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Milk

Milk

Background

Milk is a nutritive beverage obtained from various animals and consumed by humans. Most milk is obtained from dairy cows, although milk from goats, water buffalo, and reindeer is also used in various parts of the world. In the United States, and in many industrialized countries, raw cow's milk is processed before it is consumed. During processing the fat content of the milk is adjusted, various vitamins are added, and potentially harmful bacteria are killed. In addition to being consumed as a beverage, milk is also used to make butter, cream, yogurt, cheese, and a variety of other products.

History

The use of milk as a beverage probably began with the domestication of animals. Goats and sheep were domesticated in the area now known as Iran and Afghanistan in about 9000 b.c., and by about 7000 b.c. cattle were being herded in what is now Turkey and parts of Africa. The method for making cheese from milk was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and the use of milk and milk products spread throughout Europe in the following centuries.

Cattle were first brought to the United States in the 1600s by some of the earliest colonists. Prior to the American Revolution most of the dairy products were consumed on the farm where they were produced. By about 1790, population centers such as Boston, New York, and Philadelphia had grown sufficiently to become an attractive market for larger-scale dairy operations. To meet the increased demand, farmers began importing breeds of cattle that were better suited for milk production. The first Holstein-Friesens were imported in 1795, the first Ayrshires in 1822, and the first Guernseys in 1830.

With the development of the dairy industry in the United States, a variety of machines for processing milk were also developed. In 1856, Gail Borden patented a method for making condensed milk by heating it in a partial vacuum. Not only did his method remove much of the water so the milk could be stored in a smaller volume, but it also protected the milk from germs in the air. Borden opened a condensed milk plant and cannery in Wassaic, New York, in 1861. During the Civil War, his condensed milk was used by Union troops and its popularity spread.

In 1863, Louis Pasteur of France developed a method of heating wine to kill the microorganisms that cause wine to turn into vinegar. Later, this method of killing harmful bacteria was adapted to a number of food products and became known as pasteurization. The first milk processing plant in the United States to install pasteurizing equipment was the Sheffield Farms Dairy in Bloomfield, New Jersey, which imported a German-made pasteurizer in 1891. Many dairy operators opposed pasteurization as an unnecessary expense, and it wasn't until 1908 that Chicago became the first major city to require pasteurized milk. New York and Philadelphia followed in 1914, and by 1917 most major cities had enacted laws requiring that all milk be pasteurized.

One of the first glass milk bottles was patented in 1884 by Dr. Henry Thatcher, after seeing a milkman making deliveries from an open bucket into which a child's filthy rag doll had accidentally fallen. By 1889, his Thatcher's Common Sense Milk Jar had become an industry standard. It was sealed with a waxed paper disc that was pressed into a groove inside the bottle's neck. The milk bottle, and the regular morning arrival of the milkman, remained a part of American life until the 1950s, when waxed paper cartons of milk began appearing in markets.

In 1990, the annual production of milk in the United States was about 148 billion lb (67.5 billion kg). This is equivalent to about 17.2 billion U.S. gallons (65.1 billion liters). About 37% of this was consumed as fluid milk and cream, about 32% was converted into various cheeses, about 17% was made into butter, and about 8% was used to make ice cream and other frozen desserts. The remainder was sold as dry milk, canned milk, and other milk products.

Types of Milk

There are many different types of milk. Some depend on the amount of milk fat present in the finished product. Others depend on the type of processing involved. Still others depend on the type of dairy cow that produced the milk.

The federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) establishes standards for different types of milk and milk products. Some states use these standards, while others have their own standards. Prior to 1998, the federal standards required that fluid milk sold as whole milk must have no less than 3.25% milk fat, low-fat milk must have 0.5-2.0% milk fat, and skim milk must have less than 0.5% milk fat. Starting in 1998, the FDA required that milk with 2% milk fat must be labeled as "reduced-fat" because it did not meet the new definition of low-fat products as having less than 3 grams of fat per serving. Milk with 1% milk fat could still be labeled as "low-fat" because it did meet the definition. As a comparison, light cream has no less than 18% milk fat, and heavy cream has no less than 36% milk fat.

Other types of milk are based on the type of processing involved. Pasteurized milk has been heated to kill any potentially harmful bacteria. Homogenized milk has had the milk fat particles reduced in size and uniformly blended to prevent them from rising to the top in the form of cream. Vitaminfortified milks have various vitamins added. Most milk sold in markets in the United States is pasteurized, homogenized, and vitamin-fortified.

