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Christmas

CHRISTMAS

CHRISTMAS. The word "Christmas" means the mass of Christ and is the name for the Christian observance of the nativity of Jesus on 25 December. In liturgical importance, Christmas was originally in fourth place, following Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany, yet in terms of popular observance it has become the most important feast day of the year and the basis for a vast commercial retail industry derived from it, even in countries like Japan and Korea, where Christianity is not the predominant religion.

The early Christians were not initially concerned with the Nativity of Christ, and even in the fourth century C.E. it was not a universally fixed observance among Christians. The choice of 25 December is considered arbitrary and not based on evidence provided in the New Testament, the Christian text dealing with the life of Christ. Many theories have been put forward for the choice of the 25 December as Christ's Nativity, but that it fell during Roman Saturnalia is now largely dismissed. It appears to have been fixed in relation to Epiphany (6 January), counting backward twelve days (now the twelve days of Christmas) or thirteen nights by the lunar calendar. It also falls three days after the winter solstice, a date when a number of pagan gods underwent resurrection after the shortest day of the year. This includes Sol Invictus of the Roman state religion during pagan times, a cult associated with the deification of the emperor. Whatever the explanation, it is evident that the early Christian Fathers, in their struggle for political and psychological supremacy, turned the interpretatio romana (the process of romanizing foreign gods) on its ear by expropriating a number of pagan symbols and observances and providing them with new Christian meanings. For this reason, Christmas and especially the foods associated with it represent a fusion of diverse pagan strands varying widely in emphasis from one country to the next. The celebration of Yule in Scandinavia has become one of the most distinctive aspects of the holiday as observed in northern Europe. The tradition of St. Nicholas of Myra in the Netherlands and the Franciscan cult of the Bambino Gesu in Italy are examples of the many forms these fusions have taken. All are expressed symbolically in food.

The mass and the various mystery plays dealing with the Nativity and the ales, or community-wide feasts, were the core of the old observance. The mass was often preceded by abstinence, a period called the vigil, that was then broken at midnight with a large meal in which the entire village or community participated. Such midnight feasting was practiced in many predominantly Roman Catholic countries, such as Poland and Spain, into the twenty-first century.

Outside of the church but parallel to its liturgies existed the folk customs carried over from pagan beliefs. Thus the ales exhibited a prevalence of mumming (playful imitations of old gods and their stories), antlered beings, pigs (associated with butchering, of course), and other oral traditions given the shape of festive breads and cakes or reflected in the choices of certain foods, such as roast goose, or dishes containing blood, such as blood soups, blood sausages, and black puddings, from which English plum pudding and mincemeats evolved. In the Orthodox tradition of the Eastern Church, which broke with Latin practice, Epiphany remained the official Nativity of Christ, and dishes containing blood are fully absent from the diet, festive or otherwise.

The late Middle Ages retained community feasting, although it became more centered on the manor house, a practice later continued on the plantations of the American South, while in towns it moved into the private homes of wealthy merchants and the nobility. The Protestant Reformation, with its emphasis on individual salvation, broke down the old community-wide feasts in favor of the family and home. This shift brought a widespread erasure of older village and folk customs (in England and northern Germany, for example) and the rise of the commercial Christmas. Gingerbreads, marzipans, and various festive foods hitherto made and sold by monks or by nunneries, moved into the general marketplace and become available to anyone with the financial means to purchase them. Dutch paintings from the seventeenth century often depict domestic feasts that present holiday foods in great abundance. In Protestant areas, the alms formerly associated with Christmas doles for the poor disappeared and did not return until the rise of urban missionaries in the nineteenth century.

The American Christmas, the primary theme of this article, inherited its major characteristics from England during the colonial period. Some religious groups, such as the Puritans of New England and the Quakers of Pennsylvania, abjured the observation of Christmas altogether on the theological basis that the day was fixed artificially by the early Church and therefore was not a real holiday. The Puritans originally created Thanksgiving as a substitute for Christmas. Thanksgiving subsequently became attached to the Christmas holiday, more or less marking the commercial beginning of the Christmas season.

