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Cincinnati: Recreation

Cincinnati: Recreation

Sightseeing

A tour of Cincinnati can begin downtown at Fountain Square, the site of the Tyler Davidson Fountain, one of the city's most revered landmarks, which was made in Munich, Germany, and erected in 1871. Several historic monuments, including statues in honor of three United States presidentsJames A. Garfield, William Henry Harrison, and Abraham Lincolnare also located in the downtown area.

Eden Park in Mt. Adams, one of Cincinnati's oldest hillside neighborhoods and named after President John Quincy Adams, provides a panoramic view of the city and of northern Kentucky across the Ohio River. In Eden Park the Irwin M. Krohn Conservatory maintains several large public greenhouses showcasing more than 3,500 plant species: the Palm House features palm, rubber, and banana trees in a rainforest setting with a 20-foot waterfall; the Tropical House has ferns, bromeliads, begonias, chocolate and papaya trees, and vanilla vine; the Floral House has seasonal floral displays among its permanent collection of orange, kumquat, lemon, and grapefruit trees; the Desert Garden is home to yuccas, agaves, cacti, and aloes; and the Orchid House displays 17 genera of orchids.

The Cincinnati Zoo, opened in 1872, is the second oldest zoo in the United States. Set on 75 acres, the zoo is home to 510 animal species as well as 3,000 plant varieties. The zoo is recognized worldwide for the breeding of animals in captivity; the zoo park introduced the nation's first insect world exhibit. The zoo features such rare animals as the white Bengal tiger, Sumatran rhinoceros, and lowland gorilla, as well as manatees, alligators and crocodiles, orangutans, elephants, giraffes, and polar bears. The zoo's newest permanent exhibit, Wolf Woods, opened in May 2005. Here, visitors can view the rare Mexican gray wolf and other North American animals, including river otters, gray fox, wild turkey, striped skunk, and thickbilled parrots.

Historic houses open for public viewing include the former homes of Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin; and William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States. The Harriet Beecher Stowe House displays artifacts of African American history, featuring documents from the Beecher family. The William Howard Taft National Historic Site was Taft's birthplace and boyhood home; several rooms have been restored to reflect Taft's family life. Dayton Street on Cincinnati's West End features restored nineteenth-century architecture. The Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum, a national historic landmark, contains 1,000 labeled trees on 733 landscaped acres lined with statuary and sculpture.

Paramount's Kings Island Theme Park, 20 minutes north of Cincinnati, features more than 80 amusement attractions and is known nationally for its daring rollercoasters and water rides, among them The Beast, the world's longest wooden rollercoaster. The nearby Beach Waterpark has nearly 50 waterslides and rides. Sharon Woods Village, in nearby Sharonville, is an outdoor museum of restored nineteenth-century southwestern Ohio buildings. Meier's Wine Cellar, Ohio's oldest and largest winery, offers tours.

Arts and Culture

Many of Cincinnati's cultural institutions date from the mid-nineteenth century, and the city takes particular pride in their longevity and quality. The primary venues for the performing arts are Music Hall which, built in 1878, retains its nineteenth-century elegance and is affectionately known as the city's Grand Dame; and the Aronoff Center for the Arts, opened in 1995, which features three performance spaces as well as the Weston Art Gallery, and presents thousands of exhibits and performances each year. Cincinnati is home to the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Cincinnati Ballet, and Cincinnati Opera. The symphony, established in 1895, performs classical and pops concert series. The ballet company, based at the Aronoff Center, offers more than 30 performances annually, presenting both classical and contemporary dance. The opera company, the second oldest in the United States, presents four productions during a summer season. Based at Music Hall, a new four-story opera headquarters is being built in the hall's underutilized north wing, scheduled for completion in October 2005.

Riverbend Music Center, an open-air amphitheater designed by noted architect Michael Graves, is the summer performance quarters for the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra and Symphony Orchestra, as well as the site for concerts by visiting artists. Popular music traditions in Cincinnati include the Matinee Musicale, founded in 1911, the Cincinnati Chamber Music Series, and the Taft Chamber Concerts.

Music in Cincinnati is not limited to the classical tradition. Cincinnati and nearby Covington, Kentucky, support an active jazz club scene. The Blue Wisp Jazz Club features local and national talent.

Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park, a professional regional theater, is housed in a modern facility in Eden Park. Recipient of the 2004 Regional Theatre Tony Award, the Playhouse presents a September-June season of comedies, dramas, classics, and musicals on a main stage and in a smaller theater. The University of Cincinnati's CollegeConservatory of Music presents nearly 1,000 events per year and is most noted for its philharmonic orchestra concerts, operas, and musical theater productions; many performances are free. The Showboat Majestic, a restored nineteenth-century showboat on the Ohio River Public Landing, is one of the last original floating theaters still in operation. Performances on the showboat include dramas, comedies, old-fashioned melodramas, and musicals. The Ensemble Theatre of Cincinnati presents regional, world, and off-Broadway premiere productions at its theater downtown.

In addition to music and performing arts, the visual arts are an integral part of the city's cultural heritage. The Woman's Art Museum Association was responsible for the construction of the Cincinnati Art Museum in 1871; the museum, which has undergone an extensive renovation, houses nearly 100 galleries. Its permanent collection features an outstanding collection of Asian art and musical instruments, and a Cincinnati Wing with local artworks dating from 1788 through the present. Downtown's Taft Museum, housed in an 1820 mansion and formerly the home of art patrons Charles and Anna Taft, was presented as a gift to the city in 1932. The museum holds paintings, decorative arts, sculpture, furniture, and more. The Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art, also located downtown, opened in 2003 and presents changing exhibitions of modernist art in a variety of forms; its "UnMuseum" is designed for children. A number of art galleries occupy converted warehouses near the shopping district.

Union Terminal, a former train station declared a masterpiece of Art Deco construction when it opened in 1933, has been restored and is home to the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal. The center includes the Cincinnati History Museum, featuring recreations of historical settings showcasing the city's past; the Museum of Natural History and Science, where visitors can walk through glaciers, explore caves, and learn about the human body; the Cinergy Children's Museum, where kids can climb, crawl, explore, and learn about the world in educational exhibits; and an Omnimax theater. The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, opened in 2004, is a 158,000 square-foot facility tracing the 300-year history of slavery in America and highlighting the role of the Underground Railroad. The Cincinnati Fire Museum, located in a 1907 firehouse, exhibits the history of fire fighting in Cincinnati.

