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Ingersoll-Rand Company

Ingersoll-Rand Company

200 Chestnut Ridge Road
Woodcliff Lake, New Jersey 07675
U.S.A.
(201) 573-0123
Fax: (201) 573-3448

Public Company
Incorporated:
1905
Employees: 35,932
Sales: $4.51 billion (1994)
Stock Exchanges: New York London Amsterdam
SICs: 3429 Hardware, Not Elsewhere Classified; 3492 Fluid Power Valves & Hose Fittings; 3519 Internal Combustion Engines, Not Elsewhere Classified; 3531 Construction Machinery & Equipment; 3533 Oil & Gas Field Machinery & Equipment; 3532 Mining Machinery & Equipment, Except Oil & Gas Field Machinery Equipment; 3536 Overhead Traveling Cranes, Hoists & Monorail Systems; 3546 Power Driven Hand Tools; 3549 Metalworking Machinery, Not Elsewhere Classified; 3554 Paper Industries Machinery; 3556 Food Products Machinery; 3561 Pumps & Pumping Equipment; 3562 Ball & Roller Bearings; 3563 Air & Gas Compressors; 3568 Mechanical Power Transmission Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified; 3714 Motor Vehicle Parts & Accessories

Utilizing plants located throughout the world, Ingersoll-Rand Company manufactures a wide array of machinery and equipment for the automotive, construction, and energy markets and for general industry. The firm is a leader in air compressors, bearings, door locks and hardware, golf cars, pumps, road construction machinery, and skid-steer loaders, among other areas.

Ingersoll-Rand grew out of the efforts of four late 19th-century inventors. Simon Ingersoll, a farmer and inventor, patented a rock drill in 1871, then sold the rights to his patent; Henry Clark Sergeant improved upon Ingersolls drill and persuaded businessman José F. de Navarro to invest in the idea; William Lawrence Saunders developed many diversified forms of the rock drill; and Addison Crittenden Rand also improved rock drills. Rand also was successful in persuading mining companies to substitute the new technology for the traditional hammer and chisel.

In 1870 inventor Simon Ingersoll, who worked at truck farming to support his family, accepted a contractors commission to develop a drill that would work on rock. Ingersoll worked on the invention in a New York machine shop owned by entrepreneur José F. de Navarro. Ingersoll received a patent on the rock drill in 1871, but the new tool did not stand up to New Yorks rocky streets.

Henry Clark Sergeant, one of the partners in the machine shop, made an important change in the drill design. He separated the front head from the cylinder, since a drill in two pieces could better resist breakage. Sergeant then persuaded de Navarro to buy Ingersolls patent, and de Navarro organized the Ingersoll Rock Drill Company in 1874, with Sergeant as its first president. Ingersoll, who was forced to sell most of his patents and work halfheartedly at farming to feed his family, died nearly destitute in 1894.

Henry Clark Sergeant, however, was able to turn ideas into profitable businesses. Sergeant had been inventing since he was a teenager, and had secured his first patent when he was 20. In 1868, at the age of 34, he had arrived in New York City where he started a machine shop that specialized in developing the ideas of other inventors. As the business grew, he took a partner and moved into de Navarros shop. After de Navarro formed the Ingersoll Rock Drill Company, Sergeant worked for several years to improve Ingersolls drill by using compressed air rather than steam to operate it.

In 1885 Sergeant developed a completely different rock drill and formed the Sergeant Drill Company to manufacture it. In 1888 he merged the two companies, becoming president of the Ingersoll-Sergeant Rock Drill Company. After several years he became a director and devoted himself to inventing.

At the same time Ingersoll was patenting his rock drill in 1871, Addison Crittenden Rand moved to New York City from Massachusetts. Rands brother, Alfred T. Rand, had been instrumental in founding the Laflin & Rand Powder Company, a mining firm. Addison Rand had formed the Rand Drill Company to develop a rock drill and air-compressing machinery for his brothers company. Rands firm developed the Little Giant tappet drill and the Rand Slugger drill and marketed them effectively, convincing mining companies to switch from hammer and chisel to rock drills with air compressors.

Rand was known for his paternalistic approach to business. He carefully selected his employees and trained them for skilled positions. Rand avoided unions, and was personally affronted when employees at his Tarrytown, New York, plant struck in 1886. The plant was shut down for a year before Rand would agree to a settlement.

