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Qantas Airways Limited

Qantas Airways Limited

Qantas Centre
Level Nine, Building A
203 Coward Street
Mascot
New South Wales 2020
Australia
(02) 9691 3636
Fax: (02) 9691 3277
Web site: http://www.qantas.com.au

Public Company
Incorporated:
1920 as Queensland and Northern
Territory Aerial Services Limited
Employees: 30,080
Sales: A$7.83 billion (US$5.89 billion) (1997)
Stock Exchanges: Australia
SICs: 4512 Air Transportation, Scheduled

Qantas Airways Limited, Australias number one domestic airline, is one of the major international airlines based in the Asia-Pacific region. It is the second oldest airline in the world, after KLM of the Netherlands. Qantas serves 105 cities in 29 countries worldwide: 52 in Australia, 28 in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Australia), 11 in Europe, 11 in North America, two in southern Africa, and one in the Middle East. In addition to its flagship Qantas line, the company also operates several regional airlines in Australia: Eastern Australia Airlines, Southern Australia Airlines, Sunstate, and Airlink. Qantas and its regional subsidiaries carry more than 18.5 million passengers a year. Qantas has a fleet of 99 Boeing jet aircraft, while the regional subsidiary lines use a mix of 49 de Havilland, Shorts, British Aerospace, and Cessna aircraft. Qantas maintains a number of alliances with British Airways PLC, which holds a 25 percent interest in Qantas; the company itself owns 17.5 percent of Air Pacific.

Early History

Qantas was founded by two World War I veterans, William Hudson Fysh and Paul McGuiness, who had served with the Australian Flying Corps. In March 1919 they gained the support of a millionaire industrialist to enter a competition for a prize of A$20,000 offered by the Australian government for the first Australians to fly from Britain to Australia within 20 days. Unfortunately, their patron died before the arrangements for their flight had been made. They accepted a related task from the Australian Chief of General Staff to survey the air race route from Longreach in Queensland to Katherine in the Northern Territory and to lay down supplies along the route for the competitors.

After the completion of their overland survey in August 1919, Fysh and McGuiness were convinced that aircraft could play an important role in transporting passengers and freight over the sparsely populated areas of western and northern Queensland and northern Australia, and they decided to form an airline. The pair had insufficient capital to launch their new venture, but a chance meeting between McGuiness and Fergus McMaster, a prominent Queensland grazier, led to the latters involvement in the project. McMaster, together with his fellow grazier Ainslie Templeton, agreed to provide financial backing for Fysh and McGuinesss proposed air service for western Queensland.

On November 16, 1920, Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited (Qantas) was registered in Brisbane with an initial paid-up capital of A$ 12,074. McMaster became the first chairman of the airline; he was to prove anything but a silent partner. Without his constant efforts on behalf of Qantas, it is doubtful whether the airline would have survived.

In 1921 the airlines head office was moved from Winton to Longreach, another small Queensland outback town. During its early years, the airline encountered serious problems in obtaining suitable aircraft, as most of the British-manufactured aircraft were inappropriate for the Australian outback and the countrys hot climate. Eventually, in 1924, the company found an aircraft up to the challenge: the de Havilland DH50. In the early days, passengers were few in number and most of the airlines revenue came from joyriders and air taxi work.

It soon became clear that Qantas would need a government subsidy to survive. In late 1921 Qantas won the contract for a weekly subsidized mail service between Charleville and Cloncurry in Queensland, and the airlines first scheduled service was inaugurated on November 2, 1922. Later in that year, Mc-Guiness left the company, leaving Fysh as the sole employee from what John Gunn described in The Defeat of Distance: Qantas 1919-1939 as the airlines dreamtime days. In February 1923, Marcus Griffin, the airlines first professional manager, resigned. With McMasters support, he was replaced by Fysh.

In 1924 the subsidized mail service was extended from Cloncurry to Camooweal, and three years later another subsidized mail service was started from Cloncurry to Normanton. The following year the Australian Medical Servicerenamed the Flying Doctor Service in 1942was formed, and Qantas was contracted to operate medical flights on demand. On April 17, 1929, Qantas inaugurated the 710-kilometer Charleville-Brisbane service on the first direct link to the coast, bringing its total route network to nearly 2,380 kilometers. In 1930 the airlines headquarters were moved to Brisbane, the capital of Queensland.

QEA Formed in 1934

The original link with Britains Imperial Airways took place in 1931, when Qantas assisted in carrying the first official airmail as part of an experimental Australia-Britain route. Qantas carried the airmail between Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory, and Brisbane. On January 18, 1934, Qantas Empire Airways Limited (QEA) was formed as a 50-50 joint venture between Imperial Airways and Qantas to enable the Australian airline to participate in the new airmail service. QEA secured subsidized airmail contracts for the Brisbane-Singapore via Darwin and also Cloncurry-Normanton services. The new weekly transcontinental service began on December 10, 1934. In 1936 a second weekly service was begun between Brisbane and Singapore.

On June 10, 1938, the route between Australia and Britain was upgraded to a thrice-weekly subsidized service with the introduction of Short Brothers Empire Flying Boats, extending the route to Sydney. Imperial Airways and QEAs flying boats were flown directly across the whole route, with the British crews taking over the aircraft in Singapore. During the same year, QEAs headquarters were moved to Sydney.

During the 1930s KLM emerged as a major competitor with its Amsterdam-Batavia (Jakarta) service. In July 1938 its partner airline, KNILM, started a service between Batavia and Sydney. QEA regarded KLMs service as superior to that of Imperial Airways, partly because of KLMs use of American aircraft. In the earliest days of air travel, British aircraft had been superior to those built in the United States, but with the development of a major commercial airline industry in the 1930s American planes gained dominance. Pan American Airways (Pan-Am) also emerged as a strong competitor to the Imperial Airways-QEA Sydney-London service with the inauguration of a United States West Coast-Honolulu-Auckland service in 1940 after an abortive start in 1938.

World War II Efforts

After the outbreak of World War II, the Sydney-London route over which the flying boats operated became a vital line of communication. QEA continued to fly to Singapore. After the occupation of Singapore by Japan, however, all QEA aircraft eventually were recalled to Broome in Western Australia as Japanese forces advanced ever closer to Australia. QEA continued a token domestic service, but it ceased to be an overseas commercial passenger airline until the end of the war. More than half of the QEA fleet was commissioned for war service by the Australian government. Later in the war, QEA crews served alongside the Royal Australian Air Force in the battle zones of New Guinea.

In 1943 an agreement was signed between QEA, the British Air Ministry, and British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOACformerly Imperial Airways) to reestablish an air link between Britain and Australia. Using Catalina flying boatsobtained from the United States and leased from the Australian governmentregular flights were carried out between Perth, the capital of Western Australia, and Ceylon. The single ocean route of 5,600 kilometers was the longest ever undertaken. Between July 10, 1943, and July 18, 1945, 271 flights were completed.

