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DHL Worldwide Express

DHL Worldwide Express

333 Twin Dolphin Dr.
Redwood City, California 94065
U.S.A.
(415) 593-7474
(800) CALL-DHL (225-5345)
Fax: (415) 593-1689
Web site: http://www.dhl.com
Private Company
Incorporated:
1969
Employees: 50,000
Sales: $4 billion (1996 est.)
SICs: 4513 Air Courier Services

DHL Worldwide Express, a privately held worldwide delivery service comprised of DHL Airways and DHL International, is the worlds oldest and largest international air-express company. Since 1969 when it began as an air-courier service from California to Hawaii, the firm has grown phenomenally and dominates the global express marketplace, delivering to over 70,000 destinations in 227 countries. DHL delivers both small and heavyweight parcels to destinations from the Middle East and Pacific Rim countries to throughout Europe and the United States. DHLs ever-expanding international presence prompted such stateside competitors as Federal Express and United Parcel Service, as well as the United States Postal Service, to join the fray of global express delivery.

Three Men and a Purpose, 1969-79

DHL was founded by three young shipping executivesAdrian Dalsey, Larry Hillblom, and Robert Lynnwho were casting about for a way to increase turnaround speed for ships at ports. They reasoned that if the shipping documents could be flown from port to port, they could be examined and processed before the ships arrived, and speeding up the process would decrease port costs for shippers. With this in mind, the trio combined the first letters of their last names to form the acronym DHL, thus beginning an air-courier company that revolutionized the delivery industry.

DHL rapidly developed into an express delivery service between California and Hawaii, then quickly expanded to points east. The companys primary customer was the Bank of America, which needed a single company to carry its letters of credit and other documents. DHL branched into the international market in the early 1970s when it began flying routes to the Far East. In addition, while competitor Federal Express was developing its domestic overnight delivery network, DHL focused on further developing its international service.

In 1972, the three original investors recruited Po Chung, a Hong Kong entrepreneur, to help them build a global network. Chung started DHLs sister company, DHL International Ltd., headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. Since that date DHL Worldwide has functioned as two separate companies, DHL Airways, Inc. based in Redwood City, California, and DHL International. While each company acted as the exclusive agent for the other, by 1983 DHL International had grown to be five times larger than its domestic counterpart. DHL Internationals rapid expansion continued throughout the 1970s, adding destinations in Europe in 1974, the Middle East in 1976, Latin America in 1977, and Africa in 1978.

FedEx and UPS Up the Ante, 1980-88

The 1980s would bring the firm increased growth as well as greater competition. During this time DHL continued to expand, by turns cooperating with competitors and warring with them. The company also sought new outlets for service, working out an arrangement with Hilton International Co. in 1980, agreeing to provide daily pickup of documents at 49 Hilton Hotels, arranging for international deliveryits couriers moving the packages through customsthen delivering them locally. It was a win-win situation as Hilton was able to offer its patrons a high-class delivery service and DHL was guaranteed new outlets for its business. The next year, 1981, DHL flew 10 million shipments between 268 cities and had approximately $100 million in sales. The following year, Lawrence Roberts, who had founded Telenet Communications Corp. and headed GTE, joined DHL Corp. as president.

Although DHL had a strong international presence, business was occasionally made difficult because it was necessary for the company to negotiate with foreign governments. In 1982, for example, the French post office sought to reassert a monopoly dating back to the 15th century, and DHLpossessing 80 percent of the French marketwas ordered to halt operations outside Paris. What could have been a potential crisis for the company was, however, favorably resolved.

DHL continued to expand its horizons, though, adding Eastern bloc nations in 1983. Prior to 1983, DHL had not pursued much business in the United States, leaving the field to Federal Express and United Parcel Service (UPS). Despite counting 97 percent of the nations 500 largest companies among its customers, DHL still held only a minuscule share of the overall domestic market. To bolster its share of the American market, DHL installed two major hubs at airports in Cincinnati and Salt Lake City, and added nine mini-hubs in major cities across the country. The company also bought three Boeing 727s and seven Learjets, as well as new sorting equipment. In addition, in 1983 DHL Worldwide started using helicopters in New York and Houston to expedite documents during rush hour and the following year initiated helicopter service in Los Angeles as well.

