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Self-help groups

Self-help groups

Introduction

Self-help groupsalso called mutual help or mutual aid groupsare composed of peers who share a similar mental, emotional, or physical problem, or who are interested in a focal issue, such as education or parenting. Historically, people banded together to improve their chances for survival by pooling their social and economic resources; however, contemporary groups are more likely to organize around a theme or problem.

Most self-help groups are voluntary, non-profit associations open to anyone with a similar need or interest; however, spin-off groups also exist to meet the needs of particular types of people; for example, the elderly, women, or Hispanics. Usually, groups are led by peers, have an informal structure, and are free (except for small donations to cover meeting expenses). However, professionals of various kinds lead some self-help groups.

In the past thirty years, the number of self-help organizations and groups operating in communities throughout the U.S. has dramatically risen; some organizations operate in several countries, primarily in the developed world. One of the reasons for the rapid proliferation of groups focusing on health problems may be the advent of managed health care. For individuals with insurance plans offering limited mental health coverage, self-help groups are an economical way to find emotional and social support.

Self-help groups and therapy

Because of the peer-led, informal, and democratic (as opposed to hierarchical and medical) structure, health professionals consider self-help groups for mental or emotional problems to be an adjunct to therapy. While there are therapeutic aspects associated with participationprincipally, intimacy as a result of self-disclosure, personal growth in response to others' role modeling, and erosion of denial as a result of social confrontationthe primary value of contemporary groups is in the mutual aid offered by members to one another. Though the nature of self-help groups is outside of the medical realm, doctors and therapists see participation as a way to improve the outcome related to either ongoing or future formal treatment.

Another issue arguing against considering self-help groups as a type of therapy is that the variety of groups is extensive; groups available may include advocacy groups with a focus on legal or social remedies, groups organized around housing or employment needs, and groups focusing on racial or gender issues. Additionally, the self-help movement shares some characteristics with volunteerism and consumerism. In general, members who persevere have experience with other voluntary organizations and believe in the value of donating time and service; also, members may be thought of as consumers who participate in their own care and who have experience and knowledge of relevant goods and services.

Types of self-help groups

Twelve-step groups

The most popular type of self-help group is based on the Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), founded in 1935. The Twelve Steps are a guide to recovery from alcoholism or addiction , whereas the Twelve Traditions are a code of ethics. AA and other 12-step programs are based on the spiritual premise that turning one's life and will over to a personally meaningful "higher power," such as God or Spirit, is the key to recovery. Another essential idea is that sobriety or recovery (not cure) depends on the admission of powerlessness with respect to alcohol or the substances(s) stance(s) abused. This idea is offensive to critics of 12-step groups, but others believe that this admission accurately reflects the contemporary view of addiction as a disease. Furthermore, people with a familial, genetic vulnerability to addiction are particularly at risk. While some studies suggest that 20% of people suffering from alcoholism will experience remission without benefit of therapy or a 12-step group, most will suffer deteriorating health and dysfunctional, if not ruined, social relationships. In other words, most alcoholics need formal therapy or an informal self-help program to recover. While the dropout rate for AA groups during the first three months is high, alcoholics who persevere have a good chance of attaining and maintaining sobriety or abstinence. This is especially true if the person regularly attends a home group (90 meetings in the first 90 days, slowly diminishing to two or three times per week for years thereafter) and finds an experienced and sympathetic sponsor who also is in recovery.

In addition to AA and its sister organizations, Narcotics Anonymous (NA) and Cocaine Anonymous (CA), a number of 12-step organizations exist for a variety of disorders, such as Gambler's Anonymous (GA), Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA), Emotions Anonymous (EA), and Overeaters Anonymous (OA).

Other groups for health problems and diseases

Self-help organizations also provide support for individuals who are ill or have health problems. For example, support exists for people coping with weight management, HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, cancer, incontinence, and for the families of individuals who suffer from these conditions. Also, support exists for people who share interests or circumstances, such as groups for women who breast-feed (LaLeche League), singles, older adults, and new parents.