Other American regionalisms gradually emerged into mainstream custom. The Christmas tree, with its huge array of food ornaments, first appeared among the Pennsylvania Dutch in the form of table-top branches of cherry trees (which were forced to bloom) or a large limb from an evergreen shrub, such as mountain laurel or cedar. These table-top trees were set into large flower pots and surrounded with plates of festive food. The shift to small table-top trees is well-documented by the 1790s, and their appearance in store windows is noted in a number of newspapers during the 1820s. Later, in the 1840s, the Christmas tree custom was further reinforced by German immigrants, and it quickly became a symbol of status in Victorian households. While its origins are undoubtedly pagan, the tree was adopted by many churches during the Sunday School movement of the 1840s and 1850s as a means of teaching Christian values to children.

Likewise, during the revival of medieval themes led by the Oxford movement in England, St. Nicholas (called Santa Claus in America), the old gift bringer of the New York Dutch, underwent a complete rejuvenation, especially after his popularization in newspapers and magazines by the immigrant artist Thomas Nast. Thus by the beginning of the twentieth century the American Christmas had acquired a new and much less liturgical focal point, that is, Santa Claus and the exchange of gifts, including a tree under which the family displayed symbols of its economic well-being.

Throughout these evolutionary changes, the basic foods of the American Christmas remained the same, especially the format of the Christmas dinner. The dinner is based on eighteenth-century English models, and at its centerpiece is a roast, normally turkey. This centerpiece is surrounded by side dishes reflecting regional tastes and often ethnic backgrounds. Italian families may add a dish of pasta, although in households adhering to a more traditional Italian fare, the "five" fishes are served. African-American families may feature sweet potatoes and cowpeas, and Mexican-American families may incorporate a salsa and the custom of breaking a piñata, which culminates the festivities on Christmas Eve. The traditional explanation for the piñata custom is that the image symbolizes the devil, and, by breaking it, he is destroyed. The act is thus rewarded by a shower of good things to eat. However, the custom of creating a shower of plenty has numerous parallels with other pre-Christian fertility rites, most of which are associated in some manner with Christmas. The earliest recorded Christmas trees (in seventeenth-century German guildhalls) were left ornamented with food until Second Christmas (December 26) or New Year's Day, when they were shaken violently to shower the food on a mob of happy children. In other parts of Germany and central Europe, apple trees were shaken on Christmas Eve to ensure that the trees would bear a good crop of fruit.

The Christmas Day meal continues to evolve as newer immigrants add their own symbolism to the old theme or as older groups create new variations, as in the case of Kwanzaa of African Americans. Ethnic nuances aside, the basic meal focuses on roast turkey, repeats much the same meal format as Thanksgiving, and finishes with a variety of traditional desserts, including pumpkin pie, mincemeat pie, and fruit cake. It has been said that the unchanging quality of the Christmas dinner has endeared it to Americans, who find a sense of continuity in its year-to-year repetition.

See also Christianity ; Epiphany ; Feasts, Festivals and Fasts ; Kwanzaa ; Thanksgiving.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Restad, Penne L. Christmas in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Shoemaker, Alfred L. Christmas in Pennsylvania. Edited by Don Yoder. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole, 1999.

Weaver, William Woys. The Christmas Cook. New York: HarperPerennial, 1990.

Weber-Kellermann, Ingeborg. Das Weihnachtsfest [The Feast of Christmas]. Lucerne: Bucher, 1978.

William Woys Weaver

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Christmas Drinks

CHRISTMAS DRINKS

CHRISTMAS DRINKS. Christmas is celebrated at the time of the winter solstice, and in the passage from one year to the next. The hopes and fears triggered by these two dates in the world's calendar have shaped the customs that cluster around Christmas itself, while the joy of that festival has cast a glow over the entire season. In the course of centuries, many ingenious ways have been devised to defy the darkness, feast on the bounty of the year's harvest, and perform good-luck rituals, half in jest and half in earnest, to ensure health, happiness, and abundance in the next twelve months. Christmas calls for a tightening of social bonds, and an enlargement of social sympathies. Drink, with its power to raise spirits and relax constraints, plays an important part in the characteristic ceremonies of the holiday.