Postwar Rebuilding and Expansion

Having survived World War II, QEA was left with virtually no aircraft. Hence it immediately began the task of rebuilding and modernizing its fleet. Against bitter opposition from the British government, BOAC, and their friends in Australia, QEA refused to consider seriously the purchase of what it regarded, correctly as it later transpired, as inferior and unairworthy British aircraft not even off the drawing board. Instead, in October 1946 an order worth A$5.5 million was placed with Lockheed for four Constellation aircraft. The DC3 aircraft also was introduced by QEA for use on the Australia-New Guinea and on internal New Guinea and Queensland routes.

QEA had been the national overseas airline of Australia since 1934. The nationalization of Imperial Airways in 1940 by the British government, however, had led to pressure in Australia for the nationalization of QEA. In 1947 the Australian ALP government purchased BOACs 50 percent share of QEA and later in the year also purchased Qantass 50 percent share as well. In October McMaster retired as the result of persistent ill health, and Fysh became chairman of the newly nationalized QEA in addition to his role as managing director.

Company Perspectives

Qantas is one of the worlds leading airlines, operating a domestic and international fleet of 149 aircraft, linking 104 ports in 29 countries. Our strengths are our strong brand, our focus on customer service, and our international reputation for technical expertise and safety. Our aim is to manage our operations, costs, and productivity to ensure profitability for our shareholders, while maintaining the quality and reputation of our product.

The first L749 Constellation arrived in October 1947, and on December 1 QEA began its first regular weekly service right through to London via Singapore on the famous Kangaroo Route. The Douglas DC4 Skymaster was introduced to the fleet in June 1949 on the new Hong Kong service. In 1949 Qantas handed over its services in Queensland and the Northern Territory and the Flying Doctor Service to Trans-Australia Airlines (TAA). TAA had been formed in December 1945 as a state-owned domestic airline. It was government policy that TAA should operate only domestic routes and that Qantas should confine itself to overseas routes. In 1950 a commercial service to Japan was inaugurated, followed in 1952 by a fortnightly service to Johannesburg, South Africa. In October 1953 QEA received permission to operate its first scheduled service to North America with the transfer of this service from the previous operator, British Commonwealth Pacific Airways (BCPA). QEA eventually took over BCPA.

In 1954 QEA began taking delivery of Lockheed Super Constellation aircraft and was able to inaugurate its new twice weekly transpacific service to North America on May 15. One service flew on to San Francisco, and the other to Vancouver. During 1957 Qantas moved to new headquarters in Sydney. The following year QEA inaugurated its first round-the-world service with the establishment of the Southern Cross Route via San Francisco and New York. An agreement had been signed in 1957 for QEA to operate between Britain and Australia via the United States. In mid-1958, despite Qantass weak financial position, the government decided that both its internal operations in New Guinea and Sydney were domestic in nature. Hence it decided that Qantass New Guinea services would be taken over by TAA, which was done in 1960.

Entered Jet Age in 1959

In 1959, ahead of all of its non-U.S. competitors, QEA took delivery of seven Boeing 707-138 jet aircraft. These were introduced in turn on both the Southern Cross and Kangaroo Routes during the same year. The Boeing 707 fleet was expanded rapidly and frequencies increased. By 1964, 13 707 jetliners were operating on most of the Qantas routes, and the airline had begun selling off its aging propeller-driven aircraft. By March 1966 Qantass Boeing fleet had reached 19 jets, six of which were the larger 707-338C series, with five more on order.

In June 1966 Sir Hudson Fysh retired as chairman of Qantas because of his ill health. His retirement was soon followed by that of the man most responsible for the postwar Qantas expansion, Sir Cedric Turner, who had been general manager since 1951 and chief executive since 1955. Captain R. J. Richie, who had taken a leading role in building up the companys fleet and airline network after World War II, was appointed general manager; Sir Roland Wilson, a Qantas Board member, was appointed as the new chairman.

The same year Qantas made the decision to standardize its fleet with the larger Boeing 338C series and to dispose of its 138B aircraft. It also considered purchasing an even larger, innovative aircraft: the Boeing 747. As a result of the high costs involved, it was decided that Qantas would hold on to its 21-strong 707 fleet to protect its immediate position and would wait for the more advanced B series of the 747. An initial order for four Boeing 747Bs was placed in August 1967. Although this meant that Qantass competitors would have been operating the wide-bodied jet for nearly two years before it took delivery, the B series had features and refinements particularly suited to long-haul operations. The airline also changed its name on August 1, 1967, to Qantas Airways Limited. At the end of the 1960s Qantas came under government pressure to cut its airfares because the Australian Tourist Commission and some government ministers felt that lower fares were essential for the development of the Australian tourist industry. Qantas, which was facing rising costs and falling revenue yields, did not want to cut its fares.

In 1970 Qantas again decided to standardize its fleet with Boeing aircraft when it rejected the option of purchasing cheaper DC 10s in favor of 747s. In the early 1970s, the airline was facing strong competition, particularly on the Pacific, where it had excess capacity and one of its principal rivals, Pan-Am, was already using 747s. Qantas was forced to eliminate some of its air crew. Qantas also experienced problems with the United States Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), which banned its 747 operations even though Pan-Am used 747s on its flights to Australia. As a result Qantas introduced its 747s on routes to Singapore and London instead of on transpacific services to the United States West Coast. The Australian government was forced to allow more American airline services between the United States and Australia, In return the CAB allowed Qantas to begin 747 services to the United States in January 1972.

Low Fare Policy Debuted in Early 1970s

In the early 1970s, Qantas formed a charter subsidiary, Qantair Limited, with the strong support of the Australian government and with the intention of recovering the traffic it had lost to charter services on the Europe-Far East part of the journey to Australia. At the same time, Qantas decided to embark upon a low fares initiative in late 1971. On April 1, 1972, subject to British government approval, it cut the oneway fare between London and Sydney from £276 to £169. Single fares between Australia and four other European cities were cut similarly. The British government deferred approval for the new fare, but Qantas sold unapproved tickets in the face of bitter opposition to the new low fare from its rivals. In late May Britain approved the new fare. Britains liberal line earned it a good deal of anger from other countries and non-British airlines. Qantas offered travelers charter-level fares while still retaining the benefits of scheduled services. As a result, the airlines passenger traffic and revenue grew dramatically, despite the huge increase in the price of aviation fuel.

In August 1972 the Australian government authorized Qantas to go ahead with the construction of the International Centre, the new headquarters located in downtown Sydney. In December the ALP replaced the Liberals as Australias governing party. The new government confirmed its predecessors decision that Qantas would replace the two domestic airlines Ansett and TAA on the highly profitable route between Port Morseby and Australia after Papua New Guinea (PNG) became independent on December 1, 1973. Qantas had been forced to surrender this route to TAA in 1960.