Self-help groups for family members are available since illness, addiction, and distress affect the entire family. Family members may unwittingly reinforce illness or addictive behaviors, or may need help coping with the person in distress. Al-Anon, an organization for friends and families of alcoholics, is a companion organization to AA, as is Alateen, a program for teenagers who have been hurt by the alcoholism of significant people in their lives. Support groups for caregivers of individuals with life-threatening or terminal illnesses, such as cancer, often meet at treatment centers and hospitals. One popular club for people with cancer, as well as for their friends and family, is Gilda's Club, founded by the actor/comedian Gene Wilder, Gilda Radner's husband. Gilda Radner, the well-known comedienne from Saturday Night Live, died at age 40 from ovarian cancer. Gilda's Clubs can be found in at least a half-dozen cities in the U.S., Canada, and London.

Online groups and clearinghouses

A growing trend in the self-help movement is the online support communities, as well as online resource centers and clearinghouses. Chat rooms, bulletin boards, and electronic mailing lists all provide convenient, around-the-clock access to peer support. Many large-scale, consumer health care web sites provide forums for discussions on numerous diseases and disorders, and major online commercial services, such as America Online (AOL), provide sites for health care and patient support. In some cases, professionals moderate online groups, although many are exclusively organized and populated by peers. There are self-help groups, such as LaLeche League, that hold some meetings online, often at their own web sites.

Features of self-help groups

Accessibility

Accessibility and economy are appealing features of self-help groups. Since the groups are free, organizations such as AA and NA are very cost-effective. In addition, meetings are easy to locate through local newspaper announcements, hospitals, health care centers, churches, school counselors, and community agencies. For AA and sister organizations that encourage frequent attendance, hundreds of meetings may be held each week in large metropolitan areas. Furthermore, with the proliferation of online support communities and growth of connectivity to the Internet, self-help groups are becoming as accessible for individuals in rural areas as they are for those in large cities.

Anonymity

An important characteristic of 12-step groups is the preservation of anonymity by revealing first names only and by maintaining strict confidentiality of stories shared during meetings. Online self-help groups offer even more anonymity since the exchanges are not face to face. The virtual anonymity of online experience helps to reduce social discomfort and discrimination, or stereotyping otherwise associated with real-life perceptions of age, disabilities, race, gender, or culture.

Social support and mutual aid

Self-help groups provide an intact community and a sense of belonging. The social support and mutual aid available in a group may be critical to recovery, rehabilitation, or healthy coping. This is especially true for socially isolated people or people from dysfunctional families, who may have little or no emotional support. Participating in a social network of peers reduces social and emotional isolation and supports healthy behavior. Group members can offer unconditional support and, collectively, are a repository of helpful experiential knowledge.

Self-esteem and self-efficacy

Self-help groups promote self-esteem or self-respect by encouraging reciprocal caring; the concept of self-efficacy, or the belief that one is capable, is promoted by reinforcing appropriate behavior and beliefs and by sharing relevant information regarding the disease or condition. For example, there may be an exchange of information regarding how to cope with failed or disrupted relationships, about what is reasonable to expect from health care professionals, about how to manage pain or public embarrassment, about where to go and to whom for a variety of needs. In groups such as AA, self-efficacy also is promoted by sponsors who act as mentors and role models, and by encouraging rotating leadership roles.

Introspection and insight

Introspection, or contemplation, is another fundamental feature of many self-help groups, particularly for groups that follow a 12-step program of recovery. For example, the fourth step of AA states that members make "a searching and fearless moral inventory" of themselves, and the tenth step states that members continue "to take personal inventory" and admit wrongdoing. Introspection is particularly beneficial to individuals who are not entirely aware of the moral repercussions of and motivation for their behavior. In a sense, working through some of the 12 steps resembles the cognitive restructuring learned in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), as maladaptive ideas and behaviors are transformed.

Spiritual recovery

The final step in a 12-step program recognizes that recovery entails a spiritual awakening; furthermore, recovering addicts are enjoined to spread the message to others suffering from addiction. Recovery depends on giving up both injurious self-will and denial of maladaptive behavior, and turning to a higher power. Members are urged to seek guidance or inspiration from this higher power. For many addicts, the key to recovery is a spiritually guided movement away from self-centeredness or self-absorption, and a turning towards the "Power greater than ourselves" through prayer and meditation .