A touch of extravagance, indeed excess, matches the spirit of the season and marks many traditional Christmas drinks. France and Spain may be content with a fine champagne or the best wine available, but other countries favor more elaborate concoctions. Wassail and punch in Britain, heated mulled wine in cold northern countries, and their cooling equivalents in the warmer south have one characteristic in common. They are mixed drinks, in which some combination of sugar, spice, and fruit juice has been added to the principal ingredient, whether that be ale, cider, or wine, while in certain cases the whole has been given an extra kick with a shot of brandy or bourbon, rum or gin. Eggnog, the old American favorite, starts life as a blend of eggs and cream, but this blameless nursery food is transformed into nourishment for grownups by a potent blend of sugar, spice, and spirit.

Whatever its components, the Christmas drink has ceremonial and symbolic functions. It is a pledge of goodwill to present company and absent friends. Indeed, the name of the oldest toast in Britain, "Wassail," is derived from the Middle English words for "be well." Sometimes the ritual takes the form of toast and response; sometimes the drink is shared as a loving cup passed from one person to the next so that each can share its contents in a companionable way. In local traditions throughout the Christian world, wine has been blessed at Christmas by the church, and cider has been poured on apple trees to encourage next year's harvest. The permitted breakdown of normal social barriers in this special season is played out in small, symbolic dramas. The master of a household will prepare eggnog with his own hands and offer it to his servants. Strangers may carry a wassail bowl to any door and assume the right of entry and reward.

There is nothing immutable about any Christmas tradition. At the core is always joyful celebration, but the ways in which that sentiment is expressed are infinitely variable, depending from age to age and place to place on ingredients locally at hand, and on the tastes and fashions of the time. Anything may be acceptable, as long as the message stays the same: "Merry Christmas!"

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bickerdyke, John. The Curiosities of Ale and Beer: An Entertaining History (1889). London: Spring Books, 1965.

Chambers, Robert. The Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Activities. London and Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, 1864. See entries on "Punch" and "Wassail."

Edwards, Gillian. Hogmanay and Tiffany: The Names of Feasts and Fasts. London: Geoffrey Bles,1970.

Gayre, G. R. Wassail! In Mazers of Mead: The Intriguing History of the Beverage of Kings. London: Phillimore and Company, 1948.

Irving, Washington. Old Christmas: From the Sketchbook of Washington Irving. London: Macmillan, 1876.

Levy, Paul. The Feast of Christmas. London: Kyle Cathie,1992.

Miles, Clement A. Christmas Customs and Tradition. New York: Dover Publications, 1976. Originally published in 1912.

Nissenbaum, Stephen. The Battle for Christmas. New York: Vintage, 1997.

Pimlott, J. A. R. The Englishman's Christmas: A Social History. Hassocks, Sussex, UK: Harvester Press, 1978.