After the introduction of its low fare policy in 1972,Qantas embarked upon a major rationalization of its route network. Margins were extremely tight and the airline could not afford to spread its operations over wide areas of the world for reasons of prestige alone. Hence Qantas decided to discontinue its Southern Cross Route to London as it had done earlier in the case of operations between Hong Kong and London.

During the late 1970s, Qantas readopted its policy of offering bargain fares between Britain and Australia, beginning with fare cuts of up to £79 in 1977. Further fare cuts of up to one third were made in February 1979 as a means of meeting the potential threat of cheap advance booking charter fares proposed by Laker Airways of Britain. Qantass policy was opposed by members of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Singapore especially opposed it because the policy excluded stopovers in their countries, cutting tourism and airline profits. At a meeting in Kuala Lumpur in May 1979, however, Australia succeeded in forcing ASEAN to accept its new policy.

With the sale of its last Boeing 707 in 1979, Qantas became the worlds first airline to operate a fleet composed entirely of Boeing 747s. The final roundtrip 707 flight operated between Sydney and Auckland at the end of March. Over the next few years, Qantas took delivery of several 747 variations. In 1980 the chairman since 1975, Sir Lenox Hewitt, retired. He was replaced by Jim Leslie, who was initially only a part-time chairman as well as continuing temporarily to be chairman and managing director of Mobil Oil Australia.

Fleet Modernized in Early 1980s

In the early 1980s, Qantas suffered from large operating losses. After the election of the new Labor (ALP) government in 1983, one of its first actions was to increase Qantass capital base from A$89.4 million to A$ 149.4 million. The airline had been denied adequate capital by the previous government and had been obliged to borrow heavily to maintain its aircraft fleet in a modem, efficient, and competitive form. The government hoped that the injection of new capital would assure the future of Qantas as a wholly owned government enterprise.

The new government approved Qantass largest-ever aircraft order, an A$860 million fleet modernization program involving the purchase of three stretched upper-deck Boeing 747s and six of the Extended Range Boeing 767 twin-engined jets. The latter would help service airports such as Adelaide, which joined the Qantas network in November 1982, and Cairns, Darwin, and Townsville. The twin-engined jets also were to be used on the New Zealand routes and expanded to Asian and Pacific destinations. Qantas was to sell its six oldest 747s progressively as the new aircraft were delivered.

Qantas returned to profitability in 1984, making a record pretax profit from airline operations of A$58 million in the year to March 31. This was a particularly strong performance given the depressed state of world aviation at that time. Qantas was able to sustain its strong recovery throughout the mid-1980s. Leslie felt that there was now more optimism because of depressed fuel prices and cost-cutting by airlines; he felt the main opportunity in Australia lay with tourism. Although the introduction of large, long-range aircraft could affect Australias neighbors, Leslie reasoned, tourist traffic from the Asian region itself could be increased.

In 1987 Qantas embarked upon the next stage of its fleet modernization program with an order for four fuel-efficient Boeing 747-400s, which the company hoped would keep it competitive with British Airways (the successor to BOAC) and Singapore Airlines on its Britain-Australia and transpacific routes. The record profits made in 1986-87 of A$63.4 million showed that the airline had become one of Australias top export earners.

In 1988 the governments of Australia and New Zealand decided to merge and partially privatize their state-owned airlines, Qantas, Australian Airlines (formerly TAA), and Air New Zealand. This plan was abandoned after it met with strong opposition in New Zealand. The New Zealand government decided to privatize Air New Zealand in its existing form. In December Qantas was part of a consortium led by Brierley Investments of New Zealand (BIL) that purchased Air New Zealand, defeating a consortium led by British Airways. As a result Qantas acquired a 19.9 percent stake in the airline. The following year it was revealed that Qantas had reached a secret financial agreement with its partners in the consortium consisting of BIL, American Airlines, and Japan Air Lines to prevent control of Air New Zealand going to British Airways. The subsequent disclosure of this agreement damaged the reputation of Qantas.

At the same time, it was revealed that A$5.4 billion was to be spent on aircraft by 1992 and that the company would need a capital injection of A$600 million by the Australian government unless shares were sold to private investors. In 1989 the Australian government proposed the complete privatization of Qantas because it needed substantial capital injections to remain competitive, which the government was unable to fund. This new proposal led to a bitter argument in the ALP. During the year Qantas took delivery of the first of its ten long-haul Boeing 747-400s and flew it nonstop from London to Sydney. It was the first airline to do so and, at 17,850 kilometers, it was the longest single distance any commercial aircraft had ever flown.

Transformative 1990s

In 1990 Qantas reported a loss as a result of its fleet expansion program and the five-month-long domestic pilots dispute. These losses increased during 1990 as a result of the Persian Gulf crisis, and by early 1991 the airline was facing its worst financial situation since its foundation, including the Great Depression. It was decided to lay off 5,000 employees, sell nine Boeing 747s earlier than planned, and cut flying hours by 14 percent in the year to June 30, 1991.

In early 1990 Leslie was succeeded as chairman by Bill Dix, with John Ward continuing as chief executive, a position he attained in the late 1980s. In September 1990 the ALP had been persuaded to support the privatization of 49 percent of Qantas. The Australian government abandoned plans to float the airline in early 1991, however, and decided on a trade sale instead.

Change came swiftly and dramatically for Qantas in the mid-1990s. In June 1992 the Australian government approved Qantass purchase of 100 percent of Australian Airlines shares for A$400 million; in October 1993 the operations of Qantas and Australian Airlines were merged under a single brand: QantasThe Australian Airline. It was also announced in June 1992 that later that year 49 percent of Qantas would be sold through a trade sale, and the remaining 51 percent would be floated publicly during the first half of 1993. Foreign interests were to be allowed to invest up to 35 percent, with the Australian government retaining a golden share. These plans were soon altered, however, when British Airways in late 1992 stepped in with an offer that was acceptedand completed in March 1993to buy a 25 percent stake in Qantas for A$665 million (US$470 million). The move was part of British Airways push to create a global airline through the creation of a series of alliances, and it followed previous British Airways deals for 49 percent of TAT of France, 49 percent of Deutsche BA, and 31 percent of Air RUSSIA British Airways soon added a 25 percent stake in American carrier USAir. Meanwhile, in March 1993 the Australian government pumped A$1.35 billion into Qantas to enhance the companys competitive position ahead of privatization.

For Qantas, the deal with British Airways created management turmoil, as it was reported that both Dix and Ward opposed the alliance. By mid-1993 both had departed the company, replaced by Gary Pemberton, former chief executive of Brambles Ltd., a transport and industrial services group, in the chairmans slot and James Strong, who had previously served as chief executive of Australian Airlines, in the chief executives chair.