Festivals and Holidays

Each year Cincinnati presents a number of festivals that celebrate the city's heritage and institutions. The Celtic Lands Culture Fest in March includes storytelling, dancing, food, music and crafts. The nation's professional baseball season opens in April with the Cincinnati Reds game at Riverfront Stadium. Preceding the game is an Opening Day Parade originating at historic Findlay Market. The Appalachian Festival, held in May, has mountain crafts, live music, dancing, and storytellers; it is said to be the largest craft show in the country. May Festival, a tradition begun in 1873, is the oldest continuing festival of choral and orchestral music in the country. The Taste of Cincinnati celebration held over Memorial Day weekend downtown affords the city's best restaurants an opportunity to feature some of their favorite menu items. Summerfair brings an arts and crafts show to the city's riverfront the second weekend in June. Juneteenth Festival is a celebration of African-American freedom, featuring diverse music and food. The day-long Riverfest celebration on Labor Day honors the area's river heritage and is the city's largest celebration. The festival features water skiing, sky diving and air shows, and riverboat cruises, and is capped by a spectacular fireworks display. The Harvest Home Fair, held the following weekend in nearby Cheviot, features horse, art, and flower shows, a parade, 4-H auction, petting zoo, and more. The Valley Vineyards Wine Festival, also in September, features wine, tours, food, music, camping, arts, crafts and activities. Oktoberfest Zinzinnati features German food, customs, dancing, and beer; downtown streets are blocked off for the festivities. Early December brings Balluminaria at Eden Park, where hot air balloons are lit up at dusk near Mirror Lake.

Popular Christmas-holiday events in Cincinnati include the annual tree-lighting on Fountain Square, the Festival of Lights at the Cincinnati Zoo, and the Boar's Head and Yule Log Festival at Christ Church Cathedral downtown, a Cincinnati tradition since 1940.

Events are held throughout the year in nearby Sharon Woods Village and in the MainStrasse Village in Covington, Kentucky, across the Ohio River.

Sports for the Spectator

The Cincinnati Reds, World Series winners in 1975, 1976, and 1990, is America's oldest professional baseball team; they play their home games at the new Great American Ball Park. Opened in 2003, the park has a seating capacity of 42,059 and is praised for its innovative features, breathtaking views, and tributes to the Reds' rich history. The Cincinnati Bengals, who captured the American Football Championship in 1981 and 1988, play home games at Paul Brown Stadium, opened in 2000. The stadium has a seating capacity of 65,535, on three levels; its open-ended design allows for stunning views of the downtown skyline and the riverfront.

The Cincinnati Mighty Ducks of the American Hockey League play at the Cincinnati Gardens. The Cincinnati Cyclones are in the International Hockey League and play at the Crown. The University of Cincinnati and Xavier University provide a schedule of college sports teams and cross-town rivalry in basketball, in which both schools enjoy strong traditions and some national prominence.

Thoroughbred racing takes place at River Downs Racetrack in late April through Labor Day, and at Turfway Park in Florence, Kentucky, from September through mid-October, and Thanksgiving through mid-April. The Association of Tennis Professionals compete in tournament play each August in nearby Mason.

Sports for the Participant

Cincinnati maintains more than 5,000 acres of park land in attractive urban settings. Alms Park and Eden Park offer dramatic views of the Ohio River and northern Kentucky, and these parks, as well as others, attract joggers because of their natural beauty and challenge for runners. The Cincinnati Nature CenterRowe Woods is comprised of 1,025 acres with nature trails covering more than 17 miles, and a nature center featuring a bird-viewing area, library, and displays. The 1,466 acres of Mount Airy Forest feature hiking and picnic areas. The city's recreation department sponsors an array of sports from softball to soccer for all age groups and manages neighborhood swimming pools and tennis courts throughout the summer. Sawyer Point on the Ohio River provides facilities for pier fishing, rowboating, skating, tennis, and volleyball.

Shopping and Dining

Cincinnati consists of distinct neighborhoods where shopping districts provide an atmosphere not found in many cities today. The city's revitalization is most evident downtown in the area known as Over-the-Rhine, the old German neighborhood around Vine and Main Streets. There, art galleries, restaurants, and breweries flourish in restored nineteenth-century buildings. Cincinnati's skywalk system connects downtown stores, hotels, and restaurants, allowing visitors to explore the shopping district free of traffic and weather concerns. The downtown Tower Place mixes local and nationally known stores with specialty shops in a compact area. Other downtown Cincinnati shopping highlights include a Lazarus-Macy's and Saks Fifth Avenue department stores. Neighborhood and suburban shopping districts and malls abound on both sides of the river, and the region offers endless antique shops, boutiques, arts and crafts shops, and ethnic and fashion collections. Other shopping opportunities include large regional malls, factory outlets, discount houses, and museum stores. The Findlay Market, an open-air marketplace that has been in operation since 1852, offers ethnic foods in an old-world atmosphere.

Cincinnati restaurants have been rated highly by critics and travel guides. The city is home to several restaurants that have received critical acclaim nationally, including Maisonette, a French restaurant that has received Five Stars from Mobil for 40 consecutive years. Both the number and variety of first-rate restaurants are impressive. One of Cincinnati's specialties is moderately priced German cuisine. Cincinnati restaurateurs have been successful in opening establishments in architecturally interesting buildings, such as firehouses, police precincts, or riverboat paddle-wheelers. A locally made ice cream, Graeter's, is widely popular, as is a downtown New York-style deli, Izzy's, known for its corned beef. The city's oldest tavern, opened in 1861, is still in business as a bar and grill. Cincinnati chili, Greek in origin, is flavored with cinnamon and chocolate as the "secret" ingredients and served over spaghetti; 3-way, 4-way, or 5-way chili choices consist of various combinations of grated cheese, onions, beans, and oyster crackers.