Advocacy

Some self-help groups meet to advocate or promote social and legislative remedies with respect to the issue of concern. For example, HIV/AIDS groups have lobbied for improved access to prescription drugs. Groups lobby for reforms by identifying key legislators and policy makers; they submit papers or suggestions for more equitable laws and policies to these key people. They also conduct public education programs (including programs meant to redress the harm of stigmatization). There are groups that advocate for more funds for research and for improved services for people who suffer from one of many diseases or mental disorders. The most important grass roots organization of families and consumers of psychiatric services (former or current patients) is the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI). This organization was founded in 1979, and blends self-help with advocacy efforts for the improvement of research, services, and public awareness of major mental illnesses. Their advocacy efforts target both the federal and state levels.

Limitations

Advocacy vs. mutual aid

In some organizations, there is a growing overlap between self-help efforts and community development. Critics maintain that focusing on issues such as crime prevention, affordable housing, and economic development drains time and effort from social support and mutual aid. Nevertheless, some organizations continue to develop both advocacy and support.

Lack of professional involvement

The absence of professional guidance may mean that a member in need of formal psychotherapy or treatment may be discouraged from seeking professional help. On the other hand, too much professional involvement in the group may compromise the quality of mutual aid.

The " thirteenth step"

There is a well-known risk associated with attending 12-step groups termed the "thirteenth step." Women new to the groups, especially young women, are at their most vulnerable in the early stages of recovery. Male sexual predators who attend meetings take advantage of the atmosphere of intimacy and mutual trust. To cope with the possibility of sexual exploitation, young females are encouraged to attend meetings with a family member or a trusted adult, and all women are encouraged to find a same-sex sponsor.

Substituting addictions

The early months of a 12-step program are especially difficult. Typically, an addict in early recovery either replaces an addictive substance with a new one, or intensifies his/her concurrent use of another substance.

It is not uncommon for people who are chemically dependent to also have an addictive sexual disorder. (When someone is addicted to sex, there is an intense desire to gratify sexual urges and fantasies or to behave in ways that cause clinically significant distress; sexual indulgence, often compulsive, is a major disruptive force with respect to social relationships.) In one four-year study of a treatment program, 33% of the chemically addicted patients also were sexually compulsive. Some physicians believe that the predatory "thirteenth step" is evidence of turning from one addiction to anotherin this case, addictive sexual disorder.

Members at varying stages of recovery

Another common risk is associated with the varying levels of recovery in a self-help groupthat of being actively involved in the abuse of alcohol and/or drugs. Newcomers need to realize that not all members are interested in supporting their recovery, and that people in later stages of recovery may be more reliable. Furthermore, some members are required to attend by disciplinary entities, such as employers or correctional authorities.

Ongoing meetings

One criticism of self-help groups, especially 12-step groups, is that in the eyes of families and friends, members who persevere and faithfully attend the seemingly endless number of meetings only to become "addicted" to the program. However, physicians who support self-help groups point out that since addiction is a disease, addicts are particularly vulnerable to relapse, and that ongoing involvement with a self-help community surely is better than suffering the recurring misery associated with active addiction.

Rational alternatives to 12-step groups

For addicts who find the spirituality of 12-step groups offensive and irrational, and who believe that public proclamation of powerlessness at group meetings is demoralizing, alternative groups exist. For example, a well-known organization, Rational Recovery (RR), is based on the cognitive-behavioral principles of Albert Ellis. RR emphasizes self-reliance, rational thinking as a result of cognitive restructuring, and the development of a new repertoire of behaviors to respond effectively to events that trigger relapse.

Conclusion

Worldwide, self-help groups are becoming increasingly popular. They are effective in providing mutual support and are good resources for finding needed information. However, when searching for an appropriate group, prospective members should ask their friends, physicians, and counselors for references, and then visit a few groups before deciding on which one to attend. Also, information clearinghouses on the Internet are a good first step.

See also Depression and depressive disorders; Disease concept of chemical dependency; Dual diagnosis; Group therapy; Pathological gambling; Poly-substance abuse; Sedatives and related disorders; Support groups

Resources

BOOKS

American Self-Help Clearinghouse. Self-Help Sourcebook Online. Mental Help Net, 19932002.

Borkman, Thomasina Jo. Understanding Self-Help/Mutual Aid: Experiential Learning in the Commons. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999.

