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Central Independent Television

Central Independent Television

Central House
Broad Street
Birmingham B1 2JP
England
44 171-634-4000
Fax: 44 171-615-1794
Web site: http://www.centraltv.co.uk

Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Carlton Communications plc
Incorporated:
1982
Sales: £400 million (1994 est.)
Employees: 830
SICs: 4833 Television Broadcasting Stations

Since 1993, Central Independent Television has been an operating unit of one of Great Britains largest broadcast television and video companies, Carlton Communications plc. Central was ranked third among the nations independent television (ITV) broadcasters when it received a £760 million (US$1.1 billion) takeover bid from number-two Carlton. The combination of these two companies operations formed Britains largest independent broadcaster, with the ability to reach more than one-third of the nations population and a 30 percent share of the ITV segments annual advertising income.

Even before the merger, Central boasted ITVs largest geographic reach and its biggest audience, encompassing nine million homes in the British Midlands region. The companys award-winning resume of programs has included Spitting Image, the 1980s series that used puppets to parody international politicians and celebrities; the Viewpoint series of documentaries; and some of ITVs longest-airing drama series, including Boon, Inspector Morse, and Soldier, Soldier.

Postwar Roots

Centrals roots as a broadcaster date back to 1954 when independent commercial television was introduced in England to break the monopoly of the BBC, the countrys state-run television network. In February 1956, Independent Television (ITV) arrived in the Midlands with weekend broadcasts, which were replaced by daily programming by the end of the year. During the weekdays, programming was handled by Associated Television (ATV), a subsidiary of Associated Communications Corporation, and by ABC on the weekends.

ATV was granted the franchise for the Midlands broadcasting operation in 1968 and held it until January 1982, when the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), Britains television regulatory body at the time, announced the franchise would not be automatically re-awarded. What was more, the IBA stipulated that ACC could hold no more than a 51 percent interest in Central and had to build and operate studios in regions served by the broadcaster with the latest in equipment.

A new company named Central Independent Television was formed to take control of the new Midlands franchise in January 1982. Major stockholders included ACC (51 percent), leisure group Ladbrokes (ten percent), publishing group DC Thomson (15 percent) and Pergamon (nine percent), led by the late Robert Maxwell. Centrals boundaries at the time ranged from the borders of Wales in the west to Lincolnshire in the east, and from Cheshire in the north to the Home Counties in the south. Covering an estimated 14,000 square miles and serving more than nine million people, Central had the largest audience of Britains 12 independent ITV broadcasters.

In May 1982, ACC was taken over by TVW Enterprises, led by Australian media magnate, Robert Holmes ä Court. The IBA ruled that ACCs 51 percent stake in Central be put in trust, thus freezing its voting right until ACC had reduced its shareholding in the broadcaster. Therefore, in May 1983, ACC sold off its stake in Central. Sears Holdings purchased a 20 percent shareholding, Ladbrokes and DC Thomson increased their stakes to 20 percent each, and Pergamon took its ownership to 12.5 percent.

In line with IBA requirements, renovation of Centrals four Birmingham studios at Broad Street was completed in 1982. A new broadcast center was opened a year later. In addition, Nottingham saw the opening of the $42.5 million, four-studio East Midlands Television Center in late 1983. The formal ribbon-cutting ceremony in March 1984 was attended by the Duke of Edinburgh.

IPO in 1986

In October 1986, Central issued public shares to be listed on the London International Stock Exchange. Institutional investors in London were among the broadcasters leading stockholders.

From its beginnings, Central had a mandate to operate a local news service broadcast to each of the companys three main markets: Central West, East, and South. The broadcaster eventually had the most morning and evening local news viewers of any ITV news program. For its news broadcasts, Central was supplied with national and international programs by Independent Television News (ITN), the national news bureau owned and operated by all ITV regional broadcasters.

Central also continued to produce strong drama and entertainment programs for broadcast in its own market and throughout Britain and internationally. The broadcasters most popular programs included the satirical weekly Spitting Image, the investigative current affairs program The Cook Report, and such drama series as Inspector Morse and Soldier Soldier.