Visitor Information: Greater Cincinnati Convention and Visitors Bureau, 300 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202; telephone (513)621-2142

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Cincinnati: Economy

Cincinnati: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Cincinnati's diversified economic base includes manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, insurance and finance, education and health services, government, and transportation. Known worldwide for Procter & Gamble soap products and U.S. Playing Cards, the city ranks high nationally in the value of manufacturing shipments. Ten Fortune 500 companies have established headquarters in Cincinnati: AK Steel (steel manufacturer), American Financial (financial services), Ashland Inc. (chemicals), Cinergy Corp. (public utilities), Federated Department Stores (retail stores), Fifth Third Bancorp (financial services), The Kroger Co. (grocery stores), Omnicare (pharmacy services), Procter & Gamble Co. (consumer goods), and Western & Southern Financial (financial services). More than 360 other Fortune 500 companies maintain operations in Cincinnati. Retail sales in the metropolitan Cincinnati area average $2.8 billion annually.

More than one thousand area firms have contributed to Cincinnati's position as an international trade center, generating approximately $6.7 billion in sales to markets outside the United States each year. Foreign investment in the local economy is substantial; more than 300 Cincinnati-area firms are presently owned by companies in Asia (especially Japan), Europe (especially France, Germany, and the United Kingdom), Canada, South America, and Africa. Among these companies are: AEG, Bayer, Faurecia, Krupp-Hoesch, Mitsubishi Electric, Siemens, Snecma, Sumitomo Electric, Toyota Motor Mfg.-North American Headquarters, and Valeo. Toyota, one of Cincinnati's largest employers, chose the greater Cincinnati area for its North American manufacturing plant because, in the words of its Senior Vice President of Corporate Affairs, Dennis C. Cuneo, "The area has an excellent transportation system, a world-class airport, an excellent quality of life and a positive business climate." In 2003, Expansion Management magazine ranked Cincinnati 11th for European investment.

Federal agencies with regional centers located in the city are the United States Postal Service, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

The University of Cincinnati, the city's largest employer, has an economic impact of more than $3 billion.

Items and goods produced: aircraft engines, auto parts, motor vehicles, chemicals, valves, alcoholic beverages and soft drinks, food and kindred products, playing cards, drugs, cosmetics, toiletries, detergents, building materials, cans, metalworking and general industrial machinery, toys, apparel, mattresses, electric motors, robotics, electronic equipment, housewares, shoes, printing and publishing

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies

Greater Cincinnati offers a wide range of economic development assistance programs to businesses planning to expand or locate new operations within the 13-county region.

Local programs

Local organizations offer assistance for small businesses, women, and minority business owners. One such organization, the Cincinnati Business Incubator (CBI), specializes in assisting woman- and minority-owned small businesses operatingor seeking to start a businessin designated Empowerment Zones. CBI offers training and workshops that focus on business skills and profit building.

State programs

In Ohio, incentive programs are administered by the Ohio Department of Development, which operates a system of regional development offices. Incentive programs in Ohio include enterprise zones, Community Reinvestment Areas, job creation and training tax credit programs, and a variety of loan programs, as well as machinery and equipment tax credits; research and development, warehouse, and manufacturing equipment sales tax exemption; storage-only warehouse property tax exemption; and tax increment financing.

Job training programs

The City of Cincinnati Employment and Training Division oversees vocational, life, and pre-employment skills training and job placement employment initiatives. Cincinnati Works focuses on four service areas: job readiness, job search, retention, and advancement. Great Oaks Center for Employment Resources offers customized training and services to meet the needs of companies. Services and programs include: Comprehensive vocational assessment, employee assessment, employment services, professional development, job profiling, return to work services, workplace programs, and customized training. TechSolve, a non-profit organization for manufacturers, offers help with change in manufacturing operations; its training programs aim to maintain a high performance workforce.

Development Projects

The Dr. Albert B. Sabin Cincinnati Convention Center expansion, scheduled for completion in 2006, is projected to have an economic impact of $417 million. The expanded 750,000 square foot center will feature nearly 200,000 square feet of exhibition space. Major developments completed in Cincinnati in recent years include the new home of the Bengals, state-of-the-art Paul Brown Stadium, opened in 2000; and the new home of the Reds, the Great American Ball Park, opened in 2003. Hallmarks of a rebirth of the city's riverfront, the Stadium forms the western anchor of this revitalized area, while the Ball Park forms the eastern anchor. Development of The Banks, a 15-acre, 24-hour urban neighborhood of restaurants, clubs, offices, apartments and homes with sweeping skyline views, has begun to unfold near the Stadium. The Banks is projected to have an economic impact of $1.9 billion. Other developments include the opening of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in 2004. This new museum offers lessons on the struggle for freedom, and celebrates Cincinnati's role as a transit point for runaway slaves in the mid-1800s. Another museum, the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art, opened in 2003.

Economic Development Information: Ohio Department of Development, PO Box 1001, Columbus, OH 43216; telephone (800)848-1300

Commercial Shipping

The Greater Cincinnati Airport pumps approximately $4 billion into the local economy; contributing significantly to the region's transportation system, it is considered a major inducement in attracting new industry. The airport is the primary U.S. hub for DHL Worldwide Express, which ships one million pounds of cargo from the airport daily. The area has two foreign trade zones, one in Hamilton County and the other in Boone County, Kentucky near the international airport. Greater Cincinnati has the fifth largest inland U.S. port for domestic loads, with approximately 52.3 million tons of cargo transported annually through Cincinnati on the Ohio River system.

All major markets are easily reached from Greater Cincinnati via interstate. Three interstates (I-71, I-74 and I-75) link Cincinnati with the nation, while I-70, 55 miles to the north, links the east and west coasts. Twenty major metropolitan areas are served by one day's trucking service and another 30 metropolitan areas are within two days. Three major railroad systemsCSX Transportation, Norfolk Southern Corp., and Conrailserve the region.

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

More than 1.56 million workers live within 50 miles of downtown Cincinnati. Graduates from the colleges and universities within a 200-mile radius add more than 100,000 young professionals to the workforce each year. The region is noted for its strong work ethic, which translates into a workforce that is productive, responsible, and dedicated. The city has been successful in attracting new business including company headquarters in recent years, and considers itself well positioned for further economic growth, citing its outstanding airport service, high worker productivity, and quality of life among other positive factors. Among the rapidly growing sectors of the area's economy are high-tech manufacturing, aerospace (in 2003, the Cincinnati-Dayton corridor was awarded $2.5 billion in defense spending and $1.4 billion in U.S. defense projects), automotive manufacturing, and life sciences. Long-term labor market projections are available at the Chamber's web site for industry employment, occupational employment, and labor force size. Projected annual job openings by occupation, reflecting employment growth, and replacement needs are included.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Cincinnati-Middletown metropolitan area labor force (2004 annual averages):

Size of non-agricultural labor force: 1,021,800

Number of workers employed in . . .

construction and mining: 52,700

manufacturing: 125,700

trade, transportation and utilities: 208,100

information: 16,300

financial activities: 65,000

professional and business services: 144,700

educational and health services: 130,300

leisure and hospitality: 102,700

other services: 42,500

government: 133,900

Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $15.94

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (February 2005)

Largest employers Number of employees
University of Cincinnati 15,400
Kroger Company 13,000
The Procter & Gamble Company 13,000
Toyota Motor Manufacturing North America Inc. 8,360
Fifth Third Bank 7,800
Cincinnati Public Schools 7,335
City of Cincinnati 7,223
Trihealth, Inc. 7,055
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center 7,029
Mercy Health Partners 6,785

Cost of Living

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Cincinnati area.