Once the hubs had been installed, DHL Airways began offering point-to-point overnight service between 126 American cities. Still, for the year ending in 1983, DHL reached only two or three percent of the domestic marketyet had more than 5,000 employees with 400 offices in over 90 countries. As in its earliest days, banks accounted for a large portion of its business; other common shipments consisted of computer tapes, spare parts, and shipping papers. That year, DHL estimated it carried 80 percent of the bank material traveling by courier from Europe to the U.S. and revenues were approximated at $600 million. In 1984, as former courier-driver Joseph Waechter became president of DHL Airways, DHL provided service to more than 125 countries, and its 500 stations were handling 15 million international and domestic shipments annually.

But just as DHL was looking to cut into the business of its domestic competitors, those same companies were aiming to siphon off portions of DHLs international business. In 1985 both Federal Express and UPS entered the international express market. As competition became more intense, DHL increasingly began to cooperate with businesses in similar areas. The company teamed up with Western Union to deliver documents generated on Western Unions EasyLink electronic mails, allowing people to send documents via courier without having to hand-deliver material to the couriers office. The next year, 1986, as DHL International formed its first joint venture with the Peoples Republic of China, known as DHL Sinotrans, Charles A. Lynch was named chairman and chief executive of DHL Airways, replacing Roberts. Lynch remained with the company just two years and was replaced by Patrick Foley, the former chairman of Hyatt Hotels. Meanwhile, FedEx and UPS were eroding DHLs market share, which fell from 54 percent in 1985 to 50 percent in 1987. However, an important competitive battleground existed in Japan, and while FedEx and UPS gained footholds in that country in the 1980s, by 1988 DHL still controlled 80 percent of the Japanese overseas market.

As the world economy boomed in the 1980s, DHL followed suit, even breaking new ground in the Communist-bloc countries. The company had first cracked the eastern bloc in 1983, when it began delivering packages to Hungary, East Germany, and several other countries. DHL Airways was not slouching either, reporting that between 1986 and 1987 alone, its volume rose 34 percent; in 1987 it was the 318th largest private company in the United States, with 5,000 employees and estimated sales of $375 million. Revenues for the entire DHL network, in 1988, were calculated to be between $1.2 and $1.5 billion, helped in part by another joint venture with a Hungarian company to create DHL Budapest Ltd. That year, DHL controlled 91 percent of the packages bound for Eastern Europe from the West and 98 percent of all outbound shipments.

Holding and Increasing Market Share, 1989-93

In 1989, DHL Worldwide was the 84th largest company in the United States with 18,000 employees, more than 50 million shipments, and service to 184 countries. However, though DHLs international success was becoming firmly established, the company was not making the headway it had planned in the United States. As of 1989, DHL had only five percent of the domestic market. To bolster its name recognition in the United States, the company turned to innovative advertising techniques, including the use of humor. Cartoonist Gary Larson, creator of the wildly popular comic The Far Side, was employed to draw cartoons for use in DHL advertising, and in 1990 the company introduced a campaign featuring flying DHL vans whizzing past competitors planes. DHL also took an unusual approach to air delivery. Although the company used its own fleet of planes within Europe and on some major routes, DHL often used scheduled airlines to carry its shipments. Federal Express, in contrast, maintained its own fleet and seldom used other airlines. Rather than purchase its own planes, DHL chose instead to invest its capital in technology and ground-handling equipment, spending some $250 million on those areas in 1990 and 1991 alone.

In 1990, in order to infuse the company with fresh capital and take advantage of the resources of larger airlines, DHL International sold parts of its business to three companies. Japan Air Lines and the German airline Lufthansa each purchased five percent, while Nissho Iwai, a Japanese trading company, purchased 2.5 percent. Each firm also had the option of buying greater shares. In addition, the three companies also own a combined stake of 2.5 percent in the U.S-based DHL Airways. The sale of these closely held interests brought $500 million in capital into the firm. The same year, despite a 60 percent share of the international overnight delivery market, the company began to expand into new areas of business. To keep up in an increasingly competitive industry, DHL Worldwide entered the freight services industry and began carrying heavier cargo. In the companys 20-year history of carrying small packagesgenerally under 70 poundsthis was DHLs first major departure from its core business. In 1991, DHL Worldwide had revenues of $2.3 billion, and was the 59th largest private company in the U.S., its 21,000 employees handling more than 80 million shipments.