In 1905 Michael P. Gracea brother of William R. Grace, who founded W. R. Grace & Companybrought Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Company and the Rand Drill Company together. The two companies had specialized in slightly different segments of the drill marketIngersoll-Sergeant specialized in construction work while Rand focused on underground miningand their interests were complementary. The new company was incorporated as the Ingersoll-Rand Company (I-R) in June 1905 and billed itself as the largest builder of air power machinery in the world. The Grace family owned the largest single block of stock, and a Grace has served on the I-R board ever since.

William Lawrence Saunders became the first president of the company. Saunders, an engineer, had developed a compressed-air drilling apparatus for subaqueous use while in his 20s. The widely used invention made development of Russias Baku oil fields possible. Saunders had inspected an underwater rock drilling and blasting project himself, diving down to it so he could design a subaqueous drill appropriate for the job. He was active in engineering societies, and established an award given by the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers to recognize achievements in mining methods. He also established Compressed Air, the companys industrial trade journal, in 1896 and served as its editor. In addition, Saunders was a two-time mayor of North Plainfield, New Jersey.

As president of Ingersoll-Rand, Saunders expanded upon the companys original line of rock drills and air compressors. He promoted development of diverse types of these machines. He also led Ingersoll-Rand into related areas of the tool business. I-R expanded into pneumatic tools in 1907 by acquiring the Imperial Pneumatic Tool Company of Athens, Pennsylvania. In 1909 the company bought the A.S. Cameron Steam Pump Works and entered the industrial pump business. In 1913 he added centrifugal pumps to I-Rs product list. Under Saunders I-R also acquired the J. George Leyner Engineering Works Company. This firm had developed a small, hammer-type drill that could be operated by one man. I-R began to produce the jackhammer in 1913, and it quickly became a popular item.

Saunders moved to the board of directors in 1913 and was replaced as president by George Doubleday. Doubleday was determined to make Ingersoll-Rand the leader in its product areasdrills, air compressors, jackhammers, pneumatic tools, and industrial pumps. Doubleday led Ingersoll-Rand for 42 years.

Doubleday carefully adhered to the principles that Saunders had used to guide the company, using Ingersoll-Rands four major plants in Phillipsburg, New Jersey; Easton and Athens, Pennsylvania; and Painted Post, New York, to handle increasing business. In these locations, I-R was the major employer. Community life centered on the firm: many workers lived in company-owned houses, and community and school events were held in company buildings. Doubleday hired boys off the farm and trained them to become skilled machinists through a seven-year apprenticeship. These artisans accepted the companys credo of pride in personal work, and only a handful of quality-control specialists were needed. Doubleday charged a premium price for the high-quality machinery this system produced.

Little is known about the company itself under Doubleday or about Doubledays personal life-he refused even to release a photograph of himself to the pressand he provided a bare minimum of information about Ingersoll-Rand. Under Doubleday the company never released a quarterly report and its annual report was a single folded sheet of paper containing only the figures the New York Stock Exchange required.

Advances were made in the firms products during the Doubleday years, however. In 1933 I-R introduced a new portable-compressor line, which was improved during the 1950s with the introduction of the revolutionary sliding-vane rotary portable unit. Ingersoll-Rand began to compete in the big drill field in 1947, when it introduced the Quarrymaster, which was used in quarrying, open-pit mining, and excavation. A self-propelled jumbo drill, the Drillmaster, was introduced in 1953, followed by the Downhole drill in 1955. Doubleday also purchased General Electrics centrifugal-compressor business in 1933, to become the leader in that sector of the business. In 1948 the company designed the first natural gas transmission centrifugal compressors.

When Doubleday retired in 1955 Ingersoll-Rand was indeed on sound financial footing. The company had more than $100 million in cash and no debt. With an operating profit margin of 37 percent and a net profit margin of 19 percent, it had paid a dividend every year since 1910, and return on stockholders equity was 23 percent.

Doubleday had reached those impressive numbers, however, by abandoning the marketing orientation that he had originally brought to the job. By the end of his tenure he was 89 years old, and had become too conservative. The companys capital was the result of Doubledays unwillingness to upgrade the companys plants to keep manufacturing costs low; to promote research and development to retain I-Rs technological edge; or to maintain sufficient foreign parts inventory to keep equipment running overseas. He also eschewed diversification outside of I-Rs basic product lines.

Doubleday died in 1955, and an interim management team followed his policies for another four years. Robert H. Johnson was named chairman of the company in 1959. At 58, Johnson had spent 35 years with the company he had joined as a salesman.