Much, though certainly not all, of Centrals drama output, tended towards high-brow content for sale abroad. The popular Legacy of Civilization series, a six-part documentary exploring the effects of ancient history on modern life, was an early example. British television has always emphasized cultural programming. Central and other ITV franchises still broadcast a large amount of ballet and opera to complement their lighter drama and entertainment content. Broadcasts of the established arts, though top sellers in foreign markets for Central, are in part defensive. Because quality of programming is a key factor in the granting of franchises to broadcasting companies, a tendency for high culture is often observed in ITV programming when franchises are up for renewal.

International Alliances, New Technologies in the Late 1980s

In 1986, Central established Television Sales and Marketing Services Ltd. (TSMS), a joint venture between itself and Anglia Television, another ITV broadcaster. The role of TSMS was to secure airtime sales and program sponsorships, in part to recover production costs. In addition, TSMS acted as consultant to international broadcasters like BBC Select, Nederland 1 in The Netherlands, and Westcountry.

In 1989, Central spent $10 million to build a high-tech regional news center at Abingdon, near Oxford. This gave the broadcasters three main regional centers: Abingdon, Nottingham, and Birmingham. In addition, Central operated offices in London, New York, Sydney, and Hamburg. Besides functioning as news-gathering centers, these international bureaus also facilitated international sales and sponsorship of Centrals programs.

International cooperation between program makers had become the buzzword in the increasingly global television market during the late 1980s. Broadcasters found they could spread out the costand the riskof producing programs, if they could bring in overseas partners. The key was recognizing, and taking advantage of, the demands of the television industry beyond their own home markets. British English-language programmingCentrals includedhad long secured wide audiences around the world, a legacy of the British Empire. Central looked to tap into this growing international system of coproduction, cofinancing, sales, pre-sales, and sponsor-packaging to reduce the cost of its own program production by pooling resources with others and securing yet more markets for its output.

Central also had to keep pace with rapid changes in the technology of the television industry. In the mid- to late 1980s, the number of terrestrial, cable, and satellite television channels worldwide was escalating. In addition, a revolution was taking place in high-definition television. Program production and distribution was entering the world of digital compression, which would multiply the available frequency spectrum and transform home television viewing.

The regional broadcaster was also looking to counter the growing influence of U.S. programs being sold to Europe and worldwide. As Leslie Hill, Centrals managing director, said in 1990: American culture seems to be in danger of overwhelming that of some other countries, including Britain. I believe we should guard against that. Hill felt that cooperation between foreign broadcasters, especially between those in Canada, Europe, and Australia, could not only reduce production costs but counter a U.S. programming offensive. This international activity may appear to boost the ego and self-importance of an industry notoriously aware of its image, but it is this international cooperation that lies behind some of our more ambitious program projects, Hill commented. By the late 1980s, Central was the United Kingdoms top commercial exporter of programming to the United States.

International Coproductions Central completed the 1988 Legacy of Civilization documentary series, made in conjunction with Maryland Public Television. Another series, Nuclear Age, was produced along with WGBH, a Boston-based public television station, and NHK, a Japanese broadcaster.

Early 1990s Brings Deregulation

Deregulation of the British television industry, first introduced by then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1988, had a profound effect on Central Televisions future. The British government sought to shake up the countrys television market by ending the monopoly that existing ITV franchise broadcasters, including Central, seemingly enjoyed. The 1989 Broadcasting Bill, introduced by the government and leading to the 1990 Broadcasting Act, called for 16 ITV contractors to bid in May 1991 to retain their franchises against rival tenders.

With no anticipated rivals for its franchise, Central was expected to emerge strongly from the 1991 auction, since it could bid low and win. Prior to the sale, the broadcasting company had focused on its core strength: quality program production and distribution. For the East, West, and South Midlands television regions, Central bid a mere £2,000 ($3,400) per year. That figure paled in comparison to those of other ITV franchise bidders, who offered many millions as part of annual bids to the British treasury. But without a challenger, Centrals low-ball bid won. In addition to this flat fee, Central agreed to pay the British Treasury 11 percent of each years advertising, subscription, and sponsorship income. In October 1991, the company was granted the seven-day-a-week broadcast license extending from January 1, 1993 through the year 2002. This low cost structure would make Central what Variety magazines Steve Clarke called the best financial bet in British television.

