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Salvation Army

Salvation Army, Protestant denomination and international nonsectarian Christian organization for evangelical and philanthropic work.

Organization and Beliefs

The Salvation Army has established branches in more than 110 countries throughout the world. International headquarters are in London. In the United States, where the movement is strong, headquarters are in Alexandria, Va. The Army's ministers are ranked as officers and its members are called "soldiers" ; women have equal position and responsibility with men. High commands may be attained by promotion from lower offices. Each country has its divisions and its local corps, with a commander at the head of all. Officers are prepared in training colleges for their varied responsibilities. In addition to its officers and soldiers, the Army has many more adherents, who regularly worship at its centers, and volunteers, who aid the Salvation Army in meeting community needs.

The Army operates hospitals, community centers, alcoholic and drug rehabilitation programs, emergency and disaster services, social work centers, and recreation facilities. Support of the vast undertakings in all parts of the world depends on voluntary contributions and profits from the sale of publications. The War Cry is the official organ. The beliefs of the Army as set forth in the Handbook of Salvation Army Doctrine (1926) generally agree with those of most Protestant evangelical denominations, but the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper are not considered essential to salvation and are not practiced. Great emphasis is placed on the experience of salvation and purity of life. In conducting the meetings officers are allowed great freedom, as no form of service is required; bands and singing are important features. The Salvation Army distinguished itself by its work with the armed services in both world wars and by its aid to those suffering in disasters, such as floods and earthquakes, all over the world.

History

The Salvation Army was founded by William Booth, with the assistance of his wife, Catherine Booth. Booth, a Methodist minister, began independent evangelistic work in Cornwall, England, in 1861. In 1865 he began his movement by holding outdoor meetings and revivals in tents and theaters in London. The movement was originally known as the East London Revival Society, shortly renamed the Christian Mission, and finally in 1878 designated the Salvation Army. A military form of organization, with uniforms and other distinctive features, was adopted in the interest of a more effective "warfare against evil."

From its inception the organization sought to minister to physical as well as spiritual human needs. Soup kitchens were the first in a long line of widely varied projects designed to provide physical assistance to the destitute. Although the members often met opposition, the value of Salvation Army services had been generally acknowledged by 1890, when General Booth set forth his plan of procedure in his book In Darkest England and the Way Out.

On his death William Booth was succeeded by his son, Bramwell, as head of the organization; but in 1929 his removal was voted by the high council of the Army, and Edward J. Higgins was elected to that post. Salvation Army work in the United States dates from 1880, when Commissioner George Railton and seven women workers from England founded a branch in Pennsylvania. In 1904, Evangeline Booth, daughter of the founder, was put in command of the work in the United States; in 1934 she became general of the International Salvation Army.

See also Volunteers of America.

Bibliography

See R. Sandall, The History of the Salvation Army (6 vol., 1947–79); S. Chesham, Born to Battle (1965); R. Collier, The General Next to God (1965); J. D. Waldron, Pioneering Salvationists (1987); D. Winston, Red-Hot and Righteous (1999); R. Hattersley, Blood and Fire (2000).

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"Salvation Army." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Salvation Army

SALVATION ARMY

SALVATION ARMY. The Salvation Army is an evangelistic organization created in 1865 by William Booth, a former adherent of Methodism, to work among the poor of London. His book In Darkest England and the Way Out (1890) not only won popular support for his movement but also helped awaken public opinion to poverty in the world's richest city. The present military format of the group dates from the publication of The Orders and Regulations for the Salvation Army in 1878. The uniforms, designed by Booth's wife, Catherine Mumford Booth, were adopted in the early 1880s. A branch of the army was formed in the United States in 1880 and received leadership from Evangeline Cory Booth, the general's daughter, from 1904 to 1934. The group has been noted for the vigor of its preaching, its energetic use of music, and its crusades on behalf of the poor and oppressed. It has considered itself to have a special mission to alcoholics.

In 2001, as President George W. Bush proposed bringing "faith-based" charities into a federally coordinated program, the Salvation Army's stance on homosexuality caused concern. While the army condemns harassment based on sexual orientation, it nevertheless describes same-sex intimacy as sinful and has at times refused to hire homosexuals.

In the early twenty-first century the United States branch of the Salvation Army had 443,000 members and


several million volunteers supporting its social service programs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Taiz, Lillian. Hallelujah Lads & Lasses: Remaking the Salvation Army in America, 1880–1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Winston, Diane H. Red-Hot and Righteous: The Urban Religion of the Salvation Army. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Glenn T.Miller/s. c.

See alsoDiscrimination: Sexual Orientation ; Evangelicalism and Revivalism ; Methodism ; Volunteerism .

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"Salvation Army." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Salvation Army." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/salvation-army

Salvation Army

Salvation Army. In 1865 William Booth and his wife launched the ‘Christian Mission to the Heathen of our Own Country’ in Whitechapel (London), and this mission expanded into the Salvation Army (1878). It was both a religious community and an evangelistic agency. Its doctrines were those of evangelical revivalism: sin, conversion, justification by faith, hell, and heaven. At the ‘holiness meetings’ of the army, the emotional scenes and sudden conversions were reminiscent of early methodist revivals. The aim was to reach out beyond the established churches to working-class non-worshippers at their own cultural level. The officers and soldiers (i.e. members) of the army were themselves working men and women, who had experienced conversion and practised self-denial. At their open-air meetings, with bands and banners and sales of the War Cry, they sometimes met with violent opposition. From the late 1880s the army turned to social action, establishing slum posts, night shelters, and schemes for assisting the unemployed. The military organization of the Salvation Army ensured strict discipline of the members under the dictatorship of Booth and (later) his family. A tribute to the success of the Salvation Army was the foundation in 1882 by the Church of England of its own Church Army.

John F. C. Harrison

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Salvation Army

Salvation Army. Christian denomination. Founded in 1865 by W. Booth for evangelism, and for social work, it is now established in about 100 countries. From the beginning, its organization has been along military lines. Its Arminian doctrinal convictions, embodied in its Orders and Regulations (1878), reflect the Wesleyan background of its founder, particularly in universal redemption, human free will, and a post-conversion sanctification experience. Music has always played an important role in the Army's worship and witness.

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"Salvation Army." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Salvation Army." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/salvation-army

Salvation Army

Salvation Army a worldwide Christian evangelical organization on quasi-military lines, established by William Booth (1829–1912).

The name was adopted in 1878 (the body until then was styled ‘the Christian Mission’). The officers bear military titles (‘general’, ‘captain’, etc.). In its early years, open-air evangelistic services, featuring its famous brass bands, were the most prominent feature of the Salvation Army's work.

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Salvation Army

Salvation Army International Christian society devoted to the propagation of the gospel among the working classes. Its origin was the Christian Revival Association founded (1865) in London by William Booth. In 1878, it became the Salvation Army and the members, led by ‘General’ Booth, were given ranks. Under the leadership of Booth's son, Bramwell, its work spread to other parts of the world.

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