. Critical of both the behaviourism of positivist criminology (see CRIMINOLOGY, POSITIVIST) and the apolitical and narrow vision of labelling theory, it was in its turn criticized for being too polemical, neglecting gender and race issues, romanticizing the criminal as someone engaged in political resistance to capital and the state, and concentrating on control and neglecting crime and its victims.
As it developed in the 1970s and 1980s, critical criminology rediscovered its own (lengthy) radical history, hitherto obscured by ‘bourgeois’ criminology (see, for example, G. Rusche and and O. Kirchhimer , Punishment and Social Structure, 1939
). It has allied itself with cultural studies in work around race, racism, and the state, and studies of youth subcultures. It has also strengthened its commitment to the abolition of prisons and greater accountability of the police, with a series of studies of institutions of the criminal justice system, including, for example, prison regimes, deaths in police custody, sexism and racism in the criminal justice process. Despite this, the approach is dismissed by some as Left Idealism, particularly by those involved in the development of realist criminology (see CRIMINOLOGY, REALIST).
"criminology, critical." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/criminology-critical
"criminology, critical." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Retrieved January 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/criminology-critical
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.