Grade A milk refers to milk produced under sufficiently sanitary conditions to permit its use as fluid milk. About 90% of the milk produced in the United States is Grade A milk. Grade B milk is produced under conditions that make it acceptable only for manufactured products such as certain cheeses, where it undergoes further processing. Certified milk is produced under exceedingly high sanitary standards and is sold at a higher price than Grade A milk.

Specialty milks include flavored milk, such as chocolate milk, which has had a flavoring syrup added. Other specialty milks include Golden Guernsey milk, which is produced by purebred Guernsey cows, and All-Jersey milk, which is produced by registered Jersey cows. Both command a premium price because of their higher milk fat content and creamier taste.

Concentrated milk products have varying degrees of water removed from fluid milk. They include, in descending order of water content, evaporated milk, condensed milk, and dry milk.

Raw Materials

The average composition of cow's milk is 87.2% water, 3.7% milk fat, 3.5% protein, 4.9% lactose, and 0.7% ash. This composition varies from cow to cow and breed to breed. For example, Jersey cows have an average of 85.6% water and 5.15% milk fat. These figures also vary by the season of the year, the animal feed content, and many other factors.

Vitamin D concentrate may be added to milk in the amount of 400 international units (IU) per quart. Most low fat and skim milk also has 2,000 IU of Vitamin A added.

The Manufacturing
Process

Milk is a perishable commodity. For this reason, it is usually processed locally within a few hours of being collected. In the United States, there are several hundred thousand dairy farms and several thousand milk processing plants. Some plants produce only fluid milk, while others also produce butter, cheese, and other milk products.

Collecting

  • 1 Dairy cows are milked twice a day using mechanical vacuum milking machines. The raw milk flows through stainless steel or glass pipes to a refrigerated bulk milk tank where it is cooled to about 40° F (4.4° C).
  • 2 A refrigerated bulk tank truck makes collections from dairy farms in the area within a few hours. Before pumping the milk from each farm's tank, the driver collects a sample and checks the flavor and temperature and records the volume.
  • 3 At the milk processing plant, the milk in the truck is weighed and is pumped into refrigerated tanks in the plant through flexible stainless steel or plastic hoses.

Separating

  • 4 The cold raw milk passes through either a clarifier or a separator, which spins the milk through a series of conical disks inside an enclosure. A clarifier removes debris, some bacteria, and any sediment that may be present in the raw milk. A separator performs the same task, but also separates the heavier milk fat from the lighter milk to produce both cream and skim milk. Some processing plants use a standardizer-clarifier, which regulates the amount of milk fat content in the milk by removing only the excess fat. The excess milk fat is drawn off and processed into cream or butter.

Fortifying

  • 5 Vitamins A and D may be added to the milk at this time by a peristaltic pump, which automatically dispenses the correct amount of vitamin concentrate into the flow of milk.

Pasteurizing

  • 6 The milk—either whole milk, skim milk, or standardized milk—is piped into a pasteurizer to kill any bacteria. There are several methods used to pasteurize milk. The most common is called the high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process in which the milk is heated as it flows through the pasteurizer continuously. Whole milk, skim milk, and standardized milk must be heated to 161° F (72° C) for 15 seconds. Other milk products have different time and temperature requirements. The hot milk passes through a long pipe whose length and diameter are sized so that it takes the liquid exactly 15 seconds to pass from one end to the other. A temperature sensor at the end of the pipe diverts the milk back to the inlet for reprocessing if the temperature has fallen below the required standard.

Homogen izing

  • 7 Most milk is homogenized to reduce the size of the remaining milk fat particles. This prevents the milk fat from separating and floating to the surface as cream. It also ensures that the milk fat will be evenly distributed through the milk. The hot milk from the pasteurizer is pressurized to 2,500-3,000 psi (17,200-20,700 kPa) by a multiple-cylinder piston pump and is forced through very small passages in an adjustable valve. The shearing effect of being forced through the tiny openings breaks down the fat particles into the proper size.
  • 8 The milk is then quickly cooled to 40° F (4.4° C) to avoid harming its taste.

Packaging

  • 9 The milk is pumped into coated paper cartons or plastic bottles and is sealed. In the United States most milk destined for retail sale in grocery stores is packaged in one-gallon (3.8-liter) plastic bottles. The bottles or cartons are stamped with a "sell by" date to ensure that the retailers do not allow the milk to stay on their shelves longer than it can be safely stored.
  • 10 The milk cartons or bottles are placed in protective shipping containers and kept refrigerated. They are shipped to distribution warehouses in refrigerated trailers and then on to the individual markets, where they are kept in refrigerated display cases.

Cleaning

  • 11 To ensure sanitary conditions, the inner surfaces of the process equipment and piping system are cleaned once a day. Almost all the equipment and piping used in the processing plant and on the farm are made from stainless steel. Highly automated clean-in-place systems are incorporated into this equipment that allows solvents to be run through the system and then flushed clean. This is done at a time between the normal influx of milk from the farms.