Bridget Ann Henisch

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Christmas

110. Christmas

  1. Amahl and the Night Visitors lame shepherd boy gives crutch as gift for Christ Child; first opera composed for television (1951). [Am. Opera: EB, VI: 792793]
  2. Befana fairy fills stockings with toys on Twelfth Night. [Ital. Legend: LLEI, I : 323]
  3. carols custom originating in England of singing songs at Christmas. [Christian Tradition: NCE, 552]
  4. Childs Christmas in Wales, A nostalgic remembrance of Welsh Christmases. [Brit. Lit.: A Childs Christmas in Wales ]
  5. Christmas feast of the nativity of Jesus Christ (December 25). [Christian Tradition: NCE, 552]
  6. Christmas tree custom originating in medieval Germany of decorating an evergreen tree at Christmas. [Christian Tradition: NCE, 552]
  7. Christmas, Father legendary bringer of gifts; another name for Santa Claus. [Childrens Lit.: Father Christmas ]
  8. Deck the Halls with Boughs of Holly traditional Christmas carol. [Western Culture: Deck the Halls with Boughs of Holly in Rockwell, 146147]
  9. First Noel, The traditional Christmas carol. [Western Culture: The First Noel in Rockwell, 136137]
  10. Gift of the Magi, The O. Henrys Christmas story of love and self-sacrifice. [Am. Lit.: Rockwell, 7780]
  11. gold, frankincense, and myrrh given to the infant Jesus by the three Wise Men. [N.T.: Matthew 2:111]
  12. Grinch hating the delights of Yuletide, he steals Christmas presents but eventually relents and joins in the merriment. [Childrens Lit.: Seuss How the Grinch Stole Christmas in Weiss, 210]
  13. Hark! the Herald Angels Sing traditional Christmas carol. [Western Culture: Hark! the Herald Angels Sing in Rockwell, 132133]
  14. holly symbol of Christmas. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 174; Kunz, 331
  15. Jingle Bells yuletide song composed by J. S. Pierpont. [Pop. Music: Van Doren, 200]
  16. Joy to the World! traditional Christmas carol. [Western Culture: Joy to the World! in Rockwell, 138]
  17. Kringle, Kris Santa Claus in Germany. [Ger. Folklore: LLEI, I: 277]
  18. Lord of Misrule formerly, person chosen to lead Christmas revels and games. [Br. Folklore: Misc.]
  19. Miracle on 34th Street film featuring benevolent old gentleman named Kris Kringle. [Am. Cinema: Halliwell, 493]
  20. mistletoe traditional yuletide sprig under which kissing is obligatory. [Br. and Am. Folklore: Leach, 731]
  21. Night Before Christmas, The poem celebrating activities of Christmas Eve. [Am. Lit.: The Night Before Christmas ]
  22. O Come, All Ye Faithful traditional Christmas carol. [Western Culture: 0 Come, All Ye Faithful in Rockwell, 142143]
  23. O Little Town of Bethlehem traditional Christmas carol. [Western Culture: 0 Little Town of Bethlehem in Rockwell, 120121]
  24. red and green traditional colors of Christmas. [Christian Tradition: Misc.]
  25. Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer his nose lights Santa on his way. [Am. Music: Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer]
  26. Santa Claus jolly, gift-giving figure who visits children on Christmas Eve. [Christian Tradition: NCE, 1937]
  27. Scrooge, Ebenezer the great miser during season of giving. [Br. Lit.: A Christmas Carol ]
  28. Silent Night traditional Christmas carol. [Western Culture: Silent Night in Rockwell, 130131]
  29. Star of Bethlehem announces birth of the Christ child. [Christianity: N.T.: Matthew 2:2]
  30. yule log log burned at Christmas. [Western Tradition: NCE, 552]
  31. We Three Kings of Orient Are traditional Christmas carol. [Western Culture: We Three Kings of Orient Are in Rockwell, 122123]

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Christmas

CHRISTMAS

CHRISTMAS. The observance of Christmas in early British North America derived from practices familiar in England, where 25 December was celebrated with a good deal of bawdy revelry. Due to this association, as well as the lack of any biblical sanction for that date, observance of Christmas was opposed by Puritans in England and was banned in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1659 and 1681.

In the nineteenth century, Christmas became domesticated, with a shift toward a nuclear family experience of gift giving around a Christmas tree. The tree was popularized by immigrants from Germany, where it had become prominent earlier in the century. Christmas became the principal sales holiday of the year, presided over by Santa Claus, a figure compounded from myth, religious history, and the need for a congenial symbol for the new attitude toward the holiday. He was introduced and promoted by popular literature and illustration, from Clement Moore's "An Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas" (1823) to Thomas Nast's cartoons of the portly character. Charles Dickens toured America in 1867 reading from his enormously popular "A Christmas Carol," which further reinforced the notions that were crystallizing about how Christmas should be celebrated.

The twentieth century saw further merchandising around Christmas, to the point that many religious figures called for "putting Christ back in Christmas." One contentious issue was government sponsorship of symbols of the holiday. In Lynch v. Donnelly (1983), the Supreme Court held that the inclusion by the city of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, of the crèche in its Christmas display legitimately celebrated the holiday and its origins because its primary effect was not to advance religion. In County of Allegheny v. ACLU Greater Pittsburgh Chapter (1989), the Court considered two displays, a crèche in the Allegheny County Courthouse and, in a government building some blocks away, a tall Chanukah menorah together with a Christmas tree and a sign stating "Salute to Liberty." The Court ruled that the crèche was unconstitutional because it was not accompanied by seasonal decorations and because "by permitting the display of the crèche in this particular physical setting, the county sends an unmistakable message that it supports and promotes the Christian praise to God that is the crèche's religious message." In contrast, the Christmas tree and the menorah were held not to be religious endorsements, but were to be "under-stood as conveying the city's secular recognition of different traditions for celebrating the winter-holiday season."

