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bowls

bowls, ancient sport (the bocce of Caesar's Rome is still played by Italians), especially popular in Great Britain and Australia, known as lawn bowls or bowling on the green in the United States. It was played in America before the American Revolution (hence Bowling Green in numerous place names), but later declined in popularity. Christian Schepflin revived the game in 1879 by forming the Dunellen (N.J.) Bowling Club. The usual "bowling green" is about 120 ft (36.58 m) square and is divided into six alleys, or rinks, each of which is 20 ft (6.1 m) wide and 120 ft long. A small white ball, called a jack, is thrown on the alley by one of the players at some spot not less than 25 yd (22.86 m) from the bowling mat. The object of the game is to roll a ball—weighing 3.5 lb (1.6 kg) and made biased so as to swerve while rolling—as close to the jack as possible, and, if necessary, to dislodge balls previously thrown by opponents. The American Lawn Bowls Association (founded 1915) standardizes rules in the United States; it is one of 10 national groups affiliated with the International Bowling Board (founded 1905). The sport called curling, played on ice, is related to bowls.

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"bowls." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bowls." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bowls

"bowls." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bowls

bowls

bowls is one of the oldest and most popular of all sports and like many others blossomed in late Victorian Britain: London, which had only one municipal green in 1895, had 76 by 1907. The modern game developed when biased bowls were brought into use, permitting considerable tactical play. Hereford has a bowling green within the city walls which is said to date from the 15th cent. and to be the oldest in existence: James IV of Scotland had a green at Holyrood palace in the early 16th cent. Standard rules were drawn up in 1848–9 by W. W. Mitchell, a Glasgow solicitor, and were widely accepted. The Scottish Bowling Association was formed in 1892, the English in 1903, and the International Board in 1905. Crown green bowls, played on a convex green, was popular in the midlands and north. By 1914 there were said to be 600,000 crown green players in the north of England, competing for considerable money prizes. The English Bowling Association, strong in London and the south, remained resolutely amateur. Indoor bowls has made much progress in recent years, partly through the advent of television.

J. A. Cannon

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"bowls." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bowls." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bowls

"bowls." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bowls

bowls

bowls Game popular in Britain and Commonwealth countries, in which a series of bowls (woods) are delivered underarm to stop as close as possible to a small white target ball (jack). A point is scored for each bowl closer to the jack than the best opposition bowl.

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"bowls." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bowls." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bowls

"bowls." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved July 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bowls