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rowing

rowing, the art of propelling a boat by means of oars operated by hand. Boats propelled by oars (e.g., the galley) were used in ancient times for both war and commerce. Rowing is now generally used only for propelling small boats or for sport. One of the oldest continuous sporting events in the world is the Doggett's Coat and Badge rowing race, held in London every year since 1716 and named for Thomas Doggett, a popular actor of early 18th cent. England. The most famous of all rowing races are the Thames River competitions between Oxford and Cambridge, first held at Henley in 1829. The first collegiate rowing regatta in the United States took place in 1852 between Harvard and Yale. In modern racing, each member of the rowing team, or crew, uses both hands to pull one oar through the water. The oars, attached to riggings jutting out from the side of the boats to increase leverage, are positioned alternately on opposite sides of the vessel. The boat, or shell, is sometimes steered by a coxswain, who sits at the back of the vessel and manipulates tiller ropes attached to a rudder; the coxswain also directs the speed and rhythm of the crew's strokes. Sculling is a variant of rowing in which the rower controls two oars, one in each hand. Sculling teams consist of one, two, or four members; rowing crews have two, four, or eight members, with or without a coxswain. Rowing and sculling events for men have been included in the Olympic games since 1900; women's races were first run in 1976.

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"rowing." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"rowing." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rowing

"rowing." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rowing

rowing

rowing. Organized competitive rowing, like most sports, developed in the 19th cent., though the Irish comedian Doggett founded his sculling race on the Thames for the Coat and Badge in 1715. The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race was first rowed in 1829. Henley regatta was established in 1839, the main events being the Grand Challenge Cup for eights and the Diamond Sculls for single oarsmen. Rowing was recognized as an Olympic sport in 1908. Professional contests were common and popular in the 19th cent., with heavy betting on the result, but died out in the 20th cent.

J. A. Cannon

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"rowing." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"rowing." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rowing

"rowing." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rowing

rowing

rowing Using oars to propel a boat; a leisure activity and a sport. It was unofficially included in the Olympic Games in 1900, and became a full Olympic event in 1904. Modern racing boats hold crews of two, four or eight, each crew member using both hands to pull one oar (to use two oars is sculling). A coxswain steers for eights and directs the crew; pairs and fours may or may not have a coxswain. See also Boat Race

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"rowing." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"rowing." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rowing

"rowing." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/rowing