Central profited yet again from the ITV auction after Meridian, a consortium in which Central held a 20 percent stake, was successful in securing the license to broadcast in South and South East England. Meridian was led by MAI, a financial services group whose businesses included brokerage and market research, and had a 65 percent stake in the bidding consortium.

In September 1991, just prior to the announcement of license awards, David Justham, Centrals chairperson, died. He was replaced as company chair by Leslie Hill, who had joined Central as managing director in 1987. An accountant with no previous experience in broadcast television, Hills ability to guide the company was viewed with skepticism. Over the next five years, however, the new leader of Central would earn the respect of both his broadcasting peers and his companys shareholders.

In November 1991, Central purchased its rented headquarters in Birmingham and renamed it West Midlands Television Center. Also that year, Television Sales and Marketing Services acquired the airtime sales operation of Ulster Television in Northern Ireland. Continued cost-cutting measures at this time included the sale in 1991 of Film Fair, the film animation company owned by Central. The broadcaster also disposed of its 25 percent stake in Starstream, the British childrens channel, and Central Communications Network, once Centrals in-house public relations department before becoming a consultancy. Central also refocused its business by severing ties with Chris Bearde Entertainment, a game show production house that had lost an estimated US$5 million, and Wordstar, a company providing newspapers and magazines with entertainment news worldwide. An internal reorganization split Central into three profit centers: Birmingham-based Central Broadcasting, charged with operation of the ITV license; Nottingham-based Central Productions, the programming arm, and London-based Central Television Enterprises, responsible for international operations. During this same period, employment at the company was slashed by more than half, from over 2,000 to 850.

Centrals repositioning after the ITV auction was reflected in its bottom line. Although advertising revenues had fallen throughout the British broadcast market owing to the harsh recession of the early 1990s, Central still posted pre-tax profits up nearly 25 percent at £24.4 million for fiscal 1991, compared with a figure of £19.2 million a year earlier. This profit rise came as company sales continued falling. Revenues of £306.6 million in 1991 were down 2.7 percent from a year earlier, or £315.1 million in 1990. This performance was accomplished on pretax profits of £27 million posted in fiscal 1989, prior to the recession. The broadcasters stock price multiplied from £3.40 (US$5.84) in 1987 to £12.53 (US$21.55) by the spring of 1992.

That year Zodiac, Centrals USA program production subsidiary, unveiled its second animated program, Mr. Bogus. Its first series, Widget, began re-runs in the all-important U.S. television market. Also that year, Central Music was formed as a separate company within Central Productions to produce music-based programs largely funded by music companies and video distribution. Among its first programs was Bedrock 11, a late night music series, and Lafter Hours, featuring popular British comedians. Lafter Hours triggered a video distribution deal with Virgin Music, a leading British record producer and retailer.

Union With Carlton Communications in 1994

Central appeared in an enviable position among ITV broadcasters in holding the largest franchise, and yet paying the lowest Exchequer levy of a mere £2,000 annually. At the same time, its high profitability made Central a favorable takeover target. In fact, the number-three ITV broadcaster received its first takeover proposal in November 1993, just over one month before legislation permitting the purchase of ITV licensees went into effect. Central accepted the £26 per share, £624 million (US$925 million) bid from Carlton Communications plc during the first week of 1994. (Carlton had owned about 20 percent of Centrals equity since 1987, and offered to purchase the remaining shares it did not already own. The bid valued Central at £758 million or US$1.12 billion.) Centrals quick acquiescence prompted The Economist to frame the deal as a defensive ploy by two companies frightened of being taken over themselves in 1994, when firms in the rest of Europe will be allowed to buy British commercial-TV stations.

Under the direction of Michael Green, Centrals new parent had grown from a US$15 million enterprise in 1983 into a film processing and broadcast media giant. The addition of Central ITV vaulted Carlton Communications commercial television broadcasting division from a mere seven percent of annual revenues to the companys biggest and most profitable business interest, and made Carlton the UKs second-largest ITV broadcaster. Centrals estimated £400 million in revenues boosted Carltons total turnover to a debt-free £1.4 billion in 1994. But as The Economist noted, Carlton was still a pipsqueak among global media firms like Rupert Murdochs News Corp. Ltd., Time Warner Inc., Germanys Bertlsmann, and Walt Disney Company. Carlton executives countered that size for sizes sake is not important.