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Horsley, Richard, and James Tracy, eds. Christmas Unwrapped: Consumerism, Christ, and Culture. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity, 2001.

Nissenbaum, Stephen. The Battle for Christmas: A Cultural History of America's Most Cherished Holiday. New York: Knopf, 1996.

Restad, Penne L. Christmas in America: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Schmidt, Leigh Eric. Consumer Rites: The Buying and Selling of American Holidays. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995.

JamesTracy

See alsoChristianity ; Holidays and Festivals .

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Christmas

Christmas [Christ's Mass], in the Christian calendar, feast of the nativity of Jesus, celebrated in Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches on Dec. 25. In liturgical importance it ranks after Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany (Jan. 6).

The observance probably does not date earlier than AD 200 and did not become widespread until the 4th cent. The date was undoubtedly chosen for its nearness to Epiphany, which, in the East, originally included a commemoration of the nativity. The date of Christmas coincides closely with the winter solstice in the Northern hemisphere, a time of rejoicing among many ancient cultures. Christmas, as the great popular festival of Western Europe, dates from the Middle Ages. In England after the Reformation the observance became a point of contention between Anglicans and other Protestants, and the celebration of Christmas was suppressed in Scotland and in much of New England until the 19th cent.

In the mid 19th cent. Christmas began to acquire its associations with an increasingly secularized holiday of gift-giving and good cheer, a view that was popularized in works such as Clement Clarke Moore's poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas" (1823) and Charles Dickens's story A Christmas Carol (1843). Christmas cards first appeared c.1846. The current concept of a jolly Santa Claus was first made popular in New York in the 19th cent. (see Nicholas, Saint).

The Yule Log [Yule, from O.E.,=Christmas], the boar's head, the goose (in America the turkey), decoration with holly, hawthorn, wreaths, mistletoe, and the singing of carols by waifs (Christmas serenaders) are all typically English (see carol). Gifts at Christmas are also English; elsewhere they are given at other times, e.g., at Epiphany in Spain. The Christmas tree was a tradition from the Middle Ages in Germany. The crib (crèche) with the scene at Bethlehem was popularized by the Franciscans. The midnight service on Christmas Eve is a popular religious observance in the Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches.

See also Advent and Twelfth Night.

See M. Hadfield and J. Hadfield, The Twelve Days of Christmas (1961); P. L. Restad, Christmas in America (1995).

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Christmas

Christmas the annual Christian festival celebrating Christ's birth, held on 25 December (one of the quarter days in England, Wales, and Ireland); the name is recorded from Old English, in form Crīstes ‘Christ's’ mæsse ‘Mass’.
Christmas box originally a box, usually of earthenware, in which contributions of money were collected at Christmas by apprentices; the box being broken when full and the money shared. Later, a present or gratuity given at Christmas to tradespeople or those held to have performed a regular service (such as delivering post) for a person without direct payment from them. The practice gave rise to the name Boxing Day for the day on which such presents were generally given.
Christmas card a decorative greetings card sent at Christmas; the custom began in England in the 1860s. The term may be used to refer to a conventionally pretty scene reminiscent of such a card.
Christmas Day the day on which the festival of Christmas is celebrated, 25 December.
Christmas stocking a real or ornamental stocking hung up by children on Christmas Eve for Father Christmas to fill with presents.
Christmas tree an evergreen (especially spruce) or artificial tree set up and decorated with lights, tinsel, and other ornaments as part of Christmas celebrations. The custom was originally German, but spread to England after its introduction into the royal household in the early years of the reign of Queen Victoria.