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $210,949

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 93.8 (U.S. average = 100.0)

State income tax rate: Ranges from 0.742% to 7.5%

State sales tax rate: 5.0%

Local income tax rate: 2.1%

Local sales tax rate: 1.0%

Property tax rate: ranges from $61.66 to $133.45 per $1,000 of assessed valuation; assessed at 35% of market value (Hamilton County)

Economic Information: Greater Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, 441 Vine Street, Suite 300, Cincinnati, OH 45202; telephone (513)579-3100; fax (513)579-3101

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Cincinnati: History

Cincinnati: History

Ohio River Crossing Part of Northwest Territory

The Ohio River basin first served as a crossing point for Native Americans traveling south. It is believed that Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, was the first explorer to reach this spot on the Ohio River as early as 1669. Part of the Northwest Territory that the newly formed United States government received from England at the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, Cincinnati became a strategic debarkation point for settlers forging a new life in the wilderness. Congressman John Cleves Symmes of New Jersey purchased from the Continental Congress one million acres of land between the two Miami rivers, and three settlements were platted. In February 1789, John Filson named one of the settlements Losantiville, meaning "the place opposite the Licking [River]." The next year, General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, renamed the village Cincinnati in honor of the Roman citizen-soldier Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus and after the Society of the Cincinnati, an organization of American Revolutionary army officers. He made Cincinnati the seat of Hamilton County, which he named after Alexander Hamilton, then president general of the Society of Cincinnati.

River Traffic Swells City's Population

Fort Washington was built in the area in 1789 as a fortification from which action was mounted against warriors of the Ohio tribe, but the military efforts proved unsuccessful until General Anthony Wayne trained an army that defeated the Ohio at Fallen Timbers in 1794, securing the area for settlement. Cincinnati was chartered as a town in 1802 and as a city in 1819. The introduction of the river paddle-wheeler on the Ohio River after the War of 1812 turned Cincinnati into a center of river commerce and trade. The opening of the Miami Canal in 1827 added to the town's economic growth. William Holmes McGuffey published his Eclectic Readers in Cincinnati in 1836, and eventually 122 million copies were sold. The first mass migration of Germans in 1830 and Irish a decade later swelled Cincinnati's population to 46,338 people.

The economy continued to boom as the South paid cash for foodstuffs produced in the city, and by 1850 Cincinnati was the pork-packing capital of the world. More than 8,000 steamboats docked at Cincinnati in 1852. Cincinnati merchants protested the cutoff of Southern trade at the outbreak of the Civil War, but federal government contracts and the city's role as a recruiting and outfitting center for Union soldiers righted the economy. Cincinnati was a major stop on the Underground Railroad, a secret network of cooperation aiding fugitive slaves in reaching sanctuary in the free states or Canada prior to 1861. Cincinnati also served as a center of Copperhead political activity during the Civil War; Copperheads were Northerners sympathetic to the Southern cause. The city's proximity to the South spread fear of invasion by the Confederate Army, and martial law was decreed in 1862 when raiders led by Edmund Kirby-Smith, a Confederate commander, threatened invasion.

Cincinnati residents played an important role in the Abolitionist cause. James G. Birney, who published the abolitionist newspaper The Philanthropist, and Dr. Lyman Beecher of the Lane Theological Seminary were leading Northern antislavery activists. Dr. Beecher's daughter, Harriet Beecher Stowe, lived in Cincinnati from 1832 to 1850 and wrote much of her best seller, Uncle Tom's Cabin, there. African Americans have in fact been prominent in Cincinnati's history since its founding. The city's first African American church was built in 1809 and the first school in 1825. African Americans voted locally in 1852, 18 years before the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment. The first African American to serve on city council was elected in 1931, and two African Americans have served as mayor.

Prosperity Follows End of Civil War

A suspension bridge designed by John R. Roebling connected Ohio and Kentucky upon its completion in 1867. Cincinnati prospered after the Civil War, and, with a population that grew to 200,000 people became the country's largest city before annexing land to develop communities outside the basin. Cincinnati's most revered public monument, the Tyler Davidson Fountain, was unveiled in 1871 in the heart of downtown. During this period Cincinnati's major cultural institutions were founded, including the art museum and art academy, the conservatory of music, the public library, the zoo, and Music Hall. Two of the city's most cherished traditions also date from this time: the May Festival of choral music at Music Hall and the first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings.

In reaction to the decline of riverboat trade in the 1870s, the city of Cincinnati built its own southern rail lineit was the first and only city to do soat a cost of $20 million, rushing to complete the project in 1880. The era of boss-rule in the municipal government was introduced in 1884 when newly elected Governor Joseph B. Foraker appointed George Barnsdale Cox, a tavern keeper, to head the Board of Public Affairs. With control of more than 2,000 jobs, Cox and his machine ruled Cincinnati through a bleak period of graft and corruption, which finally came to an end with a nonpartisan reform movement that won election in 1924. The city's new charter corrected the abuses of the Cox regime.