The new management team immediately faced the challenge of completing the privatization, as well as improving upon the dismal results of fiscal 1993an after-tax loss of A$376.8 million (US$250 million) incurred in part as a result of difficulties encountered integrating the operations of Australian Airlines. A plan for a September 1993 public offering of the remaining 75 percent of Qantas still owned by the government was pushed back because a spate of privatizations were hitting the Australian market at about the same time. The long-anticipated initial public offering (IPO) finally took place in July 1995, and the companys shares were listed on the Australian Stock Exchange; the foreign ownership limit was set at 49 percent. Qantas thus celebrated its 75th anniversary in 1995 as a public company.

From 1993 through 1997 the alliance between Qantas and British Airways evolved into a comprehensive collection of code-sharing arrangements, reciprocal frequent flyer programs, reciprocal lounge access agreements, and scheduling and pricing coordination efforts. The core of this allianceand most airline allianceswas the code-sharing, whereby a passengers trip involves two legs, one a Qantas flight and one a British Airways flight, but the entire trip is booked as either entirely Qantas or entirely British Airways. During this period, Qantas developed or enhanced several other alliances, including ones with American Airlines, Canadian Airlines International, Air Pacific, Asiana, Japan Airlines, Emirates, and Reno Air.

In March 1997 Qantas sold its 19.9 percent stake in Air New Zealand to ANZ Securities for NZ $425 million (US$295 million), using the after-tax profits of A$66.8 million to reduce debt. This move was made in anticipation of Air New Zealands purchase of an equity stake in Qantass Australian rival, Ansett Australia. Later that year Qantas began a A$560 million (US$430 million), three-year fleet modernization program, including the refurbishment of all of its international 747s and 767-300ERs with new seats featuring seat-back personal video screens.

By fiscal 1997 Qantas was solidly in the black, achieving net profits of A$252.7 million (US$190.1 million) on revenues of A$7.83 billion (US$5.89 billion). In early 1998, however, the Asian financial crisis forced the company to cut back on some of its Asian service, including destinations in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. The crisis threatened to derail, at least temporarily, what had been a fairly successful start to Qantass public company era.

Principal Subsidiaries

Eastern Australia Airlines; Southern Australia Airlines; Sunstate Airlines; Airlink; Qantas Flight Catering Limited.

Further Reading

AAL Sets Melbourne Date, Flight International, October 28, 1971.

Action Pending?, Flight International, June 3, 1971.

Aircraft Sale Underlines Qantas Rise, Financial Times, December 13, 1991.

Airfares Pacific Punch-up, Economist, March 31, 1979.

Air Transport, Flight International, May 18, 1972.

Australia Accounts, Flight International, January 27, 1972.

Australia and ASEAN Agree to Be Dissatisfied in Air Fares War, But Canberra Comes Out on Top, Far Eastern Economic Review, May 18, 1979.

Australian Airlines Joins the Rat Race, Financial Times, April 26, 1991.

Australian Charter Activity, Flight International, August 12, 1971.

Australian Labor Party Reopens Row over Privatisation, Financial Times, June 9, 1989.

Australian Party Backs Airline and Telecom Selloff, Financial Times, September 25, 1990.

Australian Sector, Financial Times, February 5, 1990.

An Australian View, Flight International, February 22, 1973.

Australia Set for Airline Shake-up, Flight International, June 10, 1992.

BA Defeated in Bid for Air New Zealand, Financial Times, December 22, 1988.

Ballantyne, Tom, Flying Doctor, Airline Business, December 1993, pp. 30+.

_____, Global Horizons: The Linkage with British Airways Should Open Up New Opportunities for Qantas, Airline Business, April 1993, pp. 32 +.

_____, Qantas: Hard Times, Airline Business, May 1991, pp. 16 +.

_____, A Step in the Dark: Australias New Aviation Policy Is a Gamble Designed to Help Smooth the Privatization of Qantas and Australian Airlines, Airline Business, May 1992, pp. 44 +.

Beyond the Dawn: A Brief History of Qantas Airways, Sydney: Qantas Public Affairs, 1997.

CAA Approves £196 Sydney Fare, Flight International, June 1, 1992.

Canvassing for Qantas, Flight International, August 28, 1971.

Deans, Alan, Flight to a Merger: Australias Main Airlines to Form Mega-Carrier, Far Eastern Economic Review, June 25, 1992, pp. 51+.

Donoghue, J. A., Approaching Privatization, Air Transport World, July 1995, pp. 54 +.

Flying in Formation: Airline Alliances, Economist, July 22, 1995, pp. 59 +.

Fysh, Hudson, Qantas at War, Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1968.

_____, Qantas Rising: The Autobiography of the Flying Fysh, London: Angus & Robertson, 1966.

_____, Wings to the World: The Story of Qantas 1945-1966, [Sydney]: Angus and Robertson, [1970].

Gallagher, Jackie, The Worlds Favourite Jigsaw?, Airline Business, December 1993, pp. 50+.

Government Support for Qantas, Flight International, August 24, 1972.

Gunn, John, Challenging Horizons: Qantas 1939-1954, St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1987.

_____, The Defeat of Distance: Qantas 1919-1939, St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1985.

_____, High Corridors: Qantas 1954-1970, St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1988.

_____, Pioneers of Flight: An Abridged History of Qantas Airways Limited, The Company, c. 1987.

Hall, Timothy, Flying High: The Story of Hudson Fysh, Qantas, and the Trail-Blazing Days of Aviation, Sydney: Methuen of Australia, 1979.

Hard Time for Qantas Too, Flight International, April 22, 1971.

Hill, Leonard, Re-Creating Qantas, Air Transport World, May 1994, pp. 74 +.

Leonard, Bruce, A Tradition of Integrity: The Story of Qantas Engineering and Maintenance, Sydney: UNSW Press, 1994.

Lower Fares Predicted to Australia, Times (London), June 20, 1978.

Many Happy Returns, Airline Business, September 1995, pp. 84 +.

Months Delay on New Australia Fare, Flight International, April 27, 1972.

National Carrier Gets Boost, Financial Times, January 10, 1984.

New Zealand May Slow Pace of State Asset Sales, Far Eastern Economic Review, January 26, 1989.

NZ Backs Qantas Bid for Stake in Airline, Financial Times, September 20, 1988.

130,000 in Rush for Cheap Flights to Australia, Daily Telegraph, February 2, 1979.

Pacific Brinkmanship, Flight International, July 29, 1971.

Phelan, Paul, Adventurous Analyst, Flight International, August 12, 1992, p. 36.

Profitable Outlook Forecast for Airlines, Financial Times, January 14, 1986.

Progress in Pacific Dispute, Flight International, September 16, 1971.