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ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "Christmas." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Christmas

Christmas. Literally Christ-Mass, the liturgical commemoration of the birth of Christ. There is evidence of its observance on 25 December at Rome by the early 4th cent., and this date has remained the focus of the commemoration in the western, catholic, tradition ever since. There is no evidence to support the theory, which was seemingly first advanced by St Hippolytus (c. ad 170–c.236), that this was the actual birth-date of Christ. The choice was rather dictated by already well-established pagan celebrations on that day. In antiquity it was the winter solstice, celebrated as the birthday of both Sol Invictus and Mithras. In the Julian calendar, the solstice had fallen on 6 January, but because of its inaccuracy the date ‘moved’ back to 25 December. The other principal feast of the Incarnation, the Epiphany, which has the pre-eminence among orthodox Christians, is still celebrated on the old solstice, 6 January. Many of the features of modern Christmas, such as Christmas trees, cards, and boxes, are Victorian rather than earlier.

Revd Dr John R. Guy

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve (Russ. Noch' pered rozhdestvom). Opera in 4 acts by Rimsky-Korsakov to his own lib. after story Christmas Eve in Gogol's Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka (1932). Comp. 1894–5. Prod. St Petersburg 1895, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, 1977, BBC (studio) 1987, London (ENO) 1988. Gogol story is also basis of Tchaikovsky's Cherevichki (rev. of Vakula the Smith), comp. 1885, and of an episode in Act II of Janáček's From the House of the Dead, comp. 1927–8.

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MICHAEL KENNEDY and JOYCE BOURNE. "Christmas Eve." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Christmas

Christmas. The Christian feast of Jesus' birth, celebrated on 25 Dec. Its observance is first attested in Rome in 336. Probably the date was chosen to oppose the feast of the ‘birthday of the unconquered sun’ on the winter solstice. In the E. the date 6 Jan. for the nativity generally gave way to 25 Dec. by the 5th cent., although at Jerusalem the older custom was kept until 549 and the Armenian Church still observes it (see also EPIPHANY).

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JOHN BOWKER. "Christmas." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. 1997. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Christmas Concerto

Christmas Concerto. Name of Corelli's Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op.6, No.8, for str. and continuo (1712). It was intended as a concerto da chiesa (for church use) and was inscribed fatto per la notte di Natale (made for Christmas Night). Torelli's 12 Concerti Grossi Op.8 (1709) for str. and continuo are entitled con un pastorale per il Santissimo Natale, this ‘pastoral for the most holy night of Christmas’ being No.6, also in G minor.

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Christmas

Christ·mas / ˈkrisməs/ • n. (pl. -mas·es ) the annual Christian festival celebrating Christ's birth, held on December 25. ∎  the period immediately before and after December 25: we had guests over Christmas. • interj. inf. expressing surprise, dismay, or despair. DERIVATIVES: Christ·mas·sy / -məsē/ adj.

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"Christmas." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Christmas." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. (July 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-christmas.html

"Christmas." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-christmas.html

Christmas

Christmas Feast in celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ, common in Christendom since the 4th century. Although the exact date of Christ's birth is unknown, the feast takes place on December 25 within all Christian churches. Christmas is also a secular holiday, marked by the exchange of presents.

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"Christmas." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Christmas." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (July 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Christmas.html

"Christmas." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved July 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Christmas.html

Christmas

Christmas Late OE. Crīstes mæsse, ME. cristes masse, cristmasse, i.e. MASS 1 ‘festival’ of CHRIST.

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T. F. HOAD. "Christmas." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

T. F. HOAD. "Christmas." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. (July 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O27-Christmas.html

T. F. HOAD. "Christmas." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Retrieved July 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O27-Christmas.html

Christmas

Christmas •Lammas • Cadmus • Las Palmas •chiasmus, Erasmus •Nostradamus •famous, ignoramus, Seamus, shamus •Polyphemus, Remus •grimace • Michaelmas •Christmas, isthmus •litmus •animus, equanimous, magnanimous, pusillanimous, unanimous •anonymous, eponymous, Hieronymus, pseudonymous, synonymous •Septimus •Mimas, primus, thymus, timeous •Thomas •enormous, ginormous •brumous, hummus, humous, humus, spumous, strumous •blasphemous •bigamous, polygamous, trigamous •endogamous, monogamous •calamus, hypothalamus, thalamus •venomous •autonomous, bonhomous, heteronomous •Pyramus •dichotomous, hippopotamus, trichotomous •Thermos

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"Christmas." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Christmas." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. (July 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-Christmas.html

"Christmas." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-Christmas.html

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