On the national scene, a political dynasty was established when Cincinnatian William Howard Taft was elected President and then became the only President to be appointed Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Taft's son, Robert A. Taft, was elected to three Senate terms; and his grandson, Robert Taft, Jr., was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

City Retains Vitality in Twentieth Century

Cincinnati weathered the Great Depression better than most American cities of its size, largely because of a resurgence of inexpensive river trade. The rejuvenation of downtown began in the 1920s and continued into the next decade with the construction of Union Terminal, the post office, and a large Bell Telephone building. The flood of 1937 was one of the worst in the nation's history, resulting in the building of protective flood walls. After World War II, Cincinnati unveiled a master plan for urban renewal that resulted in modernization of the inner city. Riverfront Stadium and the Coliseum were completed in the 1970s, as the Cincinnati Reds baseball team emerged as one of the dominant teams of the decade. Tragedy struck the Coliseum in December 1981 when eleven people were killed in a mass panic prior to The Who rock and roll concert. In 1989, the two-hundredth anniversary of the city's founding, much attention was focused on the city's Year 2000 plan, which involved further revitalization.

The completion of several major new development projects enhance the city as it enters the early years of the new millennium. Cincinnati's beloved Bengals and Reds teams both have new, state-of-the-art homes: Paul Brown Stadium, opened in 2000, and the Great American Ball Park, opened in 2003, respectively. Two new museums have opened: the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art in 2003, and the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in 2004. The Banks is a new, developing 24-hour urban neighborhood of restaurants, clubs, offices, and homes with sweeping skyline views, along the city's riverfront. Cincinnati has received such accolades as "Most Liveable City," Partners for Livable Communities, April 2004; number five U.S. arts destination, American Style Magazine, Summer 2004; and inclusion in the top 10 "Cities that Rock," Esquire Magazine, April 2004.

Historical Information: Cincinnati Historical Society, Museum Center, Cincinnati Union Terminal, 1301 Western Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45203; telephone (513)287-7030

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Cincinnati: Education and Research

Cincinnati: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

The Cincinnati Public School (CPS) district is spread across the city plus Amberley Village, Cheviot, Golf Manor, most of the city of Silverton, parts of Fairfax and Wyoming, and parts of Anderson, Columbia, Delhi, Green, and Springfield townships, with a total area of about 90 square miles. It is the third-largest public school district in the state. CPS opened the first public Montessori elementary school in the country in 1975. The district now offers 21 high schools with specific focuses, and 22 elementary magnet schools offering nine programs such as the arts, foreign language, and Montessori and Paideia teaching styles. The district's $985 million Facilities Master Plan, launched in 2002, is financing the building or renovation of more than a dozen schools; the first new school resulting from this planRockdale Academywas completed in January 2005.

The following is a summary of data regarding the CPS district as of the 20032004 school year.

Total enrollment: 38,779

Number of facilities

elementary schools: 58 (consisting of both K-6 and K-8 schools)

high schools: 21

Student/teacher ratio: 13.2:1

Teacher salaries

minimum: $34,888

maximum: $69,609

Funding per pupil: $9,749 (2001-2002)

A parochial school system operated by the Catholic Diocese as well as a variety of private schools throughout the area provide instruction from kindergarten through twelfth grade. Cincinnati is home to more than 130 private schools. Its Catholic school system is the ninth largest in the nation.

Public Schools Information: Cincinnati Public Schools, PO Box 5381, Cincinnati, OH 45201; telephone (513)363-0000

Colleges and Universities

The University of Cincinnati (UC), part of Ohio's state higher education system, was founded in 1819. The university has an enrollment of more than 34,000 students and grants degrees at all levels, from associate through doctorate, in a complete range of fields. The university includes a main academic campus, a medical campus, a branch campus in suburban Blue Ash, and a rural branch campus in Clermont County, east of Cincinnati. The university is a nationally recognized research institution known for its professional schools, notably the colleges of medicine, engineering, law, business, applied science, and design, architecture, art, and planning. Cooperative education originated at the University of Cincinnati, in 1906; other UC firsts include the development of the oral polio vaccine and the first antihistamine.

Cincinnati is also home to Xavier University, a Jesuit institution founded in 1831, which offers undergraduate and graduate programs in such areas as theology, criminal justice, psychology, business, education, English, health services administration, nursing, and occupational therapy.

Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, a graduate rabbinical seminary, was founded in 1875 and is the nation's oldest institution of higher Jewish education. In addition to its Rabbinical School, the College-Institute includes Schools of Graduate Studies, Education, Jewish Communal Service, Sacred Music, and Biblical Archaeology. Branch campuses are located in Los Angeles, New York, and Jerusalem.

The Athenaeum of Ohio is an accredited center of ministry education and formation within the Roman Catholic tradition. Other colleges in Cincinnati are the Art Academy of Cincinnati, a small independent college of art and design; The Union Institute, designed for adults who have the desire to assume a significant measure of personal responsibility for planning and executing their degree programs; and Cincinnati Bible College and Seminary.

Colleges and universities in the metropolitan area include Miami University in Oxford, offering specialized studies in more than 100 academic majors and pre-professional programs, and particularly known for its business school; Northern Kentucky University; Thomas More College; St. Thomas Institute; and College of Mount St. Joseph.

Vocational and technical education is available at a variety of institutions such as Cincinnati State Technical and Community College, and Gateway Community and Technical College.

Libraries and Research Centers

The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County is the third-oldest library in the nation, with holdings totaling 9.6 million items. The library system is comprised of a downtown facility and 57 branches. The 542,527 square-foot main library has 15 departments, among them a library for the blind. Special collections cover a range of topics, among them inland rivers, sacred music, patents from 1790 to the present, nineteenth and twentieth century illustrators, and Bibles and English language dictionaries; the library is also a depository for federal documents.

Cincinnati-area colleges and universities also maintain campus libraries. The largest is the University of Cincinnati Libraries, which include a central facility with more than 2.1 million volumes and nearly 20,000 periodical subscriptions; the law school and the University of Cincinnati Medical Center operate separate library systems. The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Klau Library, with holdings of 425,000 volumes and 2,340 periodical subscriptions, is an important center for such subject interests as Hebraica, Judaica, ancient and near-Eastern studies, and rabbinical studies. Several cultural and scientific organizations operate libraries, including the Art Museum, the Cincinnati Museum Center, the Taft Museum, and the Zoological Society. The Cincinnati Historical Society Library holds 90,000 books relating to the history of the United States, Ohio, and the Old Northwest Territory, especially metropolitan Cincinnati.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has a library in Cincinnati that is open to the public. Collections of approximately 200,000 volumes are maintained by the Cincinnati Law Library Association and the Young Men's Mercantile Library Association. Among corporations housing libraries for their own personnel and researchers are General Electric and the Andrew Jergens Co. Other specialized libraries are affiliated with hospitals, churches, and synagogues.