Qantair Deferred, Flight International, December 30, 1971.

Qantas Airline Loss Doubles, Financial Times, December 2, 1983.

Qantas: Airline of the Year, Air Transport World, February 1996, pp. 30 +.

Qantas and Australian to Merge, Financial Times, June 3, 1992.

Qantas Blames Losses on Fleet Expansion and Pilots Dispute, Financial Times, June 30, 1990.

Qantas Cutback, Flight International, April 29, 1971.

Qantas Cuts Fares, Flight International, April 13, 1972.

Qantas Empire Airways and Q.A.N.T.A.S.: Chronological History, Sydney: Qantas Empire Airways, 1946.

Qantas Faces Financial Crisis, Financial Times, March 18, 1991.

Qantas First All-747 Carrier, Flight International, April 7, 1979.

Qantas Gains in New Guinea, Flight International, September 28, 1972.

Qantas Is Confident in Its Pacific Role, Travel Weekly, December 16, 1985, pp. 1+.

Qantas May Still Merge with Air NZ, Financial Times, April 2, 1988.

Qantas Merger with Air NZ Ruled Out, Financial Times, April 21, 1988.

Qantas-NZ Merger Plan Wins Cool Reception, Financial Times, April 5, 1988.

Qantas on the Move, Interavia Aerospace World, September 1993, pp. 44-46.

Qantas Profit Soars, Financial Times, June 5, 1986.

Qantas Renews Drive for Airline Link-up, Financial Times, June 29, 1988.

Qantas Sees Lower Profits After Posting Record Year, Financial Times, October 13, 1989.

Qantas Soars to Record Results, Financial Times, July 28, 1987.

Qantas Switches 747s, Flight International, August 26, 1971.

Qantas to Buy Four Boeings, Financial Times, March 3, 1987.

Qantas Trijet Choice, Flight International, August 27, 1970.

Secret Formation for Air NZ Deal, Financial Times, March 28, 1991.

Shake-up in Australia, Flight International, December 21, 1972.

Sir Lenox Hewitt Leaves Qantas, Flight International, July 5, 1980.

Skapinker, Michael, UK Stays Qantas Flagship Route, Financial Times, July 18, 1997, p. 23.

So Does Qantas, Flight International, December 9, 1971.

Stackhouse, John, From the Dawn of Aviation: The Qantas Story, 1920-1995, Double Bay, New South Wales: Focus Pub., 1995.

State-owned Australian Airlines to Get More Cash, Financial Times, May 4, 1983.

Strong Return to Black for Qantas, Financial Times, June 1, 1984.

Tait, Nikki, Qantas Finds Privatisation Route Far from Smooth, Financial Times, April 28, 1995, p. 26.

_____, Qantas Set to Alter Its Share Structure, Financial Times, November 23, 1995, p. 31.

Thomas, Geoffrey, Asian Competition Prompts Qantas to Modernize Fleet, Aviation Week & Space Technology, June 9, 1997, pp. 40-41.

_____, Asian Downturn Expected to Hit Qantas, Ansett, Air NZ, Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 2, 1998, p. 51.

Threat to Airline, Daily Telegraph, January 12, 1979.

Unapproved Fares Offered, Flight International, May 11, 1972.

USAir: BAs American Dream, Observer, July 12, 1992.

Westlake, Michael, and Jacqueline Rees, Birds of a Feather, Far Eastern Economic Review, July 6, 1995, pp. 69-70.

Woolsey, James P., Qantas Changing Course to Capture New Growth Possibilities, Air Transport World, May 1986, pp. 24 +.

_____, Qantas Is Trying to Rise from 1989 Turmoil, Air Transport World, June 1990, pp. 32 +.

Richard Hawkins
updated by David E. Salamie

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Qantas Airways Limited

Qantas Airways Limited

Qantas International Centre
International Square
Sydney 2000
New South Wales
Australia
(02) 236-3636
Fax: (02) 236-3277

State-Owned Company
Incorporated: 1920 as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited
Employees: 16,000
Sales: A$3.86 billion

Qantas Airways Limited is one of the major international airlines based in the Asia-Pacific region. It is the second oldest airline in the world, after KLM of the Netherlands. Qantas serves 47 cities in 23 countries worldwide, carries over four million passengers a year, and has a fleet of 49 Boeing jet aircraft.

Qantas was founded by two World War I veterans, William Hudson Fysh and Paul McGuiness, who had served with the Australian Flying Corps. In March 1919 they gained the support of a millionaire industrialist to enter a competition for a prize of A$20,000 offered by the Australian government for the first Australians to fly from Britain to Australia within 20 days. Unfortunately their patron died before the arrangements for their flight had been made. They accepted a related task from the Australian Chief of General Staff to survey the air race route from Longreach in Queensland to Katherine in the Northern Territory and to lay down supplies along the route for the competitors.

After the completion of their overland survey in August 1919, Fysh and McGuiness were convinced that aircraft could play an important role in transporting passengers and freight over the sparsely populated areas of western and northern Queensland and northern Australia, and they decided to form an airline. The pair had insufficient capital to launch their new venture, but a chance meeting between McGuiness and Fergus McMaster, a prominent Queensland grazier, led to the latters involvement in the project. McMaster, together with his fellow grazier Ainslie Templeton, agreed to provide financial backing for Fysh and Mc-Guinesss proposed air service for western Queensland.

On November 16, 1920, Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited (Qantas) was registered in Brisbane with an initial paid-up capital of A$ 12,074. McMaster became the first chairman of the airline; he was to prove anything but a silent partner. Without his constant efforts on behalf of Qantas, it is doubtful whether the airline would have survived.

In 1921 the airlines head office was moved from Winton to Longreach, another small Queensland outback town. During its early years, the airline encountered serious problems in obtaining suitable aircraft, as most of the British manufactured aircraft were inappropriate for the Australian outback and the countrys hot climate. Eventually, in 1924, the company found an aircraft up to the challenge: the de Havilland DH50. In the early days, passengers were few in number and most of the airlines revenue came from joyriders.

It soon became clear that Qantas would need a government subsidy in order to survive. In late 1921 Qantas won the contract for a weekly subsidized mail service between Charleville and Cloncurry in Queensland, and the airlines first scheduled service was inaugurated on November 2, 1922. Later in that year, McGuiness left the company, leaving Fysh as the sole employee from what John Gunn described in The Defeat of Distance: Qantas 1919-1939 as the airlines dreamtime days. In February 1923, Marcus Griffin, the airlines first professional manager, resigned. With McMasters support, he was replaced by Fysh.