In June 1992, all three of DHLs major shareholders exercised their option to increase their shares in DHL International; Japan Air Lines and Lufthansa each increased their stake to 25 percent, while Nissho Iwais holdings grew to 7.5 percent. This was also the year DHL began service to Albania, Estonia, Latvia, and Greenland, and reestablished ties with Kuwait. In addition, in an unusual move DHL signed an agreement to share transatlantic and European aircraft operations with one of its competitors, Emery Worldwide. The economic recession and an overcrowded North Atlantic airway were cited as the reasons behind these cooperative measures, which would allow greater operating efficiency and expanded service. The arrangement represented the first of several alliances between integrated carriers, due to increasing pressure from other competitors, including Airborne Express and TNT. In 1993 as revenues hit $3 billion, DHL commenced a four-year $1.25 billion capital spending program to step up its technological capabilities, automation, and communications.

Towards a New Century, 1994 Onward

By 1994, DHL Worldwides 25-year anniversary, the company controlled 52 percent of the Asian express shipment marketplace, with FedEx and UPS garnering a 24 percent slice each. The next year, DHL poured over $700 million into expansion of its Pacific Rim operations. DHL was not only shoring up facilities in Hong Kong and Australia, but venturing into 16 new cities in China, India, and Vietnam. A new $60 million hub at Manilas Ninoy Aquino International Airport was scheduled to open in late 1995, with additional facilities slated for Bangkok, Tokyo, Auckland, and Sydney. In the midst of its ambitious expansion, DHL was rocked by the news of founder and majority shareholder Larry Lee Hillbloms death. Known as an avid though reckless pilot (he had survived a previous crash and had his pilots license suspended), Hillblom, who had withdrawn from DHLs daily operations in 1980, was killed in a seaplane accident near Saipan where he lived.

The management at DHL was soon embroiled in an ugly controversy after Hillbloms 1982 will was released, as a spate of paternity claims and lawsuits were filed. Lurid details of Hillbloms penchant for young island girls reached the press, including an in-depth exposé in the generally staid Wall Street Journal. Since Hillblom had retained a mighty 60 percent of DHL Airways and 23 percent of DHL International (valued conservatively at the time at around $300 million), the companys officers scrambled to exercise an option to repurchase his shares. Yet financing and a host of complications held up the buyback and soon the entire estate was a miasma of lawsuits, bad judgement calls, and island politics.

Yet 1995 was still a good year for DHL Worldwide, as the company debuted its web site (www.dhl.com) and experienced an overall 23 percent growth in revenue to $3.8 billion, with an incredible 40 percent surge in volume in its Middle East operations. In response to the encouraging numbers, DHL broke ground on a new $4 million state-of-the-art express facility at the Dubai International Airport in the United Arab Emirates in 1996. The new 42,000-square-foot hub was to complement DHLs existing facilities in Bahrain. Over on the Asian continent, DHL broke with its longstanding tradition of leasing planes to buy its own cargo fleet. Though DHL Internationals previous strategy of leasing out cargo space had proved both successful and prudent, Chairman and CEO Foley told the San Francisco Business Times the company needed to control its own destiny, and having its own fleet would help alleviate the space limitations and scheduling snafus of commercial flights.

In 1996, DHL was looking to the future again by announcing plans for a $100 million hub in the Midwest to carry the company through the next two decades. While its Cincinnati superhub handled around 45 incoming flights every night, and sorted over 135,000 pieces at a rate of 60,000 per hourDHL believed its growth would soon outpace the facility. The same was true for the San Francisco area, where Silicon Valley shipments represented 40 percent of DHL Airways business in the Bay Area. Internationally, DHL was still growing at the speed of sound with expansion in the former Soviet Union to 37 branches, a new facility at Ferihegy Airport in Budapest, and the acquisition of Shigur Express in Israel. Though DHL had worked with Shigur for years, the $3.5 million purchase gave DHL a firmer presence in the countrys emerging market. By 1998, DHL served 227 countries with 2,381 stations in cities from Paris and Prague to Bombay and Bangkok with over 53,200 employees. Stateside, however, DHL Airways still represented less than two percent of the market, though the California-based company got a boost from the Teamsters strike against UPS.

As the 1990s came to a close, DHL International announced its intention to sell a 22.5 percent stake in the company to Deutsche Post AG, for an infusion of funds and to strengthen its presence in Germany. With the air cargo industry projected to grow at an annual rate of 6.7 percent for the next dozen or so years, DHL International continued to stave off competitors and dominated global express shipments with over 40 percent of the market. Its U.S.-based sibling, DHL Airways, maintained a healthy bottom line and was positioned to carve away at the market share of FedEx and UPS.