The University of Cincinnati (UC) is a major research center, and its research funding continues to increase steadily. In 2003, UC earned more than $300 million in research grants and contracts, an 18 percent increase over the previous year. In addition to the funding increase, the university's Intellectual Property Office reported 86 invention disclosures, 25 U.S. patents filed, and 9 U.S. patents issued during fiscal year 2003. Research is conducted in a wide variety of fields, including sociology, biology, aeronautics, health, psychology, and archaeology. The university's Medical Center campus features such research facilities as the Genome Research Institute, and is home to BIO/START, a biomedical business incubator.

Public Library Information: Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, 800 Vine Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202-2009; telephone (513)369-6900

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Cincinnati: Communications

Cincinnati: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

Cincinnati's major daily newspapers are The Cincinnati Enquirer, circulated every morning, and the evening The Cincinnati Post. The Cincinnati Herald, an African American oriented newspaper, appears weekly. Both the Associated Press and United Press International maintain offices in Cincinnati. Cincinnati Magazine is a monthly publication focusing on topics of community interest.

A number of nationally circulated magazines are published in Cincinnati; among them are Writer's Digest, a professional magazine for writers; Dramatics Magazine, for students interested in theatre as a career; and St. Anthony Messenger, a family-oriented Catholic magazine. Cincinnati-based Standard Publishing Company produces religious magazines like Weekly Bible Reader, for children, and Seek, for young adults and adults. Specialized publications originating in the city are directed toward readers with interests in business, medicine, pharmacy, engineering, the arts, crafts, and other fields.

Television and Radio

Cincinnati is the broadcast media center for southwestern Ohio, northern Kentucky, and southeastern Indiana. Eight commercial, public, and independent television stations are received in the city; cable service is available. Thirty-five AM and FM radio stations broadcast educational, cultural, and religious programming as well as rock and roll, contemporary, classical, gospel, blues, jazz, and country music.

Media Information: The Cincinnati Enquirer, Gannet Co., 312 Elm Street, Cincinnati, OH; telephone (513)721-2700; and, The Cincinnati Post, E.W. Scripps Co., 125 E. Court, Cincinnati, OH 45202; telephone (513)352-2000

Cincinnati Online

The Cincinnati Enquirer. Available enquirer.com/today

Cincinnati Museum Center. Available www.cincymuseum.org

Cincinnati Public Schools. Available www.cpsboe.k12.oh.us

Cincinnati Regional Links. Available www.rcc.org/reglinks.html

City of Cincinnati home page. Available www.ci.cincinnati.oh.us

Greater Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce. Available www.cincinnatichamber.com/home.htm

Greater Cincinnati Convention and Visitors Bureau. Available www.cincyusa.com

Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County. Available www.cincinnatilibrary.org

University of Cincinnati Medical Center. Available medcenter.uc.edu

Selected Bibliography

Chambrun, Clara Longworth, Comtesse de, Cincinnati: Story of the Queen City (New York, London: Scribner, 1939)

Fuller, John Grant, Are the Kids All Right?: The Rock Generation and Its Hidden Death Wish (New York: Times Books, 1981)

Howells, William Dean, A Boy's Town: Described for "Harper's Young People" (New York: Harper & Brothers, Franklin Square, 1890)

Howells, William Dean, My Year in a Log Cabin (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1893)

Lewis, Sinclair, Babbitt (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1922)

Miller, Zane L., and Bruce Tucker, Changing Plans for America's Inner Cities: Cincinnati's Over-The-Rhine and Twentieth-Century Urbanism (Urban Life and Urban Landscape Series) (Ohio State University Press, 1998)

Walker, Robert Harris, Cincinnati and the Big Red Machine (Indiana University Press, 1988)

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Cincinnati

CINCINNATI

CINCINNATI was founded in 1788 and named for the Society of Cincinnati, an organization of revolutionary war officers. When incorporated in 1802, it had only about 750 residents. However, the town went on to become the largest city in Ohio throughout most of the nineteenth century and the largest city in the Midwest before the Civil War. In 1850, Cincinnati boasted 115,436 inhabitants. As the chief port on the Ohio River, it could claim the title of Queen City of the West. Although it produced a wide range of manufactures for the western market, Cincinnati became famous as a meatpacking center, winning the nickname Porkopolis. The city's prosperity attracted thousands of European immigrants, especially Germans, whose breweries, singing societies, and beer gardens became features of Cincinnati life.

With the advent of the railroad age, Cincinnati's location on the Ohio River no longer ensured its preeminence as a commercial center, and other midwestern cities surged ahead of it. Between 1890 and 1900, Cincinnati fell to second rank among Ohio cities as Cleveland surpassed it in population. In 1869, however, Cincinnati won distinction by fielding the nation's first all-professional baseball team. Moreover, through their biennial music festival, Cincinnatians attempted to establish their city as the cultural capital of the Midwest.

During the first half of the twentieth century, Cincinnati continued to grow moderately, consolidating its reputation as a city of stability rather than dynamic change. In the 1920s, good-government reformers secured adoption of a city manager charter, and in succeeding decades Cincinnati won a name for having honest, efficient government. Yet, unable to annex additional territory following World War II, the city's population gradually declined from a high of 503,998 in 1950 to 331,285 in 2000. During the 1940s and 1950s, southern blacks and whites migrated to the city, transforming the once-Germanic Over-the-Rhine neighborhood into a "hillbilly ghetto" and boosting the African American share of the city's population from 12.2 percent in 1940 to 33.8 percent in 1980. Although not a model of dynamism, Cincinnati could boast of a diversified economy that made it relatively recession proof compared with other midwestern cities dependent on motor vehicle and heavy machinery manufacturing. The city prospered as the headquarters

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of Procter and Gamble, and also was headquarters of the Kroger supermarket chain, Federated Department Stores, and banana giant Chiquita Brands.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Giglierano, Geoffrey J., and Deborah A. Overmyer. The Bicentennial Guide to Greater Cincinnati: A Portrait of Two Hundred Years. Cincinnati: Cincinnati Historical Society, 1988.

Silberstein, Iola. Cincinnati Then and Now. Cincinnati: Voters Service Educational Fund of the League of Women Voters of the Cincinnati Area, 1982.

Jon C.Teaford

See alsoCity Manager Plan ; German Americans ; Miami Purchase ; Midwest ; Ohio ; Ohio River .