In 1924 the subsidized mail service was extended from Cloncurry to Camooweal, and three years later another subsidized mail service was started from Cloncurry to Normanton. The following year the Australian Medical Servicerenamed the Flying Doctor Service in 1942was formed, and Qantas was contracted to operate medical flights on demand. On April 17, 1929, Qantas inaugurated the 710 kilometer Charleville-Brisbane service on the first direct link to the coast, bringing its total route network to nearly 2,380 kilometers. In 1930 the airlines headquarters were moved to Brisbane, the capital of Queensland.

The first link with Britains Imperial Airways took place in 1931, when Qantas assisted in carrying the first official airmail as part of an experimental Australia-Britain route. Qantas carried the airmail between Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory, and Brisbane. On January 18, 1934, Qantas Empire Airways Limited (QEA) was formed as a 50-50 joint venture between Imperial Airways and Qantas to enable the Australian airline to participate in the new airmail service. QEA secured subsidized airmail contracts for the Brisbane-Singapore via Darwin and also Cloncurry-Normanton services. The new weekly transcontinental service began on December 10, 1934. In 1936 a second weekly service was begun between Brisbane and Singapore.

On June 10, 1938, the route between Australia and Britain was upgraded to a thrice weekly subsidized service with the introduction of Short Brothers Empire Flying Boats, extending the route to Sydney. Imperial Airways and QEAs flying boats were flown directly across the whole route, with the British crews taking over the aircraft in Singapore. During the same year, QEAs headquarters were moved to Sydney.

During the 1930s KLM emerged as a major competitor with its Amsterdam-Batavia (Jakarta) service. In July 1938 its partner airline, KNILM, started a service between Bata-via and Sydney. QEA regarded KLMs service as superior to that of Imperial Airways, partly because of KLMs use of American aircraft. In the earliest days of air travel, British aircraft had been superior to those built in the United States, but with the development of a major commercial airline industry in the 1930s American planes gained dominance. Pan American Airways (Pan-Am) also emerged as a strong competitor to the Imperial Airways-QEA Sydney-London service with the inauguration of a United States West Coast-Honolulu-Auckland service in 1940 after an abortive start in 1938.

After the outbreak of World War II, the Sydney-London route over which the flying boats operated became a vital line of communication. QEA continued to fly to Singapore. However, after the occupation of Singapore by Japan all QEA aircraft were eventually recalled to Broome in Western Australia as Japanese forces advanced ever closer to Australia. QEA continued a token domestic service, but it ceased to be an overseas commercial passenger airline until the end of the war. More than half of the QEA fleet was commissioned for war service by the Australian government. Later in the war, QEA crews served alongside the Royal Australian Air Force in the battle zones of New Guinea.

In 1943 an agreement was signed between QEA, the British Air Ministry, and British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOACformerly Imperial Airways) to re-establish an air link between Britain and Australia. Using Catalina flying boatsobtained from the United States and leased from the Australian governmentregular flights were carried out between Perth, the capital of Western Australia, and Ceylon. The single ocean route of 5,600 kilometers was the longest ever undertaken. Between July 10, 1943, and July 18, 1945, 271 flights were undertaken.

Having survived World War II, QEA was left with virtually no aircraft. Hence it immediately began the task of rebuilding and modernizing its fleet. Against bitter opposition from the British government, BOAC, and their friends in Australia, QEA refused to seriously consider the purchase of what it regarded, correctly as it later transpired, as inferior and unairworthy British aircraft not even off the drawing board. Instead, in October 1946 an order worth A$5.5 million was placed with Lockheed for four Constellation aircraft. The DC3 aircraft was also introduced by QEA for use on the Australia-New Guinea and on internal New Guinea and Queensland routes.

QEA had been the national overseas airline of Australia since 1934. However, the nationalization of Imperial Airways in 1940 by the British government had led to pressure in Australia for the nationalization of QEA. In 1947 the Australian ALP government purchased BOACs 50 percent share of QEA and later in the year also purchased Qantass 50 percent share as well. In October McMaster retired as the result of persistent ill health, and Fysh became chairman of the newly nationalized QEA in addition to his role as managing director.

The first L749 Constellation arrived in October 1947, and on December 1 QEA began its first regular weekly service right through to London via Singapore on the famous Kangaroo Route. The Douglas DC4 Skymaster was introduced to the fleet in June 1949 on the new Hong Kong service. In 1949 Qantas handed over its services in Queensland and the Northern Territory and the Flying Doctor Service to Trans-Australia Airlines (TAA). TAA had been formed in December 1945 as a state-owned domestic airline. It was government policy that TAA should operate only domestic routes and that Qantas should confine itself to overseas routes. In 1950 a commercial service to Japan was inaugurated, followed in 1952 by a fortnightly service to Johannesburg, South Africa. In October 1953 QEA received permission to operate its first scheduled service to North America with the transfer of this service from the previous operator, British Commonwealth Pacific Airways (BCPA). QEA eventually took over BCPA.

In 1954 QEA began taking delivery of Lockheed Super Constellation aircraft and was able to inaugurate its new twice weekly trans-Pacific service to North America on May 15. One service flew on to San Francisco, and the other to Vancouver. During 1957 Qantas moved to new headquarters in Sydney. The following year QEA inaugurated its first round-the-world service with the establishment of the Southern Cross Route via San Francisco and New York. An agreement had been signed in 1957 for QEA to operate between Britain and Australia via the United States. In mid-1958, despite Qantass weak financial position, the government decided that both its internal operations in New Guinea and Sydney were domestic in nature. Hence it decided that Qantass New Guinea services would be taken over by TAA, which was done in 1960.

In 1959, ahead of all of its non-U.S. competitors, QEA took delivery of seven Boeing 707-138 jet aircraft. These were introduced in turn on both the Southern Cross and Kangaroo Routes during the same year. The Boeing 707 fleet was rapidly expanded and frequencies increased. By 1964 13 707 jetliners were operating on most of the Qantas routes, and the airline had begun selling off its aging propeller-driven aircraft. By March 1966 Qantass Boeing fleet had reached 19 jets, six of which were the larger 707-338C series with five more on order.

In June 1966 Sir Hudson Fysh retired as chairman of Qantas because of his ill health. His retirement was soon followed by that of the man most responsible for the postwar Qantas expansion, Sir Cedric Turner, who was general manager since 1951 and chief executive since 1955. Captain R.J. Richie, who had taken a leading role in building up the companys fleet and airline network after World War II, was appointed general manager; Sir Roland Wilson, a Qantas Board member, was appointed as the new chairman.