Principal Subsidiaries

DHL International Ltd.; DHL Airways, Inc.

Further Reading

Air-Express Firms Battle for Turf in Japan, Wall Street Journal, December 27, 1988.

The Battle of Zaventem, Forbes, April 29, 1991.

Blackmon, Douglas A., Transportation: Federal Express, UPS Battle for a Foothold in Asia, Wall Street Journal, January 22, 1997, p. Bl.

Bole, Kristin, DHL Gets Its Wings: Plans to Buy Own Jets in Asia Marks Change in Strategy, San Francisco Business Times, May 10, 1996, p. 1.

Brady, Diane, Delivery Giants Race to Set Up Hubs for Overnight Service to Asian Cities, Wall Street Journal, August 7, 1997, p. B6.

Clal Trading Sells Shigur Express to DHL, Israel Business Today, February 28, 1997, p. 15.

DHL Expands Its Domestic Operations, H&SM, July 1983.

DHL International Stake to Be Bought by Three Concerns, Wall Street Journal, May 30, 1990.

DHL International Will Sell 22.5% Stake to Deutsche Post AG, Wall Street Journal, March 27, 1998.

DHL Ties Up East Europe Package, Advertising Age, August 29, 1988.

DHL Worldwide Express Network Statistics, DHL Network, http://www.dhl.com/info/glopres.htm.

An International Courier Takes on Federal Express, Business Week, May 9, 1983.

Larsons Humor Flies for DHL, Industry Week, April 3, 1989.

Nelms, Douglas W., Holding Its Own: A Massive Global Expansion Is Keeping DHL Well Ahead of Growing U.S. Competition, Air Transport World, June 1996, p. 151.

Ott, James, Heavy-Weight Expansion Propels DHL Hub Growth, Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 4, 1997, p. 37.

Schwartz, Judith D., DHL Puts Its Foot to the Floor As FedEx and UPS Pick Up Speed, Adweeks Marketing Week, January 1, 1990.

Solomon, Mark, DHL, Japan Air and Lufthansa Seek to Reshape Express Sector, Traffic World, May 21, 1990.

Tausz, Andrew, DHL Is Delivering on Courier Challenges, Distribution, September 1997, p. 22.

Waldman, Peter, Heir Freight: How the Strange Life of a DHL Founder Left His Estate a Mess, Wall Street Journal, May 15, 1996, p. Al.

We Go Anywhere, Financial World, January 25, 1984.

Daniel Gross
updated by Taryn Benbow-Pfalzgraf

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DHL Worldwide Express

DHL Worldwide Express

333 Twin Dolphin Dr.
Redwood City, CA 94065
U.S.A.
(415) 593-7474
Fax: (415) 593-1689

Private Company
Incorporated: 1969 as DHL Worldwide Express
Employees: 20,000
Sales: $2.3 billion

DHL Worldwide Express, a privately held worldwide delivery service, is the worlds oldest and largest international air-express company. Since 1969, when it began as an air-courier service from California to Hawaii, the firm has grown to cover almost every country in the world and has inspired many other such companies to enter this profitable industry.

DHL was founded by three young shipping executives Adrian Dalsey, Larry Hillblom, and Robert Lynnwho were casting about for a way to increase turnaround speed for ships at ports. They reasoned that if the shipping documents could be flown from port to port, they could be examined and processed before the ships arrived, and speeding up the process would decrease port costs for shippers. With this in mind, the trio combined the first letters of their last names to form the acronym DHL, thus beginning an air-courier company that would revolutionize the delivery industry.

DHL rapidly developed into an express delivery service between California and Hawaii, then quickly expanded to points east. The companys primary customer was the Bank of America, which needed a single company to carry its letters of credit and other documents. DHL branched into the international market in the early 1970s when it began flying routes to the Far East. And while competitor Federal Express was developing its domestic overnight delivery network, DHL focused on further developing its international service.

In 1972, the three original investors recruited Po Chung, a Hong Kong entrepreneur, to help them build a global network. Chung started DHLs sister company, DHL International Ltd., headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. Since that date DHL Worldwide has functioned as two separate companies, DHL Corp.the national branch based in Redwood City, California, of which DHL Airways is the main subsidiaryand DHL International. While each company acted as the exclusive agent for the other, by 1983 DHL International had grown to be five times larger than its domestic counterpart. DHLs rapid expansion continued throughout the 1970s, especially in the Far East. In 1979 DHL Worldwide cracked the growing Japanese market and, for a few years, had the market to itself.