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Cincinnati: Population Profile

Cincinnati: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents (PMSA)

1980: 1,660,000

1990: 1,525,090

2000: 1,646,395

Percent change, 19902000: 8.9%

U.S. rank in 1980: 20th

U.S. rank in 1998: 23rd

U.S. rank in 2000: 23rd

City Residents

1980: 385,457

1990: 364,040

2000: 331,285

2003 estimate: 317,361

Percent change, 19902000: -9.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 32nd

U.S. rank in 1990: 45th (State rank: 3rd)

U.S. rank in 2000: 63rd

Density: 4,249.0 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 175,492

Black or African American: 142,176

American Indian and Alaska Native: 709

Asian: 5,132

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 130

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 4,230

Other: 7,646

Percent of residents born in state: 71.6%

Age characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 23,862

Population 5 to 9 years old: 22,810

Population 10 to 14 years old: 22,109

Population 15 to 19 years old: 23,805

Population 20 to 24 years old: 31,327

Population 25 to 34 years old: 56,094

Population 35 to 44 years old: 48,757

Population 45 to 54 years old: 38,757

Population 55 to 59 years old: 12,777

Population 60 to 64 years old: 10,333

Population 65 to 74 years old: 19,761

Population 75 to 84 years old: 14,645

Population 85 years and older: 6,248

Median age: 32.1 years

Births (2002, Hamilton County) Total number: 11,031

Deaths (2002, Hamilton County) Total number: 8,461 (of which, 114 were infants under the age of 1 year)

Money income (1999)

Per capita income: $19,962

Median household income: $29,493

Total households: 147,979

Number of households with income of . . .

less than $10,000: 26,690

$10,000 to $14,999: 12,786

$15,000 to $24,999: 24,409

$25,000 to $34,999: 21,197

$35,000 to $49,999: 22,172

$50,000 to $74,999: 20,451

$75,000 to $99,999: 9,282

$100,000 to $149,999: 6,301

$150,000 to $199,999: 2,025

$200,000 or more: 2,666

Percent of families below poverty level: 18.2% (37.6% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 29,205

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Cincinnati

Cincinnati (sĬnsənăt´ē, –năt´ə), city (1990 pop. 364,040), seat of Hamilton co., extreme SW Ohio, on the Ohio River opposite Newport and Covington, Ky.; inc. as a city 1819. The third largest city in the state, Cincinnati is the industrial, commercial, and cultural center for an extensive area including numerous suburbs in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana. It is also a port with a large riverfront and good transportation facilities. Machinery; consumer goods; transportation, electric, and electronic equipment; musical instruments; metal goods; and packaged meats are among its manufactures; banking and finance also are important.

Cincinnati was founded in 1788 as Losantiville; in 1790 Arthur St. Clair, the first governor of the Northwest Territory, renamed it for the Society of Cincinnati, a group of Revolutionary War officers. It was the first seat of the legislature of the Northwest Territory. After the opening of the Ohio and Erie Canal (c.1832), the city developed as a shipper of farm products and meat. Built on and below "seven hills," it became known for its German-influenced cultural life. Corruption, crime, and unrest plagued late-19th-century Cincinnati; a reform movement culminated in the establishment (1924) of the city-manager type of government (notable managers were Clarence A. Dykstra and Clarence O. Sherrill). Disastrous flooding struck the city in 1884 and again in 1937, after which major flood-control projects were undertaken. In the 21st cent. the city's downtown and riverfront has undergone a revitalization, with the construction of new business and residential buildings and park facilities.

William Howard Taft and his son Robert A. Taft were born here. Cincinnati's landmarks include the Taft Museum; Eden Park, with the Cincinnati Art Museum; the Cincinnati Museum Center in the former Union Terminal; and the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art. The Univ. of Cincinnati, Edgecliff College, Xavier Univ., and several other educational institutions are in Cincinnati. The city is home to the Cincinnati Reds, the nation's oldest professional baseball team, and the Bengals football team.

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Cincinnati: Convention Facilities

Cincinnati: Convention Facilities

The Dr. Albert B. Sabin Cincinnati Convention Center is conveniently situated downtown and connected via the 20-block Skywalk system with shops and stores, restaurants, entertainment and cultural activities, and hotels. The architecturally interesting entrance to the post-modern style Convention Center features the preserved facade of the historic Albee Theatre, which once stood near Fountain Square and was demolished several years ago. The center is undergoing a $160 million renovation and expansion, scheduled for completion in 2006.

The complex consists of three levels: the exhibit level contains three halls with 162,000 square feet of combined space that will accommodate up to 15,000 meeting participants; on the second level 41 separate rooms provide banquet and meeting capacities ranging from 30 to 2,300 people; the third level is comprised of three ballrooms that combine to offer 30,000 square feet of space. Convention center amenities include a banquet kitchen, teleconferencing facilities, handicapped access, and adjacent parking for 5,000 vehicles. When expanded in 2006, the 750,000 square foot center will feature nearly 200,000 square feet of exhibition space, and $4.5 million in technology upgrades.

Meeting and convention accommodations can also be found at several luxury hotels clustered downtown near the Convention Center and at other hotels and motels throughout the Greater Cincinnati area. More than 22,500 lodging rooms are available citywide.

Convention Information: Greater Cincinnati Convention and Visitors Bureau, 300 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202; telephone (513)621-2142

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Cincinnati: Transportation

Cincinnati: Transportation

Approaching the City

Nearly 1,200 flights depart and arrive and depart daily at Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport. Located only 15 minutes from downtown Cincinnati, it is one of the fastest growing airports in the world. It is the second largest hub for Delta Air Lines. The airport offers non-stop air service from the region to 130 cities, including international service to Frankfurt, London, Paris, Rome, Amsterdam, Montreal and Toronto.

Metropolitan Cincinnati is linked to other areas via I-75, a major north/south route running between the Canadian border through Florida; I-71, running between Louisville and northeast Ohio; and I-74, the area's principal link from the west. I-70, a major transcontinental route, runs east/west approximately 55 miles north of the city. Other highways providing access to downtown and the metropolitan region are: Interstates 275, which circles the metropolitan area, and 471, which runs in to downtown; U.S. 50 and 52; and several state and county routes.

Passenger rail service into renovated Union Terminal is available by Amtrak. Bus transportation is provided by Greyhound.