Johnson cut the companys premium prices to remain competitive. He also spent $25 million to increase parts inventories abroad, and thereby doubled sales overseas in five years; invested in research to promote a return to technological leadership; and increased spending for plant and equipment from an approximate average of $2 million a year to $15 million in 1965. Johnson put the companys excess cashmore than 65 percent of I-Rs total assets in 1966to work through a policy of careful acquisitions. He invested, for example, in Lawrence Manufacturing Company, which specialized in producing mechanical moles for urban underground utility tunneling.

Johnsons successor as CEO, 52-year-old William L. Wearly, gave those policies new momentum. Wearly, who took the top position in 1967, was the first leader at Ingersoll-Rand who had not grown up with the company, another sign that it was leaving its conservative past behind. Wearly came to I-R as a consultant in 1962 after leaving the presidency at Joy Manufacturing. With Wearly came a new generation of managers: President D. Wayne Hallstein was 49, while the four newest vice presidents were under 44. The youth of the new management team was no accident; Johnson had decided that managers who were over 55 had been too thoroughly indoctrinated in the Doubleday method of doing business and bypassed them completely.

Wearly reaped the advantages of Johnsons investment in plant and equipment, which allowed Ingersoll-Rand to increase salesespecially abroadbecause of increased manufacturing capacity. Wearly also increased capacity through overseas acquisitions in England, Italy, Canada, South Africa, and Australia.

Wearly then took Ingersoll-Rand into new, diversified areas to help offset the cyclical nature of the capital-goods market. The acquisition of The Torrington Company in 1968, which brought needle and roller bearings, knitting needles, metal-forming machines, universal joints, and roller clutches to the company catalog, was especially important. So was Wearlys 1974 acquisition of the Schlage Lock Company, which produced locks, door hardware, and home and business security devices. Both acquisitions became consistent moneymakers for I-R.

Wearly had clearly moved away from the companys tradition of operating paternalistic plants in small towns. By the early 1960s Ingersoll-Rand operated 36 plants in the United States and 17 abroad. One of them, its Roanoke, Virginia, plant, became the first factory in the country to use computerized direct numerical control of a production line. The plant used a computer to run machine tools and to automatically move parts from one tool to another on conveyer belts without human assistance. The new Roanoke facility took over much of the capacity of the old Athens, Pennsylvania, plant, which had been crippled by strikes and rising labor costs. In 1959 the company had threatened to leave Athens if the union did not make significant concessions on work methods, and Ingersoll-Rand had won the new five-year contract it wanted. A decade later those union concessions were not forthcoming, and the Athens plant was substantially bypassedby a mechanized system instead of by other workers.

Wearlys policies seemed destined to pay off in the early 1970s, when factors such as the search for new energy sources, Mideastern oil money, growing East-West trade, and Third World industrialization led to increased demand for almost all Ingersoll-Rand products. Five years later, the boom turned into a bust. Capital spending had slowed after the energy crisis of 1973. Coal and railroad strikes hurt the company because it was still a major supplier of coal-mining machinery. Wearly said that President Jimmy Carters human rights emphasis hurt business in the Soviet Union and Brazil. All of these factors left Ingersoll-Rand with too much capacity and too much inventory.

Wearly retired in 1980 and Thomas Holmes, a 30-year employee, took over as CEO. Holmes convinced Clyde Folley, a member of Price Waterhouses governing board who had worked on the Ingersoll-Rand account, to become chief financial officer. The two executives faced the global recession and resulting fall in earnings and sales, especially of oil-drilling and construction equipment. Overall in 1993 Ingersoll-Rand lost $112 million, the first loss it had suffered since the 1930s.

As a result, the company closed 30 production plants and cut staff by one-third. The companys tight cash supply was spent only in the areas where returns were highestbearings, locks, and toolsrather than on the traditional focus areas of the companyengineered equipment, coal-mining equipment, and air compressors. Holmes and Folley tied management compensation to return on assets instead of sales to promote more efficient asset use, and centralized inventory controls.

Holmes, Folley, and Theodore Black then initiated joint ventures with competitors. One of the most important of these ventures was Dresser-Rand, a 50-50 partnership formed in

1986 with Dresser Industries, another major mining- and oil-equipment company. Almost immediately successful, Dresser-Rand turned a profit in only its second year of operation. In

1987 I-R formed another joint venture in mining with B.R. Simmons. Folley said the joint ventures allowed the company to cut staff and losses while competing more effectively with Japanese and West German companies. Pooling talent also helped the firms stay current technologically.