DuPont, Robert L. The Selfish Brain: Learning from Addiction. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1997.

Galanter, Marc, Ricardo Castañeda, and Hugo Franco. "Group Therapy, Self-Help Groups, and Network Therapy." In Clinical Textbook of Addictive Disorders,, edited by Richard J. Frances and Sheldon I. Miller. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.

Hyndman, Brian. Does Self-Help Help? A Review of the Literature on the Effectiveness of Self-Help Programs. Evaluation in Health Promotion Series: Canadian and International Perspectives, no. 7. Toronto: Center for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, 1997.

Lefley, Harriet P. "Advocacy, Self-help, and Consumer-Operated Services." In Psychiatry, edited by Allan Tasman, Jerald Kay, and Jeffrey A. Lieberman. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1997.

Miller, Norman S., ed. The Principles and Practice of Addictions in Psychiatry. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1997.

ORGANIZATIONS

Aloholics Anonymous. Grand Central Station, PO Box 459, New York, NY 10163. <www.alcoholicsanonymous.org>.

Gilda's Club Worldwide. 322 Eighth Avenue, Suite 1402, New York, NY 10001. (888) GILDA-4-U. <http://www.gildasclub.org/>.

Narcotics Anonyomous World Service Office. PO Box 9999, Van Nuys, California 91409. Telephone: (818) 773-9999. Fax (818) 700-0700. <http://www.na.org/>.

National Self-Help Clearinghouse. Graduate School and University Center of The City University of New York, 365 5th Avenue, Suite 3300, New York, NY 10016. (212) 817-1822. <http://www.selfhelpweb.org>.

Tanja Bekhuis, Ph.D. Paula Ford-Martin, M.A.

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Self-Help Groups

Self-help groups

Groups that support communities of peers with a similar interest or illness.

Since the advent of managed health care and the cost-controls that have accompanied it, self-help groups have grown in popularity. Individuals who are offered limited mental health coverage through their healthcare plan often find self-help a positive and economical way to gain emotional support.

Overview

Twelve-step groups, one of the most popular types of self-help organizations, have been active in the United States since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935. AA and other 12-step programs are based on the spiritual premise that turning one's life and will over to "a higher power" (i.e., God, another spiritual entity, or the group itself) for guidance and self-evaluation is the key to recovery. Outside of AA and its sister organizations (Narcotics Anonymous, or NA; Cocaine Anonymous, or CA), a number of 12-step programs have sprung up to treat a range of mental disorders, such as Gambler's Anonymous (GA), Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA), and Overeaters Anonymous (OA).

Self-help organizations also provide support for individuals who are ill or have health issues. Support exists for people dealing with weight management, HIV, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, cancer, and incontinence, and for the families of individuals who suffer from these conditions. Self-help has moved beyond what are considered "problem" conditions to assist people who share interests or circumstances, including support groups for women who breast-feed (LaLeche league), singles, older adults, and new parents.

Family self-help groups are also available. Al-Anon, an organization for friends and family of alcoholics, is a companion organization to AA, as is Alateen, a program for teenagers who have been affected by alcoholics. Support groups for caregivers of individuals with life-threatening illnesses, such as cancer, often meet at treatment centers and hospitals that specialize or treat the illness in question.

A growing trend in self-help is the creation of online support communities. Chat-rooms, bulletin boards, and electronic mailing lists all provide convenient, around-the-clock access to peer support. Many large-scale consumer healthcare web sites provide forums for discussion on countless diseases and disorders, and major online commercial services such as America Online (AOL) provide sites for healthcare and patient support. In some cases, these groups may be moderated by a healthcare professional, although many are exclusively peer organized and populated. Some long-established self-help groups such as the LaLeche league now hold some of their meetings online, often out of their own web site.

Benefits

The accessibility of self-help groups is one of their most attractive features. Since no dues or fees are required, except for small voluntary contributions to cover meeting expenses, organizations such as AA are the most cost-effective treatment option available. In addition, meetings are usually easy to locate through local hospitals, healthcare centers, churches, and other community organizations. For AA and sister organizations, where daily attendance is encouraged if possible, the number of meetings held each week often number in the hundreds in large metropolitan areas. And with the proliferation of new online support communities and rapid growth of access to the Internet, self-help groups are becoming as accessible to individuals in rural areas as they are to those in large cities. Online self-help also offers the added benefit of anonymity and breaks down any barriers of age discrepancies, physical disabilities, race and culture differences, or other possible inhibiting factors in a face-to-face encounter.