In 1997 analysts with Morgan Stanley, Dean Whitter asserted that the glory days of ITV broadcasting are over, forecasting that the annual growth of advertising revenues would amount to about two to three percent over inflation. However, Central and Carltons other ITV properties would continue to serve a valuable function at the media company by providing programming fodder for its growing third-party business. Carlton planned to parlay Centrals string of critically- and popularly-acclaimed hits into high-profit international blockbusters.

Principal Divisions

World International Network; Zodiac; Television Sales and Marketing Services; Central Television Enterprises.

Further Reading

Bidders Facing Bechers Brook of Quality TV, Observer (London), May 19, 1991.

Big Two Face Toughest TV Franchise Fight, Guardian, May 16, 1991.

CIT Optimistic Despite Profit Dip, Variety, October 7, 1991, p. 216.

Clarke, Steve, Central Slowly Climbs to Top With Hill, Variety, October 18, 1993, pp. 4142.

, Showtime for Carlton, Management Today, February 1996, pp. 3438.

Coopman, Jeremy, Corporate Report: Central TV at 10, Variety, April 6, 1992, pp. 14954.

The Darling Bids of May, Observer, May 19, 1991.

Dawtry, Adam, Carltons Central Takeover Done Deal, Variety, January 10, 1994, p.56.

, Its Buyout Hour on ITV, Variety, December 13, 1993, pp. 3334.

Greenland: British Television, Economist, December 4, 1993, pp. 6869.

Programming Free-For-All, Financial Weekly, March 2329, 1990.

Root, Jane, Open the Box: About Television, London: Comedia Publishing Group, 1986.

Etan Vlessing
updated by April Dougal Gasbarre

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Central Independent Television Plc

Central Independent Television Plc

Central House
Broad Street
Birmingham Bl 219
Great Britain
071-486 6688
Fax: 071-468 9898

Public Company
Incorporated: 1982
Sales: $211,000,000
Employees: 830
Stock Exchange: London International Stock Exchange
SICs: 4833 Television Broadcasting Stations

Central Independent Television pic is Britains largest Independent Television (ITV) broadcaster, producing, broadcasting, and distributing news and drama programs in its British home market and abroad. Centrals audience is comprised of nine million homes in the British Midlands region. Because of its expertise in distributing material abroad, Central also sells programs on behalf of 20 international broadcasters, including Zenith, Royal Geographic Society, WGBH Boston (part of the U.S. Public Broadcasting Service) and Television New Zealand.

Central, which ranked as Britains 193rd largest public company on the London Stock Exchange at the end of 1992, has three major divisions: Central Broadcasting, Central Productions, and Central Television Enterprises. The Birmingham-based Central Broadcasting division operates the companys broadcasting license and is responsible for commissioning, marketing, scheduling, and broadcasting all the companys programs. It also controls the production of all regional programming, including regional news and current affairs output. The Nottingham-based Central Productions division produces programs in studios and regionally for the ITV network and for other British and international broadcasters. Finally, the London-based Central Television Enterprises (CTE) division is the companys program distributor, selling Centrals programs to fellow broadcasters, cable operators, and video distributors internationally.

Centrals roots as a broadcaster date back to 1954 when independent commercial television was introduced in England to break the monopoly of the BBC, the countrys state-run television network. In February of 1956, Independent Television (ITV) arrived in the Midlands with weekend broadcasts, which were replaced by daily programming by the end of the year. Programming was handled by Associated Television (ATV), a subsidiary of Associated Communications Corporation (ACC), during the weekdays, and by ABC on the weekends.

ATV was granted the franchise for the Midlands broadcasting operation in 1968 and held it until January of 1982, when the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), Britains television regulatory body at the time, announced the franchise would not be automatically re-awarded. What was more, the IBA stipulated that ACC could hold no more than a 51 percent interest in Central, and had to build and operate studios in regions served by the broadcaster with the latest in equipment.