The same year Qantas made the decision to standardize its fleet with the larger 338C series Boeing and to dispose of its 138B aircraft. It also considered purchasing an even larger, innovative aircraft: the Boeing 747. As a result of the high costs involved, it was decided that Qantas would hold on to its 21-strong 707 fleet to protect its immediate position, and would wait for the more advanced B series of the 747. An initial order for four Boeing 747Bs was placed in August 1967. Although this meant that Qantass competitors would have been operating the wide-bodied jet for nearly two years before it took delivery, the B series had features and refinements particularly suited to long-haul operations. The airline also changed its name on August 1, 1967, to Qantas Airways Limited. At the end of the 1960s Qantas came under government pressure to cut its air fares because the Australian Tourist Commission and some government ministers felt that lower fares were essential for the development of the Australian tourist industry. Qantas, which was facing rising costs and falling revenue yields did not want to cut its fares.

In 1970 Qantas again decided to standardize its fleet with Boeing aircraft when it rejected the option of purchasing cheaper DC 10s in favor of 747s. In the early 1970s, the airline was facing strong competition, particularly on the Pacific, where it had excess capacity and one of its principal rivals, Pan-Am, was already using 747s. Qantas was forced to eliminate some of its air crew. Qantas also experienced problems with the United States Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), which banned its 747 operations even though Pan-Am used 747s on its flights to Australia. As a result Qantas introduced its 747s on routes to Singapore and London instead of on trans-Pacific services to the United States West Coast. The Australian government was forced to allow more American airline services between the United States and Australia. In return the CAB allowed Qantas to begin 747 services to the United States in January 1972.

In the early 1970s, Qantas formed a charter subsidiary, Qantair Limited, with the strong support of the Australian government with the intention of recovering the traffic it had lost to charter services on the Europe-Far East part of the journey to Australia. At the same time, Qantas decided to embark upon a low fares initiative in late 1971. On April 1, 1972, subject to British government approval, it cut the oneway fare between London and Sydney from £276 to £169. Single fares between Australia and four other European cities were similarly cut. The British government deferred approval for the new fare, but Qantas sold unapproved tickets in the face of bitter opposition to the new low fare from its rivals. In late May Britain approved the new fare. Britains liberal line earned it a good deal of anger from other countries and non-British airlines. Qantas offered travelers charter-level fares while still retaining the benefits of scheduled services. As a result, the airlines passenger traffic and revenue grew dramatically, despite the huge increase in the price of aviation fuel.

In August 1972, the Australian government authorized Qantas to go ahead with the construction of the International Centre, the new headquarters located in downtown Sydney. In December the ALP replaced the Liberals as Australias governing party. The new government confirmed its predecessors decision that Qantas would replace the two domestic airlines Ansett and TAA on the highly profitable route between Port Morseby and Australia after Papua New Guinea (PNG) became independent on December 1, 1973. Qantas had been forced to surrender this route to TAA in 1960.

After the introduction of its low fare policy in 1972, Qantas embarked upon a major rationalization of its route network. Margins were extremely tight and the airline could not afford to spread its operations over wide areas of the world for reasons of prestige alone. Hence Qantas decided to discontinue its Southern Cross Route to London as it had done earlier in the case of operations between Hong Kong and London.

During the late 1970s, Qantas readopted its policy of offering bargain fares between Britain and Australia beginning with fare cuts of up to £79 in 1977. Further fare cuts of up to one third were made in February 1979 as a means of meeting the potential threat of cheap advance booking charter fares proposed by Laker Airways of Britain. Qantass policy was opposed by members of the Association of South East Asian NationsASEAN. Singapore especially opposed it because the policy excluded stopovers in their countries, cutting tourism and airline profits. However, at a meeting in Kuala Lumpur in May 1979, Australia succeeded in forcing ASEAN to accept its new policy.

With the sale of its last Boeing 707 in 1979, Qantas became the worlds first airline to operate a fleet composed entirely of Boeing 747s. The final round-trip 707 flight operated between Sydney and Auckland at the end of March. Over the next few years, Qantas took delivery of several 747 variations. In 1980 the chairman since 1975, Sir Lenox Hewitt, retired. He was replaced by Jim Leslie, who was initially only a part-time chairman as well as continuing temporarily to be chairman and managing director of Mobil Oil Australia.

In the early 1980s, Qantas suffered from large operating losses. After the election of the new Labor (ALP) government in 1983, one of its first actions was to increase Qantass capital base from AS89.4 million to A$ 149.4 million. The airline had been denied adequate capital by the previous government and had been obliged to borrow heavily in order to maintain its aircraft fleet in a modern, efficient, and competitive form. The government hoped that the injection of new capital would assure the future of Qantas as a wholly-owned government enterprise.

The new government approved Qantass largest-ever aircraft order, an A$860 million fleet modernization program involving the purchase of three stretched upper-deck Boeing 747s and six of the Extended Range Boeing 767 twin-jets. The latter would help service airports such as Adelaide, which joined the Qantas network in November 1982, Cairns, Darwin, and Townsville. The twin-engined jets were also to be used on the New Zealand routes and expanded to Asian and Pacific destinations. Qantas was to sell its six oldest 747s progressively as the new aircraft were delivered.

Qantas returned to profitability in 1984, making a record pre-tax profit from airline operations of A$58 million in the year to March 31. This was a particularly strong performance given the depressed state of world aviation at that time. Qantas was able to sustain its strong recovery throughout the mid-1980s. Leslie felt that there was now more optimism because of depressed fuel prices and cost-cutting by airlines; he felt the main opportunity in Australia lay with tourism. Although the introduction of large, long-range aircraft could affect Australias neighbors, Leslie reasoned, tourist traffic from the Asian region itself could be increased.

In 1987 Qantas embarked upon the next stage of its fleet modernization program with an order for four fuel-efficient Boeing 747-400s, the company hoped would keep it competitive with British Airways and Singapore Airlines on its Britain-Australia and trans-Pacific routes. The record profits made in 1986-87 of A$63.4 million showed that the airline had become one of Australias top export earners.

In 1988 the governments of Australia and New Zealand decided to merge and partially privatize their state-owned airlines, Qantas, Australian Airlinesformerly TAAand Air New Zealand. This plan was abandoned after it met with strong opposition in New Zealand. The New Zealand government decided to privatize Air New Zealand in its existing form. In December Qantas was part of a consortium led by Brierley Investments of New Zealand (BIL) which purchased Air New Zealand, defeating a consortium led by British Airways. As a result Qantas acquired a 19.9 percent stake in the airline. The following year it was revealed that Qantas had reached a secret financial agreement with its partners in the consortium consisting of BIL, American Airlines, and Japan Air Lines to prevent control of Air New Zealand going to British Airways. The subsequent disclosure of this agreement damaged the reputation of Qantas.

At the same time, it was revealed that A$5.4 billion was to be spent on aircraft by 1992 and that the company would need a capital injection of A$600 million by the Australian government unless shares were sold to private investors. In 1989 the Australian government proposed the complete privatization of Qantas because it needed substantial capital injections in order to remain competitive, which the government was unable to fund. This new proposal led to a bitter argument in the ALP. During the year Qantas took delivery of the first of its ten long-haul Boeing 747-400s and flew it non-stop from London to Sydney. It was the first airline to do so and, at 17,850 kilometers, it was the longest single distance any commercial aircraft had ever flown.