Ingersoll-Rand had once again weathered recession by the time Holmes stepped down in 1988. His successor, Theodore Black, was able to focus on significant positive aspects of the company. Ingersoll-Rand continued to emphasize new product development, introducing improved home air compressors, new papermaking technology, and a new type of camshaft in 1988. Ingersoll-Rand also continued to make appropriate acquisitions, including a Swedish company that designs waterjet cutting systems, a Canadian manufacturer of paving equipment, and a German maker of special-purpose hydraulic rock drills, in 1988. In 1990, the company purchased The Aro Corporation, one of its larger acquisitions of the period. Ingersoll-Rand continued to utilize state-of-the-art computerized production and design techniques. New techniques that utilize manufacturing cells to produce a product from start to finish with much less labor than a production line were able to produce more, higher-quality goods.

Another recession during the early 1990s barely registered on Ingersoll-Rands balance sheet; 1991 profits fell 19 percent to $150.6 million, while the companys competitors posted losses$404 million for Caterpillar Inc. and $36 million for Timken Co. Part of the credit for Ingersoll-Rands success was attributed to its geographical diversity. In the early 1980s only 30 percent of the companys sales were attributable to products manufactured outside the United States, but through a variety of acquisitions thereafter that percent had increased to 70 percent by 1992. The Dresser-Rand partnership was also paying off huge dividends on the home front. The joint ventures sales exceeded $1.2 billion by 1991 and more than one-quarter (or $40 million) of Ingersoll-Rands 1991 profits were generated from Dresser-Rand.

Dresser Industries and Ingersoll-Rand recognized another possible area of cooperation in 1991 within their then-competitive industrial-pump manufacturing operations. The companies agreed in May of that year to combine their pump divisions into one organization that could better compete against competitors in Japan and Germany. The new firm would have annual sales of $800 million and 8,000 employees worldwide, and would dominate the pump manufacturing industry in the United States. The U.S. Justice Department initially opposed the joint venture under the Sherman Antitrust Act. Dresser and Ingersoll-Rand countered by contending that the Justice Department had to take the impact of foreign competition into account. After lengthy negotiations, in August 1992 the Justice Department agreed to let the merger go through provided that the two companies divest about $10 million of their pump operations to mitigate its impact on domestic competition. The newly formed company was called Ingersoll-Dresser Pump Company and Ingersoll-Rand owned 51 percent of it.

In September 1993, Black retired as chairman and CEO and was replaced by James E. Perrella, a 16-year veteran of the firm. Perrella continued to invest heavily in research and development, shelling out a record $ 154.6 million in 1994 alone, as well as to make strategic and significant acquisitions. Several smaller acquisitions in 1993 and 1994 served to increase Ingersoll-Rands presence in the European market and brought additional complementary businesses into the company fold. These moves included the 1994 acquisitions of the France-based Montabert S.A., a manufacturer of hydraulic rock-breaking and drilling equipment, for $18.4 million and the Ecoair air compressor operation from MAN Gutehoffnungshiitte AG for $10.6 million. In 1994 Ingersoll-Rand also invested $17.6 million in a joint venture with MAN to manufacture airends, an important component in certain industrial air compressors.

Ingersoll-Rands most important acquisition of this period, and perhaps in its history, came the following year when it purchased Clark Equipment Co., the South Bend, Indiana, manufacturer of small and medium-sized construction machines. Perrella was seeking a major acquisitiona firm that was first or second in its market with sales of $500 million to $1.5 billionand Clark became a prime candidate. A Clark acquisition was seen as a particularly complementary one, given Clarks focus on construction and Ingersoll-Rands construction-related lines, which comprised only about 18 percent of company sales prior to the takeover. Clark became an even more attractive target in early March 1995 when it sold its half-interest in VME Group N.V., an earthmoving equipment manufacturer, to its partner, Volvo AB, for $573 million.

Before the acquisition was completed, however, Ingersoll-Rand had to fend off Clarks management which did not wish to relinquish control. After Clarks board rejected the first offer, Ingersoll-Rand made a hostile bid of $1.3 billion late in March. Clark then brought suit against Ingersoll-Rand claiming that the takeover would violate antitrust laws; Ingersoll-Rand countered by taking steps to oust Clarks board at the annual meeting to be held in early May. In early April, Clark reluctantly accepted an increased offer of $1.5 billion, which many analysts viewed as fair. Through the acquisition, Ingersoll-Rand gained such Clark operations as Blaw-Knox, the worlds leading manufacturer of asphalt road paving equipment; Melroe, the world leader in skid-steer loaders; and Club Car, the second largest golf car manufacturer in the world.