A new company named Central Independent Television was formed to take control of the new Midlands franchise in January of 1982. Major stockholders included ACC (51 percent), leisure group Ladbrokes (10 percent), publishing group DC Thomson (15 percent) and Pergamon (9 percent), led by the late Robert Maxwell. Centrals boundaries at the time ranged from the borders of Wales in the west to Lincolnshire in the east, and from Cheshire in the north to the Home Counties in the south. Covering an estimated 14,000 square miles and serving more than 9 million people, Central had the largest audience of Britains 12 independent ITV broadcasters.

In May 1982, ACC was taken over by TVW Enterprises, led by Australian media magnate, Robert Holmes a Court. The IBA ruled that ACCs 51 percent stake in Central be put in trust, thus freezing its voting right until ACC had reduced its shareholding in the broadcaster. Therefore, in May 1983, ACC sold off its stake in Central. Sears Holdings purchased a 20 percent shareholding, Ladbrokes and DC Thomson increased their stakes to 20 percent each and Pergamon took its ownership to 12.5 percent.

In line with IBA requirements, renovation of Centrals four Birmingham studios at Broad Street was completed in 1982. A new broadcast center was opened a year later. In addition, Nottingham saw the opening of the $42.5 million, four-studio East Midlands Television Center in late 1983. The formal ribbon-cutting ceremony in March of 1984 was attended by the Duke of Edinburgh.

In October 1986, Central issued public shares to be listed on the London International Stock Exchange. Institutional investors in London were among the broadcasters leading stockholders.

From its beginnings, Central had a mandate to operate a local news service broadcast to each of the companys three main markets: Central West, East, and South. The broadcaster eventually had the most morning and evening local news viewers of any ITV news program. For its news broadcasts, Central was supplied with national and international programs by Independent Television News (ITN), the national news bureau owned and operated by all ITV regional broadcasters.

Central also continued to produce strong drama and entertainment programs for broadcast in its own market and throughout Britain and internationally. The broadcasters most popular programs include the satirical weekly Spitting Image, the investigative current affairs program The Cook Report, and drama series like Inspector Morse and Soldier Soldier.

Much, though certainly not all, of Centrals drama output, tended towards high-brow content for sale abroad. The popular Legacy of Civilization series, a six-part documentary exploring the effects of ancient history on modern life, was an early example. British television has always emphasized cultural programming. Central and other ITV franchises still broadcast a large amount of ballet and opera to complement their lighter drama and entertainment content. Broadcasts of the established arts, though top sellers in foreign markets for Central, are in part defensive. Because quality of programming is a key factor in the granting of franchises to broadcasting companies, a tendency for high culture is often observed in ITV programming when franchises are up for renewal.

In 1986, Central established Television Sales and Marketing Services Ltd. (TSMS), a joint venture between itself and Anglia Television, another ITV broadcaster. The role of TSMS was to secure airtime sales and program sponsorships, in part to recover production costs. In addition, TSMS acts as consultant to international broadcasters like BBC Select, Nederland 1 in The Netherlands, and Westcountry.

In 1989, Central spent $10 million to build a high-tech regional news center at Abingdon, near Oxford. That gave the broadcasters three main regional centers: Abingdon, Nottingham, and Birmingham. In addition, Central operated offices in London, New York, Sydney, and Hamburg. Besides functioning as news-gathering centers, these international bureaus also facilitated international sales and sponsorship of Centrals programs.

International cooperation between program makers had become the buzzword in the increasingly global television market during the late 1980s. Broadcasters found they could spread out the costand the riskof producing programs if they could bring in overseas partners. The key was recognizing, and taking advantage of, the demands of the television industry beyond their own home markets. British English-language programmingCentrals includedhad long secured wide audiences around the world, a legacy of the British Empire. Central looked to tap into this growing international system of coproduction, cofinancing, sales, pre-sales, and sponsor-packaging to reduce the cost of its own program production by pooling resources with others, and securing yet more markets for its output. Central also had to keep pace with rapid changes in the technology of the television industry. In the mid to late 1980s, the number of terrestrial, cable, and satellite television channels worldwide was mushrooming. In addition, a revolution was taking place in high-definition television. Program production and distribution was entering the world of digital compression, which would multiply the available frequency spectrum and transform home television viewing.