Quality Control

The federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) publishes the Grade A Milk Ordinance which sets sanitation standards for milk production in most states and for all interstate milk shippers. The composition of milk and milk products is specified in Agricultural Handbook 52 published by the United States Department of Agriculture. It lists both federal and state standards. Testing of milk products includes tests for fat content, total solids, pasteurization efficiency, presence of antibiotics used to control cow disease, and many others.

The Future

The trend to low-fat dairy products over the last 20 years is expected to continue in the future. Sales of butter are expected to decline, while sales of low-fat yogurt and low-or reduced-fat milk are expected to increase. Overall consumption of liquid milk is expected to increase as the population increases.

Where to Learn More

Books

Giblin, James. Milk: The Fight for Purity. Thomas Y. Crowell, 1986.

Hui, Y.H., ed. Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1992.

Kroschwitz, Jacqueline I. and Mary Howe-Grant, ed. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1993.

McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Other

Dairy Farmers of Ontario. http://www.milk.org.

International Dairy Foods Association. http://www.idfa.org.

National Milk Producers Federation. http://nmpf.org.

Chris Cavette

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milk

milk / milk/ • n. an opaque white fluid rich in fat and protein, secreted by female mammals for the nourishment of their young. ∎  the milk of cows (or occasionally goats or ewes) as food for humans: a glass of milk. ∎  the white juice of certain plants: coconut milk. ∎  a creamy-textured liquid with a particular ingredient or use: cleansing milk. • v. [tr.] draw milk from (a cow or other animal), either by hand or mechanically. ∎  [intr.] (of an animal, esp. a cow) produce or yield milk: the breed does seem to milk better in harder conditions. ∎  extract sap, venom, or other substances from. ∎ fig. exploit or defraud (someone), typically by taking regular small amounts of money over a period of time: he had milked his grandmother dry of all her money. ∎ fig. get all possible advantage from (a situation): the newspapers were milking the story for every possible drop of drama. ∎ fig. elicit a favorable reaction from (an audience) and prolong it for as long as possible: he milked the crowd for every last drop of applause. PHRASES: in milk (of an animal, esp. a cow) producing milk. milk and honey prosperity and abundance. milk of human kindness care and compassion for others.

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milk

milk The secretion of the mammary gland of mammals. A 300‐mL portion of cow's milk is a rich source of vitamins B2, B12, calcium, and iodine; a source of protein, vitamin A, and vitamin B1; full cream milk contains 11.4 g of fat of which 63% is saturated; supplies 200 kcal (840 kJ); skimmed milk contains 0.3 g of fat; supplies 100 kcal (420 kJ); Channel Islands milk contains 14.4 g of fat of which 68% is saturated; supplies 230 kcal (970 kJ).

Ordinary milk contains 3.9% fat; Channel Islands milk, 5.1%; sheep's milk, 6.0%, buffalo milk, 7.5%; human milk contains 4.1% fat.

A 280‐mL portion of goat's milk is a rich source of vitamin B12 and calcium; a good source of vitamin B2; a source of protein, vitamin A, zinc, and copper; contains 13.5 g of fat of which 51% is saturated; supplies 215 kcal (900 kJ).

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"milk." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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milk

milk milk for babes something easy and pleasant to learn; especially in biblical allusion to 1 Corinthians 3:2 and Hebrews 5:12, contrasted with ‘strong meat’ (see strong).
the milk in the coconut a puzzling fact or circumstance, the crux of something (informal, first recorded in the US in the mid 19th century).
milk of human kindness compassion, sympathy; originally from Shakespeare's Macbeth (1606), in Lady Macbeth's expression of her anxiety that her husband lacked the necessary ruthlessness to kill King Duncan and seize the throne.
mother's milk in figurative usage, something providing sustenance or regarded by a person as entirely appropriate to them.

See also why buy a cow when milk is so cheap?, it is no use crying over spilt milk at cry, land of milk and honey at land2.

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milk

milk The fluid secreted by the mammary glands of mammals. It provides a balanced and highly nutritious food for offspring. Cows' milk comprises about 87% water, 3.6% lipids (triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, etc.), 3.3% protein (largely casein), 4.7% lactose (milk sugar), and, in much smaller amounts, vitamins (especially vitamin A and many B vitamins) and minerals (notably calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chlorine). Composition varies among species; human milk contains less protein and more lactose.