Ingersoll-Rand has changed dramatically since its early days when it emphasized staying on top of a few product lines in a centralized, paternalistic working environment. With its carefully diversified line of products and its worldwide operations, it appears that this strong company will continue to withstand international economic fluctuations to provide what the world needs to grow and develop.

Principal Subsidiaries

The Aro Corporation; California Pellet Mill Company; Clark Equipment Co; Dresser-Rand Co. (49%); Ingersoll-Dresser Pump Company (51%); Ingersoll-Rand China Limited; Ingersoll-Rand International, Inc.; Ingersoll-Rand International Sales, Inc.; Ingersoll-Rand International Holding Corporation; Ingersoll-Rand Sales Company Limited; Ingersoll-Rand Worldwide, Inc.; Schlage Lock Company; Silver Engineering Works, Inc.; Simmons-Rand Company; The Torrington Company; Ingersoll-Rand (Australia) Ltd.; Ingersoll-Rand Benelux (Belgium); Ingersoll-Rand Canada, Inc.; Compagnie Ingersoll-Rand (France); Ingersoll-Rand Beteiligungs GmbH (Germany); Ingersoll-Rand (India) Ltd. (74%); Ingersoll-Rand Italiana S.p.A. (Italy); Ingersoll-Rand Japan Ltd.; Tokyo Ryuki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha (Japan); Ingersoll-Rand Philippines, Inc.; Ingersoll-Rand AB (Sweden); Ingersoll-Rand Services & Engineering Company (Switzerland).

Principal Operating Units

Standard Machinery, composed of Air Compressor, Construction and Mining, and Mining Machinery groups; Engineered Equipment, composed of Pump and Process Systems groups; Bearings, Locks and Tools, composed of Bearings and Components, Production Equipment, and Door Hardware group.

Further Reading

Byrne, Harlan S., Ingersoll-Rand: Leaner and Poised to Build Stronger Profits, Barrons, June 8, 1992, pp. 39-40.

Johnson, James P., New Jersey: A History of Ingenuity and Industry, Northridge, Calif.: Windsor Publications, 1987.

Klebnikov, Paul, A Traumatic Experience: Ingersoll-Rand Prospers Today Because It Stumbled So Badly a Few Years Ago, Forbes, January 18, 1993, pp. 83-84.

Koether, George, The Building of Men, Machines, and a Company, Woodcliff Lake, N.J., 1971, 107 p.

Lipin, Steven, Clark Accepts Ingersoll Bid of $1.5 Billion for Takeover. Wall Street Journal, April 10, 1995, pp. A3, A5.

Ginger G. Rodriguez

updated by David E. Salamie

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Ingersoll-Rand Company

Ingersoll-Rand Company

200 Chestnut Ridge Road
Woodcliff Lake, New Jersey 07675
U.S.A.
(201) 573-0123
Fax: (201) 573-3319

Public Company
Incorporated:
1905
Employees: 31,623
Sales: $3.45 billion
Stock Exchanges: New York London Amsterdam

Ingersoll-Rand Company grew out of the efforts of four late-19th-century inventors. Simon Ingersoll, a farmer and inventor, patented a rock drill in 1871, then sold the rights to his patent; Henry Clark Sergeant improved upon Ingersolls drill and convinced businessman Jose F. de Navarro to invest in the idea; William Lawrence Saunders developed many diversified forms of the rock drill; and Addison Crittenden Rand also improved rock drills. Rand also was successful in persuading mining companies to substitute the new technology for the traditional hammer and chisel.

In 1870 inventor Simon Ingersoll, who worked at truck farming to support his family, accepted a contractors commission to develop a drill that would work on rock. Ingersoll worked on the invention in a New York machine shop owned by entrepreneur Jose F. de Navarro. He received a patent on the rock drill in 1871, but the new tool did not stand up to New Yorks rocky streets.

Henry Clark Sergeant, one of the partners in the machine shop, made an important change in the drill design. He separated the front head from the cylinder, since a drill in two pieces could better resist breakage. Sergeant then persuaded de Navarro to buy Ingersolls patent, and de Navarro organized the Ingersoll Rock Drill Company in 1874, with Sergeant as its first president. Ingersoll, who was forced to sell most of his patents and work halfheartedly at farming to feed his family, died nearly destitute in 1894.

Henry Clark Sergeant, however, was able to turn ideas into profitable businesses. Sergeant had been inventing since he was a teenager, and had secured his first patent when he was 20. In 1868, at the age of 34, he had arrived in New York City where he started a machine shop that specialized in developing the ideas of other inventors. As the business grew, he took a partner and moved into de Navarros shop. After de Navarro formed the Ingersoll Rock Drill Company, Sergeant worked for several years to improve Ingersolls drill by using compressed air rather than steam to operate it.