Traveling in the City

Downtown streets are in a grid pattern, making travel within the city relatively easy. Streets running east/west are numbered, beginning with 2nd Street near the Ohio River. The public transit bus system is operated by Metro, which schedules regular routes in the city and the suburbs.

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Cincinnati

Cincinnati

Cincinnati: Introduction
Cincinnati: Geography and Climate
Cincinnati: History
Cincinnati: Population Profile
Cincinnati: Municipal Government
Cincinnati: Economy
Cincinnati: Education and Research
Cincinnati: Health Care
Cincinnati: Recreation
Cincinnati: Convention Facilities
Cincinnati: Transportation
Cincinnati: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1789 (incorporated 1819)

Head Official: Mayor Charlie Luken (since 1999)

City Population

1980: 385,457

1990: 364,040

2000: 331,285

2003 estimate: 317,361

Percent change, 19902000: -9.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 32nd

U.S. rank in 1990: 45th

U.S. rank in 2000: 63rd

Metropolitan Area Population (PMSA)

1980: 1,660,000

1990: 1,525,090

2000: 1,646,395

Percent change, 19902000: 8.9%

U.S. rank in 1980: 20th

U.S. rank in 1998: 23rd

U.S. rank in 2000: 23rd

Area: 78 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 869 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 53.3° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 40.14 inches (23.9 inches of snow)

Major Economic Sectors: Services, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, government

Unemployment Rate: 6.2% (February 2005)

Per Capita Income: $19,962 (1999)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 29,205

Major Colleges and Universities: University of Cincinnati, Xavier University

Daily Newspapers: The Cincinnati Enquirer, The Cincinnati Post

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Cincinnati: Health Care

Cincinnati: Health Care

The Cincinnati medical community, a regional health care center, has gained prominence for education, treatment, and research. The University of Cincinnati maintains the oldest teaching hospital/medical center in the country and is the place where Albert Sabin developed the first polio vaccine and Leon Goldman performed the first laser surgery for the removal of cataracts. In 1994, University Hospital joined with The Christ Hospital to form the Health Alliance, which consists of six hospitalsUniversity Hospital; Christ Hospital; Jewish Hospital, where Henry Heimlich, when he was chief of surgery there, developed his famous maneuver; Fort Hamilton Hospital; and St. Luke Hospitals East and Westin Cincinnati and northern Kentucky. Children's Hospital Medical Center, one of the nation's largest and most respected pediatric hospitals, also operates the largest pediatric residency program and developed the first heart-lung machine.

More than 30 hospitals serve the Cincinnati area. Among the general care and specialized facilities are the Shriners Burns Institute, St. Elizabeth Medical Center, Good Samaritan, Bethesda, Deaconess, Providence, and St. Francis-St. George hospitals.

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Cincinnati: Geography and Climate

Cincinnati: Geography and Climate

Cincinnati is set on the north bank of the Ohio River in a narrow, steep-sided valley on the Ohio-Kentucky border in southwestern Ohio. The city is spread out on hills that afford beautiful vistas of downtown and give the city a picturesque landscape. The area's continental climate produces a wide range of temperatures from winter to summer. Winters are moderately cold with frequent periods of extensive cloudiness; summers are warm and humid with temperatures reaching 90 degrees about 19 days each year.

Area: 78 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 869 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: January, 28.9° F; July, 75.3° F; annual average, 53.3° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 40.14 inches (23.9 inches of snow)

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Cincinnati: Introduction

Cincinnati: Introduction

Cincinnati, the seat of Hamilton County, is Ohio's third largest city and the center of a metropolitan statistical area comprised of Clermont, Hamilton, and Warren counties in Ohio, Kenton County in Kentucky, and Dearborn County in Indiana. Praised by Charles Dickens and Winston Churchill among others, Cincinnati is noted for its attractive hillside setting overlooking the Ohio River. The city enjoys a rich cultural history, particularly in choral and orchestral music, dating from German settlement in the nineteenth century. Once the nation's pork capital and the country's largest city, Cincinnati today is home to several leading national corporations.

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Cincinnati: Municipal Government

Cincinnati: Municipal Government

Since 1926, the top vote-getter of city council had automatically become mayor, but as of 2001, the mayor is elected independently. A city manager is appointed by the mayor and the city's nine-member council. Council members are elected to two-year terms; the city manager serves for an indefinite period.

Head Official: Mayor Charlie Luken (since 1999; current term expires 2005)

Total Number of City Employees: 7,223 (2004)

City Information: City Hall, 801 Plum Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202; telephone (513)591-6000

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Cincinnati

Cincinnati City on the Ohio River, sw Ohio, USA. Originally named Losantiville, it grew around Fort Washington (established 1789). The completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1832 made the city a shipping centre for farm produce. In order to compete with Chicago and St Louis, Cincinnati built its own railway (1880). The city has a university (1819) and other colleges. Industries: machine tools, soap products, brewing, meat packing, aircraft engines. Pop. (2000) 331,285.

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Cincinnati

Cincinnatibatty, bratty, catty, chatty, Cincinnati, Dolcelatte, fatty, flattie, Hattie, natty, patty, ratty, Satie, Scarlatti, scatty, Tati, tattie, tatty •faculty •Alicante, andante, ante, anti, Ashanti, Bramante, Chianti, Dante, dilettante, Fante, Ferranti, infante, scanty, shanty (US chanty), spumante, vigilante, Zante •Asti, pasty •pederasty •Amati, arty, Astarte, castrati, chapatti, clarty, coati, ex parte, Frascati, glitterati, Gujarati, hearty, illuminati, karate, Kiribati, lathi, literati, Marathi, obbligati (US obligati), party, tarty •crafty, draughty (US drafty) •auntie • nasty • contrasty •amaretti, amoretti, Betti, Betty, confetti, cornetti, Donizetti, Getty, Giacometti, Hettie, jetty, machete, Marinetti, Nettie, petit, petty, Rossetti, Serengeti, spaghetti, sweaty, vaporetti, yeti •hefty, lefty •felty, sheltie •penalty • specialty • empty •al dente, aplenty, cognoscenti, divertimenti, lisente, plenty, portamenti, sente, twenty, twenty-twenty •seventy • peasanty •chesty, testy, zesty •Ghiberti

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"Cincinnati." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Cincinnati." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-Cincinnati.html

"Cincinnati." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-Cincinnati.html

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