The 1980s would bring the firm increased growth as well as greater competition. During this time DHL would continue to expand, by turns cooperating with competitors and warring with them. The company also sought new outlets for service, thus DHL worked out an arrangement with Hilton International Co. in 1980, agreeing to provide daily pickup of documents at 49 Hilton Hotels, arranging for international deliveryits couriers moving the packages through customsthen delivering them locally. Therefore, Hilton was able to offer its patrons a high-class delivery service, and DHL was guaranteed new outlets for its business. In 1981 DHL flew 10 million shipments between 268 cities. That year DHL Corp., alone, had approximately $100 million in sales. The following year, Lawrence Roberts, who had founded Telenet Communications Corp. and headed GTE, joined DHL Corp. as president.

Though DHL had a strong international presence, business was occasionally made difficult because it was necessary for the company to negotiate with foreign governments. In 1982, for example, the French post office sought to reassert a monopoly dating back to the 15th-century, and DHLpossessing 80 percent of the French marketwas ordered to halt operations outside Paris. What could have been a potential crisis for the company was, however, favorably resolved.

Prior to 1983, DHL had simply not tried to develop much business in the United States, leaving the field to Federal Express and United Parcel Service. Therefore, by that year, although DHL counted 97 percent of the nations 500 largest companies among its customers, it still held only a minuscule share of the overall domestic market. At that point, the company began to focus more on bolstering its share of the American market.

In an effort to achieve this goal, DHL installed two major hubs at airports in Cincinnati and Salt Lake City, and added nine mini-hubs in major cities across the country. The company also bought three Boeing 727s and seven Learjets, as well as new sorting equipment. In 1983, DHL Worldwide started using helicopters in New York and Houston to expedite documents during rush hour. The following year, helicopter service was introduced in Los Angeles as well.

Once the hubs had been installed, DHL Airways began offering point-to-point overnight service between 126 American cities. Still, in 1983, DHL reached only two or three percent of the domestic market. The firms international business continued to expand, however, and DHL Airways was in large part responsible for much of that growth. In 1984 Joseph Waechter, who had joined the firm as a courier-driver, became president of DHL Airways.

In 1983 DHL had more than 5,000 employees with 400 offices in over 90 countries. As in its earliest days, banks accounted for a large portion of its business. Other common shipments consisted of computer tapes, spare parts, and shipping papers. That year, DHL estimated it carried 80 percent of the bank material traveling by courier from Europe to the United States and revenues were approximated at $600 million. In 1984, DHL provided service to more than 125 countries, and its 500 stations were handling 15 million international and domestic shipments annually.

But just as DHL was looking to cut into the business of its domestic competitors, those same companies were aiming to siphon off portions of DHLs international business. In 1985 both Federal Express and United Parcel Service entered the international express market. In the next two years, these companies began to erode DHLs market share, which fell from 54 percent in 1985 to 50 percent in 1987. However, an important competitive battleground existed in Japan, and while Federal Express and UPS gained footholds in that country in the 1980s, by 1988 DHL still controlled 80 percent of the Japanese overseas market.

As competition with Fed Ex and UPS became more intense, DHL increasingly began to cooperate with businesses in similar areas. In 1985 the company teamed up with Western Union to deliver documents generated on Western Unions EasyLink electronic mails. This allowed people to send documents via courier without having to hand-deliver material to the couriers office.

In 1986 Charles A. Lynch was named chairman and chief executive of DHL Corp., replacing Roberts. He remained with the company just two years and was replaced by Patrick Foley, the former chairman of Hyatt Hotels.

As the world economy boomed in the 1980s, DHL experienced great growth. DHL Airways, for example, reported that between 1986 and 1987 alone, its volume rose 34 percent. In 1987 DHL Airways was the 318th largest private company in the United States, with 5,000 employees and estimated sales of $375 million. Revenues for the entire DHL network, in 1988, were calculated to be between $1.2 and $1.5 billion.