Participation in self-help groups provides an essential sense of community and belonging. For individuals suffering from mental and organic illnesses, who may be lacking emotional support and empathy from their friends and family, this environment is a critical part of recovery. In addition to relieving emotional isolation, self-help groups tend to empower an individual and promote self-esteem . For example, AA encourages sponsorship (building a mentor relationship with another member), speaking at meetings, and other positive interactions with peers.

Introspection is another essential feature of many self-help groups, particularly in organizations that follow a 12-step program of recovery. For example, the fourth step of AA is for members to make "a searching and fearless moral inventory" of themselves, and the tenth step mandates that members continue "to take personal inventory" and admit wrongdoings. Such introspection may be beneficial to individuals who are having difficulties coming to terms with the thoughts and emotions that may be guiding their behavior. In this respect, a 12-step program may resemble cognitive therapy to a degree, in that recognition of maladaptive thoughts can ideally lead to a change in negative behavior.

Results

Several major studies have shown that 12-step programs can be just as, if not more, effective in treating alcohol- and drug-dependent patients as a regime of cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychotherapy . Further, if an inpatient is started on a 12-step program while in a traditional treatment or therapy, setting and the program is encouraged by the patient's healthcare provider, then the patient is more likely to remain in the 12-step program after traditional treatment has ended.

See also Alcohol abuse and dependence; Drugs/Drug abuse

Paula Ford-Martin

Further Reading

American Self-Help Clearinghouse. Self-Help Sourcebook Online. http://mentalhelp.net/selfhelp/

Further Information

Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. General Service Office. P.O. Box 459, Grand Central Station, New York, NY, USA. 10163, fax: 212-870-3003, 212-870-3400. http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org.

National Self-Help Clearinghouse. Graduate School and University Center of The City University of New York, 365 5th Avenue, Suite 3300, New York, NY, USA. 10016, 212-817-1822. Email: info@selfhelpweb.org. www.selfhelpweb.org.

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Self-Help

SELF-HELP

Redressing or preventing wrongs by one's own actionwithout recourseto legal proceedings.

Self-help is a term in the law that describes corrective or preventive measures taken by a private citizen. Common examples of self-help include action taken by landlords against tenants, such as eviction and removal of property from the premises, and repossession of leased or mortgaged goods, such as automobiles, watercraft, and expensive equipment. Persons may use self-help remedies only where they are permitted by law. State and local laws permit self-help in commercial transactions, tort and nuisance situations, and landlord and tenant relationships.

Self-help is permissible where it is allowed by law and can be accomplished without committing a breach of the peace. A breach of the peace refers to violence or threats of violence. For example, if a person buys a ship financed by a mortgage, the mortgage company may repossess the ship if the buyer fails to make the mortgage payments. If the buyer is present when the ship is being taken away and the buyer objects to the repossession, the mortgage company breaches the peace if it can repossess the ship only through violence or the threat of violence. In such a case, the mortgage company would be forced to file suit in court to repossess the ship. Repossessors attempt to circumvent objections by distracting or deceiving the defaulting party during the repossession.

A majority of states have banned self-help by landlords in the eviction of delinquent tenants. These legislatures have determined that the interests of the landlord in operating a profitable business must be balanced against a tenant's need for shelter. In place of the self-help remedy, states have devised expedited judicial proceedings for evictions. These proceedings make it possible for a landlord to evict a tenant without unacceptable delays while giving the tenant an opportunity to present to a court arguments against eviction.

In states that give landlords the right of self-help, landlords may evict a tenant on their own only if they can do so in a peaceful manner. The precise definition of peaceful varies from state to state. In some states any entry by a landlord that does not involve violence or a breach of the peace is acceptable. In other states any entry that is conducted without the tenant's consent is illegal.

In any case, if a landlord evicts a tenant through self-help, the eviction must be performed reasonably. For example, a landlord may not nail plywood across the entrance to a tenant's second-story apartment while the tenant is inside and then remove the steps leading up to the apartment. One landlord who performed such self-help faced criminal penalties after the trapped tenant and her two-year-old daughter needed the help of the local fire department to escape the apartment. A landlord who violates laws on self-help may face criminal charges and a civil suit for damages filed by the tenant.