In 1885 Sergeant developed a completely different rock drill and formed the Sergeant Drill Company to manufacture it. In 1888 he merged the two companies, becoming president of the Ingersoll-Sergeant Rock Drill Company. After several years he became a director and devoted himself to inventing.

At the same time Ingersoll was patenting his rock drill in 1871, Addison Crittenden Rand moved to New York City from Massachusetts. Rands brother, Alfred T. Rand, had been instrumental in founding the Laflin & Rand Powder Company, a mining firm. Addison Rand had formed the Rand Drill Company to develop a rock drill and air-compressing machinery for his brothers company. Rands firm developed the Little Giant tappet drill and the Rand Slugger drill and marketed them effectively, convincing mining companies to switch from hammer and chisel to rock drills with air compressors.

Rand was known for his paternalistic approach to business. He carefully selected his employees and trained them for skilled positions. Rand avoided unions, and was personally affronted when employees at his Tarrytown, New York, plant struck in 1886. The plant was shut down for a year before Rand would agree to a settlement.

In 1905 Michael P. Gracea brother of William R. Grace, who founded W. R. Grace & Companybrought Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Company and the Rand Drill Company together. The two companies had specialized in slightly different segments of the drill marketIngersoll-Sergeant specialized in construction work while Rand focused on underground miningand their interests were complementary. The new company was incorporated as the Ingersoll-Rand Company (I-R) in June 1905 and billed itself as the largest builder of air power machinery in the world. The Grace family owned the largest single block of stock, and a Grace has served on the I-R board ever since.

William Lawrence Saunders became the first president of the company. Saunders, an engineer, had developed a compressed-air drilling apparatus for subaqueous use while in his 20s. The widely used invention made development of Russias Baku oil fields possible. Saunders had inspected an underwater rock drilling and blasting project himself, diving down to it so he could design a subaqueous drill appropriate for the job. He was active in engineering societies, and established an award given by the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers to recognize achievements in mining methods. He also established Compressed Air, the companys industrial trade journal, in 1896 and served as its editor. In addition, Saunders was a two-time mayor of North Plainfield, New Jersey.

As president of Ingersoll-Rand, Saunders expanded upon the companys original line of rock drills and air compressors. He promoted development of diverse types of these machines. He also led Ingersoll-Rand into related areas of the tool business. I-R expanded into pneumatic tools in 1907 by acquiring the Imperial Pneumatic Tool Company of Athens, Pennsylvania. In 1909 the company bought the A.S. Cameron Steam Pump Works and entered the industrial pump business. In 1913 he added centrifugal pumps to I-Rs product list. Under Saunders I-R also acquired the J. George Leyner Engineering Works Company. This firm had developed a small, hammer-type drill that could be operated by one man. I-R began to began to produce the jackhammer in 1913, and it quickly became a popular item.

Saunders moved to the board of directors in 1913 and was replaced as president by George Doubleday. Doubleday was determined to make Ingersoll-Rand the leader in its product areasdrills, air compressors, jackhammers, pneumatic tools, and industrial pumps. Doubleday led Ingersoll-Rand for 42 years.

Doubleday carefully adhered to the principles that Saunders had used to guide the company, using Ingersoll-Rands four major plants in Phillipsburg, New Jersey; Easton and Athens, Pennsylvania; and Painted Post, New York, to handle increasing business. In these locations, I-R was the major employer. Community life centered on the firm: many workers lived in company-owned houses, and community and school events were held in company buildings. Doubleday hired boys off the farm and trained them to become skilled machinists through a seven-year apprenticeship. These artisans accepted the companys credo of pride in personal work, and only a handful of quality-control specialists were needed. Doubleday charged a premium price for the high-quality machinery this system produced.

Little is known about the company itself under Doubleday or about Doubledays personal lifehe refused even release a photograph of himself to the pressand he provided a bare minimum of information about Ingersoll-Rand. Under Doubleday the company never released a quarterly report and its annual report was a single folded sheet of paper containing only the figures the New York Stock Exchange required.

Advances were made in the firms products during the Doubleday years, however. In 1933 I-R introduced a new portable-compressor line, which was improved during the 1950s with the introduction of the revolutionary sliding-vane rotary portable unit. Ingersoll-Rand began to compete in the big drill field in 1947, when it introduced the Quarrymaster, which was used in quarrying, open-pit mining, and excavation. A self-propelled jumbo drill, the Drillmaster, was introduced in 1953, followed by the Downhole drill in 1955. Doubleday also purchased General Electrics centrifugal-compressor business in 1933, to become the leader in that sector of the business. In 1948 the company designed the first natural gas transmission centrifugal compressors.