In 1990 Qantas reported a loss as result of its fleet expansion program and the five-month-long domestic pilots dispute. These losses increased during 1990 as a result of the Persian Gulf crisis, and by early 1991 the airline was facing its worst financial situation since its foundation, including the Great Depression. It was decided to lay off 5,000 employees, sell nine Boeing 747s earlier than planned, and cut flying hours by 14 percent in the year to June 30, 1991.

In early 1990 Leslie had been succeeded as chairman by Bill Dix. In September 1990 the ALP had been persuaded to support the privatization of 49 percent of Qantas. However, the Australian government abandoned plans to float the airline in early 1991 and decided on a trade sale instead.

In June 1992 the Australian government approved Qantass purchase of 100 percent of Australian Airliness shares for A$400 million. It was also announced that later in 1992 49 percent of Qantas would be sold through a trade sale as planned, and the remaining 51 percent would be floated publicly during the first half of 1993. Foreign interests would be allowed to invest up to 35 percent, with the Australian government retaining a golden share. British Airways was believed to be interested in obtaining a stake in Qantas as part of its plan to create a global mega-airline.

In the early 1990s, with its imminent return to the private sector, the future of Qantas seemed uncertain. The possible revival of the historic relationship with British Airwaysthe successor to BOACseemed to put in question the future of Qantas as Australias overseas flag carrier.

Principal Subsidiaries

Australian Airlines; Qantas Investments (NZ) Limited; Q.H. Tours Group; Qantas Flight Catering Limited; Qantas Information Technology Limited; Australia-Asia Airlines Limited.

Further Reading

Fysh, Hudson, Qantas Rising: The Autobiography of the Flying Fysh, London, Angus & Robertson, 1966; Qantas Trijet Choice, Flight International, August 27, 1970; Hard Time for Qantas Too, Flight International, April 22, 1971; Qantas Cutback, Flight International, April 29, 1971; Action Pending?, Flight International, June 3, 1971; Pacific Brinkmanship, Flight International, July 29, 1971; Australian Charter Activity, Flight International, August 12, 1971; Canvassing for Qantas, Flight International, August 28, 1971; Qantas Switches 747s, Flight International, August 26, 1971; Progress in Pacific Dispute, Flight International, September 16, 1971; AAL Sets Melbourne Date, Flight International, October 28, 1971; .. . So Does Qantas, Flight International, December 9, 1971; Qantair Deferred, Flight International, December 30, 1971; Australia Accounts, Flight International, January 27, 1972; Qantas Cuts Fares, Flight International, April 13, 1972; Months Delay on New Australia Fare, Flight International, April 27, 1972; Unapproved Fares Offered, Flight International, May 11, 1972; Air Transport, Flight International, May 18, 1972; Government Support for Qantas, Flight International, August 24, 1972; Qantas Gains in New Guinea, Flight International, September 28, 1972; Shake-up in Australia, Flight International, December 21, 1972; An Australian View, Flight International, February 22, 1973; Times (London), January 27, 1977; Lower Fares Predicted to Australia, Times (London), June 20, 1978; Threat to Airline, Daily Telegraph, January 12, 1979; 130,000 in Rush for Cheap Flights to Australia, Daily Telegraph, February 2, 1979; Airfares Pacific Punch-up, Economist, March 31, 1979; Qantas First All-747 Carrier, Flight International, April 7, 1979; Australia and Asean Agree to Be Dissatisfied in Air Fares War, but Canberra Comes Out on Top, Far Eastern Economic Review, May 18, 1979; Sir Lenox Hewitt Leaves Qantas, Flight International, July 5, 1980; State-owned Australian Airlines to Get More Cash, Financial Times, May 4, 1983; Qantas Airline Loss Doubles, Financial Times, December 2, 1983; National Carrier Gets Boost, Financial Times, January 10, 1984; Strong Return to Black for Qantas, Financial Times, June 1, 1984; Gunn, John, The Defeat of Distance: Qantas 1919-1939, St. Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 1985; Profitable Outlook Forecast for Airlines, Financial Times, January 14, 1986; Qantas Profit Soars, Financial Times, June 5, 1986; Gunn, John, Pioneers of Flight: An Abridged History of Qantas Airways Limited, The Company, c. 1987; Gunn, John, Challenging Horizons: Qantas 1939-1954, St. Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 1987; Qantas to Buy Four Boeings, Financial Times, March 3, 1987; Qantas Soars to Record Results, Financial Times, July 28, 1987; Gunn, John, High Corridors: Qantas 1954-1970, St. Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 1988; Qantas May Still Merge with Air NZ, Financial Times, April 2, 1988; Qantas-NZ Merger Plan Wins Cool Reception, Financial Times, April 5, 1988; Qantas Merger with Air NZ Ruled Out, Financial Times, April 21, 1988; Qantas Renews Drive for Airline Link-up, Financial Times, June 29, 1988; NZ Backs Qantas Bid for Stake in Airline, Financial Times, September 20, 1988; BA Defeated in Bid for Air New Zealand, Financial Times, December 22, 1988; New Zealand May Slow Pace of State Asset Sales, Far Eastern Economic Review, January 26, 1989; Australian Labor Party Reopens Row Over Privatisation, Financial Times, June 9, 1989; Qantas Sees Lower Profits after Posting Record Year, Financial Times, October 13, 1989; Gunn, John, High Corridors: Qantas 1954-1970, St. Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 1990; Australian Sector, Financial Times, February 5, 1990; Qantas Blames Losses on Fleet Expansion and Pilots Dispute, Financial Times, June 30, 1990; Australian Party Backs Airline and Telecom Selloff, Financial Times, September 25, 1990; Financial Times, November 9, 1990; Financial Times, November 16, 1990; Qantas Annual Report, 1990-91; Qantas Faces Financial Crisis, Financial Times, March 18, 1991; Secret Formation for Air NZ Deal, Financial Times, March 28, 1991; Australian Airlines Join the Rat Race, Financial Times, April 26, 1991; Financial Times, June 7, 1991; Aircraft Sale Underlines Qantas Rise, Financial Times, December 13, 1991; Qantas Fact Sheet, May, 1992; CAA Approves £196 Sydney Fare, Flight International, June 1, 1992; Qantas and Australian to Merge, Financial Times, June 3, 1992; Australia Set for Airline Shake-up, Flight International, June 10, 1992; US-Air: BAs American Dream, Observer, July 12, 1992.

Richard Hawkins

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"Qantas Airways Limited." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Qantas Airways Limited." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/qantas-airways-limited-0

"Qantas Airways Limited." International Directory of Company Histories. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/qantas-airways-limited-0