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milk

milk sb. OE. (Angl.) milc, (WS.) meol(o)c = OS. miluk (Du. melk), OHG. miluh (G. milch), ON. mjólk, Goth. miluks :- Gmc. *meluks, f. *melk- (repr. by the vbs. OE. melcan, OHG. melchan):- IE. *melĝ- *mḷĝ-, whence OIr. melg sb. and the vbs. L. mulgēre, Gr. amélgein, OIr. bligim.
Hence vb. OE. milcian. milksop orig. SOP dipped in milk, (hence) one who is fed on such food, † young infant, (transf.) effeminate fellow XIV. milky XIV (M. Way (XIV) tr. L. via lactea; cf. GALAXY).

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Milk (river, United States and Canada)

Milk, river, 729 mi (1,173 km) long, rising in the Rocky Mts., NW Mont. It flows N into Alberta, Canada, then in long curves eastward, S into Montana again, and generally SE to the Missouri River, entering just below Fort Peck Dam. The Milk River reclamation project (est. 1911) irrigates c.134,000 acres (54,230 hectares). The largest of several dams is the Fresno Dam (completed 1939). Malta, Chinook, Glasgow, and Harlem, Mont., are in the project area.

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milk (food)

milk, liquid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals as food for their young. The milk of the cow is most widely used by humans, but the milk of the mare, goat, ewe, buffalo, camel, ass, zebra, reindeer, llama, and yak is also used. The composition of milk varies with the species, breed, feed, and condition of the animal. Jersey and Guernsey cows produce milk of high butterfat content; Holsteins produce larger quantities of milk but with a lower butterfat content.

Milk prepared for sale is often homogenized; in this process it is pumped under pressure through small openings to break up the milk-fat globules, thus ensuring an equal distribution of fat throughout the milk rather than permitting it to rise to the top as cream. In most countries where milk is a commercial product, it is subject to regulations concerning its composition (i.e., the proportion of butterfat and other solids) and its purity, with sanitary measures in force that cover milk handlers, herds, plants, and equipment. Pasteurization (partial sterilization by heating) checks bacterial growth, thereby making milk safer to drink and increasing its keeping qualities and range of transport.

Milk, an almost complete food, consists of proteins (mainly casein), fat, salts, and milk sugar, or lactose, as well as vitamins A, C, D, certain B vitamins, and lesser amounts of others. (Many people are unable to digest milk after childhood because they stop producing an enzyme needed to break down lactose, but usually they still can digest yogurt, hard cheeses, and lactose-reduced milk products.) Commercial dairies often supplement natural vitamin D with a concentrate. Milk is a major source of calcium and a good source of phosphorus. Low-fat and skim milk fortified with vitamins A and D have the same nutritional value as whole milk, but with fewer calories and less cholesterol. Whole milk has 3.5% milkfat, low-fat milk 1% to 2%, and skim, 0.5%. Heavy cream has a minimum of 36% milkfat, half-and-half not less than 10.5% nor more than 18%.

A patent was issued for the production of dried milk in Great Britain in 1855, and for concentrated milk in the United States to Gail Borden in 1856. The two types of concentrated milk are condensed and evaporated; condensed milk is a sweetened product (over 40% sugar), and evaporated is unsweetened. Dried, or powdered, milk is made by passing a film of partially evaporated milk over a heated drum or by spraying it into a heated chamber in which the particles dry. Malted milk is a dried mixture made of milk and the liquid from a mash of barley malt and wheat flour.

See butter; cheese; dairying; fermented milk.

See S. K. Kon, Milk and Milk Products in Human Nutrition (1972); T. Quinn, Dairy Farm Management (1980); D. Carrick, Milk (1985).

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Milk

272. Milk

See also 76. CHEESE ; 168. FOOD and NUTRITION .

galactopoietic
any substance that stimulates the production and flow of milk. galactopoietic , adj.
lactometer
an instrument for measuring the richness of milk from its specific gravity. Also called galactometer .
lactoscope
an instrument for measuring the opacity of milk so that its cream content can be determined.

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milk

milk Liquid secreted from mammary glands by the females of nearly all mammals to feed their young. The milk of domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, horses, camels and reindeer has been used as food by humans since prehistoric times, both directly and to make butter, cheese and yogurt. Milk is a suspension of fat and protein in water, sweetened with lactose sugar.

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milk

milk (milk) n. the liquid food secreted by female mammals from the mammary gland. Milk is a complete food in that it has most of the nutrients necessary for life: protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals, and vitamins. Cows' milk is comparatively deficient in vitamins C and D. Human milk contains more sugar (lactose) and less protein than cows' milk.

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milk

milkcalque, talc •catafalque •elk, whelk •bilk, ilk, milk, silk •Liebfraumilch • buttermilk • volk •bulk, hulk, skulk, sulk

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