DHL continued to break new ground in the 1980s, especially in the Communist-bloc countries. The company first cracked the eastern bloc in 1983, when it began delivering packages to Hungary, East Germany, and several other countries. In addition, in 1987 DHL International signed an agreement with the China Foreign Transportation Corporation, establishing a joint venture. The company, known as DHL Sinotrans, was the first air express joint venture formed in the Peoples Republic of China. Then, in 1988, DHL Britain signed an agreement with an Hungarian company to create DHL Budapest Ltd. That year, DHL controlled 91 percent of the packages bound for Eastern Europe from the West and 98 percent of all outbound shipments.

In 1989, DHL Worldwide was the 84th largest company in the United States. The company had 18,000 employees, carried more than 50 million shipments, and served 184 countries. However, though DHLs international success was becoming firmly established, the company was not making the headway it had planned in the United States. As of 1989, DHL had only five percent of the domestic market. To bolster its name recognition in the United States, the company turned to innovative advertising techniques, including the use of humor. Cartoonist Gary Larson, creator of the wildly popular comic The Far Side, was employed to draw cartoons for use in DHL advertising, and in 1990 the company introduced a campaign that featured flying DHL vans whizzing past planes belonging to their competition.

DHL also took an unusual approach to air delivery. Although the company uses its own fleet of planes within Europe and on some major routes, DHL often uses scheduled airlines to carry its shipments. Federal Express, in contrast, has a large fleet of its own and seldom uses other airlines. Rather than purchase its own planes, DHL chose, instead, to invest its capital in technology and ground handling equipment, spending some $250 million on those areas in 1990 and 1991 alone.

In 1990, in order to infuse the company with fresh capital and take advantage of the resources of larger airlines, DHL International sold parts of its business to three companies. Japan Air Lines and Lufthansa, a German airline, each purchased 5 percent, while Nissho Iwai, a Japanese trading company, purchased 2.5 percent. Each firm also had the option of buying greater shares. In addition, the three companies between them acquired a 2.5 percent stake in DHL Corp. The sale of these closely-held interests brought $500 million in capital into the firm. In June 1992, all three companies exercised their option to increase their shareholding in DHL International. Japan Air Lines and Lufthansa each increased their stake to 25 percent, and Nissho Iwai increased its holding to 7.5 percent.

Although DHL had a 60 percent share of the international overnight delivery market in 1990, the company began to expand into new areas of business in order to keep up in an increasingly competitive industry. In 1990 DHL Worldwide entered the freight services industry and began carrying heavier cargo. In the companys 20-year history of carrying small packagesgenerally under 70 poundsthis was DHLs first major departure from its core business. In 1991, DHL Worldwide had revenues of $2.3 billion, and was the 59th largest private company in the United States. That year, its 21,000 employees handled more than 80 million shipments.

In another innovative move, DHL signed an agreement in 1992 to share transatlantic and European aircraft operations with one of its competitors, Emery Worldwide. The economic recession and an over-crowded North Atlantic airway were cited as the reasons behind these cooperative measures, which would allow greater operating efficiency and expanded service. This arrangement represented the first joint venture between integrated carriers in that region.

DHL Worldwide Express continues to dominate the international overnight delivery market, claiming a truly global reach in its ability to link more than 80,000 cities in 207 countries with one- or two-day service. DHL looks toward the 21st century, hoping to further extend its business into such areas as the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, while aiming to increase the quality of its service.

Principal Subsidiaries

DHL. Corp.; DHL International; DHL Airways.

Further Reading

An International Courier Takes on Federal Express, Business Week, May 9, 1983; DHL Expands its Domestic Operations, H&SM, July 1983; We Go Anywhere, Financial World, January 25, 1984; DHL Ties Up East Europe Package, Advertising Age, August 29, 1988; Air-Express Firms Battle for Turf in Japan, Wall Street Journal, December 27, 1988; Larsons Humor Flies for DHL, Industry Week, April 3, 1989; Schwartz, Judith D., DHL Puts Its Foot to the Floor as FedEx and UPS Pick Up Speed, Adweeks Marketing Week, January 1, 1990; Solomon, Mark, DHL, Japan Air and Lufthansa Seek to Reshape Express Sector, Traffic World, May 21, 1990; DHL International Stake to be Bought by Three Concerns, Wall Street Journal, May 30, 1990; The Battle of Zaventem, Forbes, April 29, 1991.

Daniel Gross

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
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"DHL Worldwide Express." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"DHL Worldwide Express." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/dhl-worldwide-express

"DHL Worldwide Express." International Directory of Company Histories. . Retrieved October 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/dhl-worldwide-express