One new form of self-help that poses interesting problems is self-help by providers of computer software. Businesses in the United States that use computers have become dependent on computer software. Sometimes when disputes have arisen between the buyer of software and the software provider, software providers have disabled the buyer's software from a remote location. In one case a software supplier called Logisticon entered into a contract with Revlon Group to provide it with computer software. After a dispute arose between the two parties, Logisticon accessed Revlon's software system and disabled it, causing Revlon to suffer $20 million in product delivery delays. Revlon brought suit against Logisticon, alleging that Logisticon had violated the contract and that it had misappropriated Revlon's trade secrets. The two parties settled the suit out of court, and the terms of the settlement remain undisclosed.

Self-help measures are controversial because they amount to taking the law into one's own hands. Opponents of self-help laws argue that they encourage unethical and sometimes illegal practices by creditors and that they diminish public respect for the law. Proponents counter that self-help, if performed peaceably, is a valuable feature of the justice system because it gives creditors an opportunity to alleviate losses and keeps small, simple disputes from glutting the court system.

further readings

Bell, Tom W. 2003. "Free Speech, Strict Scrutiny, and Self-Help: How Technology Upgrades Constitutional Jurisprudence." Minnesota Law Review 87 (February).

Fischer, Julee C. 2000. "Policing the Self-Help Legal Market: Consumer Protection or Protection of the Legal Cartel?" Indiana Law Review 34 (winter).

Gerchick, Randy G. 1994. "No Easy Way Out: Making the Summary Eviction Process a Fairer and More Efficient Alternative to Landlord Self-Help." UCLA Law Review 41 (February).

Gitter, Henry. 1993. "Self-Help Remedies for Software Vendors." Santa Clara Computer and High Technology Law Journal 9 (November).

cross-references

Secured Transactions.

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Self-Help Groups

SELF-HELP GROUPS

The primary focus of self-help groups is to provide emotional and practical support and an exchange of information. Such groups use participatory processes to provide opportunities for people to share knowledge, common experiences, and problems. Through their participation, members help themselves and others by gaining knowledge and information, and by obtaining and providing emotional and practical support. These groups have been particularly useful in helping people with chronic health conditions and physical and mental disabilities. Traumatic life events such as death and divorce are also the basis for groups. Self-help groups are voluntary, and they are mostly led by members. Generally, groups meet on a regular basis, are open to new members, and do not cost money to join. Traditionally, self-help groups have been in-person meetings, but recently Internet self-help groups have become popular.

Patrick McGowan

(see also: Internet; Social Networks and Social Support )

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self-help group

self-help group, nonprofessional organization formed by people with a common problem or situation, for the purpose of pooling resources, gathering information, and offering mutual support, services, or care. Self-help groups began to spread in the United States following World War II and proliferated rapidly in the 1960s and 70s. Among these groups are such organizations as Alcoholics Anonymous and those for the victims and families of victims of specific diseases, child abuse, suicide, and crime. Groups concerned with a shared situation include those for the elderly, single parents, and homosexuals. The definition of such groups sometimes includes social-advocacy organizations and halfway services (e.g., drug rehabilitation centers). Although self-help groups may draw on, or offer a bridge to, professional assistance, free services are usually provided by the members themselves through meetings, publications, the Internet, and individual contacts.

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self-help

self-help. Social and moral doctrine that people should rely on their own efforts and not look to the state for help. In the 19th cent. self-help took two forms: collectivist, as with friendly societies, mutual improvement societies, Cooperatives, and trade unions; or individualistic, as with the practice of sobriety, thrift, hard work, and self-education. Self-help, as popularized by Samuel Smiles, was middle-class advice how working people might better themselves without upsetting the status quo or seeking public relief when sick, aged, or unemployed. It also harmonized with the skilled artisan tradition of independence.

John F. C. Harrison

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self-help

self-help • n. the use of one's own efforts and resources to achieve things without relying on others: what government does is not a substitute for what people can do with encouragement and self-help. ∎  [as adj.] designed to assist people in achieving things for themselves: a self-help group for drug abusers.

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