When Doubleday retired in 1955 Ingersoll-Rand was indeed on sound financial footing. The company had over $100 million in cash and no debt. With an operating profit margin of 37% and a net profit margin of 19%, it had paid a dividend every year since 1910, and return on stockholders equity was 23%.

Doubleday had reached those impressive numbers, however, by abandoning the marketing orientation that he had originally brought to the job. By the end of his tenure he was 89 years old, and had become too conservative. The companys capital was the result of Doubledays unwillingness to upgrade the companys plants to keep manufacturing costs low; to promote research and development to retain I-Rs technological edge; or to maintain sufficient foreign parts inventory to keep equipment running overseas. He also eschewed diversification outside of I-Rs basic product lines.

Doubleday died in 1955, and an interim management team followed his policies for another four years. Robert H. Johnson was named chairman of the company in 1959. At 58, Johnson had spent 35 years with the company he had joined as a salesman.

Johnson cut the companys premium prices to remain competitive. He also spent $25 million to increase parts inventories abroad, and thereby doubled sales overseas in five years; invested in research to promote a return to technological leadership; and increased spending for plant and equipment from an approximate average of $2 million a year to $15 million in 1965. Johnson put the companys excess cashover 65% of I-Rs total assets in 1966to work through a policy of careful acquisitions. He invested, for example, in Lawrence Manufacturing Company, which specialized in producing mechanical moles for urban underground utility tunneling.

Johnsons successor as CEO, 52-year-old William L. Wearly, gave those policies new momentum. Wearly, who took the top position in 1967, was the first leader at Ingersoll-Rand who had not grown up with the company, another sign that it was leaving its conservative past behind. Wearly came to I-R as a consultant in 1962 after leaving the presidency at Joy Manufacturing. With Wearly came a new generation of managers: President D. Wayne Hallstein was 49, while the four newest vice presidents were under 44. The youth of the new management team was no accident; Johnson had decided that managers who were over 55 had been too thoroughly indoctrinated in the Doubleday method of doing business and bypassed them completely.

Wearly reaped the advantages of Johnsons investment in plant and equipment, which allowed Ingersoll-Rand to increase salesespecially abroadbecause of increased manufacturing capacity. Wearly also increased capacity through overseas acquisitions in England, Italy, Canada, South Africa, and Australia.

Wearly then took Ingersoll-Rand into new, diversified areas to help offset the cyclical nature of the capital-goods market. The acquisition of The Torrington Company in 1968, which brought needle and roller bearings, knitting needles, metal-forming machines, universal joints, and roller clutches to the company catalog, was especially important. So was Wearlys 1974 acquisition of the Schlage Lock Company, which produces locks, door hardware, and home and business security devices. Both acquisitons have been consistent moneymakers for I-R.

Wearly had clearly moved away from the companys tradition of operating paternalistic plants in small towns. By the early 1960s Ingersoll-Rand operated 36 plants in the United States and 17 abroad. One of them, its Roanoke, Virginia, plant, became the first factory in the country to use computerized direct numerical control of a production line. The plant used a computer to run machine tools and to automatically move parts from one tool to another on conveyer belts without human assistance. The new Roanoke facility took over much of the capacity of the old Athens, Pennsylvania, plant, which had been crippled by strikes and rising labor costs. In 1959 the company had threatened to leave Athens if the union did not make significant concessions on work methods, and Ingersoll-Rand had won the new five-year contract it wanted. A decade later those union concessions were not forthcoming, and the Athens plant was substantially bypassedby a mechanized system instead of by other workers.

Wearlys policies seemed destined to pay off in the early 1970s, when factors like the search for new energy sources, Mideastern oil money, growing East-West trade, and Third World industrialization led to increased demand for almost all Ingersoll-Rand products. Five years later, the boom turned into a bust. Capital spending had slowed after the energy crisis of 1973. Coal and railroad strikes hurt the company because it was still a major supplier of coal-mining machinery. Wearly said that President Jimmy Carters human rights emphasis hurt business in the Soviet Union and Brazil. All of these factors left Ingersoll-Rand with too much capacity and too much inventory.

