870; the hose elevator, about 1871. Gasoline engines were at first used either as pumping engines or as tractors to pull apparatus. In 1910 the two functions were combined, one engine both propelling the truck and driving the pump. Modern equipment is usually diesel powered, and multiple variations of the basic fire engine enable firefighters to respond to many types of emergency situations.

Bibliography

See P. R. Lyons, Fire in America (1976); C. V. Walsh and L. Marks, Firefighting Strategy and Leadership (2d ed. 1976); J. Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention (1989).

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