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Gulf Cooperation Council

GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL

An organization of six Arab states in the Persian Gulf region, formed to promote joint military, economic, and political endeavors.

The Iranian Revolution, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the outbreak of the IranIraq War were among the major reasons that the leaders of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates decided to establish the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Because the member countries had at the outset much in common regarding economic matters, these could be agreed upon and implemented more easily than matters of defense. Thus, six months after its founding in May 1981, the GCC announced a Unified Economic Agreement that provided for the free movement of people and capital among member states, abolished customs duties, made banking and financial systems more compatible, and improved technical cooperation among the states. During the 1980s and 1990s many of the provisions of the agreement were implemented, and the GCC moved slowly forward in dealing with security matters. In 1984 members agreed to establish a rapid deployment unit called the Peninsula Shield Force. In 2000 the member states formally committed to a policy of mutual defense against foreign attack, and expansion of the Peninsula Shield Force from 5,000 to 22,000. The GCC also has been involved in mediating territorial disputes between members (for example, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Bahrain) and between member states and other countries (such as the United Arab Emi-rates and Iran).


Bibliography

Peterson, Erik R. The Gulf Cooperation Council: Search for Unity in a Dynamic Region. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.

emile a. nakhleh
updated by anthony b. toth

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"Gulf Cooperation Council." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gulf Cooperation Council." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gulf-cooperation-council

"Gulf Cooperation Council." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved September 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gulf-cooperation-council

Gulf Cooperation Council

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), officially Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, organization (est. 1981) promoting stability and economic cooperation among Persian Gulf nations. Its members are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. In 1991 the GCC countries joined with Egypt and Syria to create a regional peacekeeping force. An aid fund was also established to promote development in Arab states; it was used to help liberate Kuwait in 1991. In 2003 GCC members eliminated tariffs on trade between member nations and established common external tariffs. They have agreed to establish a broader economic union (including a single market and currency; Oman and United Arab Emirates have opted out); a common market was established in 2008. During the national protests in 2011 known as the Arab Spring, the GCC sent forces into Bahrain in support of its monarch, and attempted to negotiate a resolution in Yemen.

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"Gulf Cooperation Council." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Gulf Cooperation Council." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gulf-cooperation-council

"Gulf Cooperation Council." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gulf-cooperation-council