Wearly retired in 1980 and Thomas Holmes, a 30-year employee, took over as CEO. Holmes convinced Clyde Folley, a member of Price Waterhouses governing board who had worked on the Ingersoll-Rand account, to become chief financial officer. The two executives faced the global recession and resulting fall in earnings and sales, especially of oil-drilling and construction equipment.

The company closed 30 production plants and cut staff by one-third. The companys tight cash supply was spent only in the areas where returns were highestbearings, locks, and toolsnot on the traditional focus of the company engineered equipment, coal-mining equipment, and air compressors. Holmes and Folley tied management compensation to return on assets instead of sales to promote more efficient asset use, and centralized inventory controls.

Holmes, Folley, and Theodore Black then initiated joint ventures with competitors. One of the most important of these ventures is Dresser-Rand, a 50-50 partnership formed in 1986 with Dresser Industries, another major mining- and oil-equipment company. In 1987 I-R formed another joint venture in mining with B.R. Simmons. Folley said the joint ventures allowed the company to cut staff and losses while competing more effectively with Japanese and West German companies. Pooling talent also helps the firms stay current technologically. By the end of the 1980s Dresser-Rand was turning a profit.

Ingersoll-Rand had once again weathered recession by the time Holmes stepped down in 1988. His successor, Theodore Black, was able to focus on significant positive aspects of the company. Ingersoll-Rand continued to emphasize newproduct development, introducing improved home air compressors, new papermaking technology, and a new type of camshaft in 1988. Ingersoll-Rand also continued to make appropriate acquisitions, including a Swedish company that designs waterjet cutting systems, a Canadian manufacturer of paving equipment, and a German maker of special-purpose hydraulic rock drills, in 1988. In 1990, the company purchased The Aro Corporation, one of its larger recent acquisitions. Ingersoll-Rand continued to utilize state-of-the-art computerized production and design techniques. New techniques that utilize manufacturing cells to produce a product from start to finish with much less labor than a production line can produce more, higher-quality goods.

Ingersoll-Rand has changed since its early days when it emphasized staying on top of a few product lines in a centralized, paternalistic working environment. It appears that this strong company, which operates across industries and around the world, will continue to withstand international economic fluctuations to provide what the world needs to grow and develop.

Principal Subsidiaries

Beebe International, Inc.; California Pellet Mill Co.; Ingersoll-Rand International Sales, Inc.; Ingersoll-Rand International Holding Corporation; Ingersoll-Rand S.A. (Switzerland); Woodcliff Insurance, Ltd. (Bermuda); Schlage Lock Company; Von Duprin, Inc.; Simmons-Rand Company (85%); The Torrington Company; Kilian Manufacturing Corporation; Torrington France, S.A.R.L.; Torrington G.m.b.H. (Germany); Ingersoll-Rand G.m.b.H. (Germany); Western Land Roller Company; Ingersoll-Rand (Australia) Ltd.; Ingersoll-Rand S.E. Asia (Private) Ltd. (Singapore); Ingersoll-Rand Benelux (Belgium); Ingersoll-Rand Canada, Inc.; Torrington, Inc. (Canada); Torrington Industria e Comercio Ltda (Brazil); Ingersoll-Rand World Trade, Ltd. (Bermuda); Compagnie Ingersoll-Rand (France); Ingersoll-Rand Sales Company, Ltd.; Ingersoll-Rand Holdings Limited (U.K.); Ingersoll-Rand Company Limited (U.K.); The Torrington Company Limited (U.K.); Ingersoll-Rand Italiana S.p.A. (Italy); Newco, S.p.A. (Italy); Ingersoll-Rand Japan Ltd.; Tokyo Ryuki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha (Japan); Compania Ingersoll-Rand S.A. (Spain); Ingersoll-Rand Company South Africa (Proprietary) Ltd.; Ingersoll-Rand Aktiebolag (Sweden); Ingersoll-Rand Services & Engineering Company (Switzerland); Ingersoll Rand Acceptance Company S.A. (Switzerland); Ingersoll-Rand China Limited; Silver Engineering Works, Inc.; The Aro Corporation; N.V. Aro S.A. (Belgium); Aro Canada, Inc.; The Aro Corporation (U.K.) Limited; Ingersoll-Rand Philippines, Inc.; Ingersoll-Rand Investment Company, S.A.; Ing. G. Klemm Bohrtechnik GmbH (Germany); Samiia International (France); Ingersoll-Rand (India) Limited (74%).

Further Reading

Johnson, James P., New Jersey: A History of Ingenuity and Industry, Northridge, California, Windsor Publications, 1987.

Ginger G. Rodriguez

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