The regional broadcaster was also looking to counter the growing influence of American programs being sold to Europe and worldwide. As Leslie Hill, Centrals managing director, said in 1990: American culture seems to be in danger of overwhelming that of some other countries, including Britain. I believe we should guard against that. Hill felt that cooperation between foreign broadcasters, especially between those in Canada, Europe, and Australia, could not only reduce production costs but counter an American programming offensive. This international activity may appear to boost the ego and self-importance of an industry notoriously aware of its image, but it is this international cooperation that lies behind some of our more ambitious program projects.

International coproductions Central completed included the 1988 Legacy of Civilization documentary series, made in conjunction with Maryland Public Television. Another series, Nuclear Age, was produced along with WGBH, a Boston-based public television station, and NHK, a Japanese broadcaster.

Deregulation of the British television industry, first introduced by the then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1988, had a profound effect on Central Televisions future. The British government sought to shake up the countrys television market by ending the monopoly that existing ITV franchise broadcasters, including Central, seemingly enjoyed. The 1989 Broadcasting Bill, introduced by the government and leading to the 1990 Broadcasting Act, called for 16 ITV contractors to bid in May 1991 to retain their franchises against rival tenders.

With no anticipated rival bidders for its franchise, Central was expected to emerge strongly from the 1991 auction, since it could bid low and win. Prior to the bid, the broadcasting company had focused on its core strengths: program production and distribution, and aiming to maintain quality output so potential competitors would be deterred. The strategy worked. Centrals application was unchallenged in May 1991, and it was granted the seven-day-a-week broadcast license in October 1991, extending from January 1, 1993 through the year 2002. For the East, West, and South Midlands television regions, Central bid a mere $4000 annual bid. That figure paled in comparison to other ITV franchise bidders, who offered many millions as part of annual bids to the British treasury, and yet often did not emerge as victors against rivals.

Under the license auction, Central agreed to pay the British Treasury a percentage, set by the Independent Television Commission (TIC), of annual qualifying revenue, or a part of advertising, subscription, and sponsorship income. In addition, it was to pay the cash bid, or $4000, each year.

At the same time, Central profited yet again from the ITV auction after Meridian, a consortium in which Central held a 20 percent stake, was successful in securing the license to broadcast in South and South East England. Meridian was led by MAI, a financial services group whose businesses included moneybroking and market research, and had a 65 percent stake in the bidding consortium.

In September 1991, just prior to the announcement of license awards, David Justham, chair of Central, died. He was immediately replaced by Leslie Hill as chair of the board of directors and chief executive officer of Central.

In November 1991, after having its license award confirmed, Central purchased its rented headquarters in Birmingham. The building was renamed the West Midlands Television Center. Also that year, Television Sales and Marketing Services acquired the airtime sales operation of Ulster Television in Northern Ireland. Continued cost-cutting measures at this time included the sale in 1991 of Film Fair, the film animation company owned by Central. The broadcaster also disposed of its 25 percent stake in Starstream, the British childrens channel, and Central Communications Network, once Centrals in-house public relations department before becoming a consultancy. Central also refocused its business by severing ties with Chris Bearde Entertainment, a small production house, and Wordstar, a company providing newspapers and magazines with entertainment news worldwide.

Centrals fortune after the ITV auction was reflected in its bottom line. Although advertising revenue had fallen throughout the British broadcast market owing to the harsh recession of the early 1990s, Central still posted pre-tax profits up nearly 25 percent at 24.4 million pounds sterling for fiscal 1991, compared with a figure of 19.2 million sterling a year earlier. This profit rise came as company sales continued falling. Revenue of 306.6 million sterling in 1991 was down 2.7 percent from a year earlier, or 315.1 million sterling in 1990. This performance was accomplished on pre-tax profits of 27 million sterling posted in fiscal 1989, prior to the recession.

In 1992, Zodiac, Centrals USA program production subsidiary, unveiled its second animated program, Mr. Bogus. Its first series, Widget, began re-runs in the all-important U.S. television market. Also that year, Central Music was formed as a separate company within Central Productions to produce music-based programs largely funded by music companies and video distribution. Among its first programs was Bedrock II, a late night music series, and Lafler Hours, featuring popular British comedians. Lafter Hours triggered a video distribution deal with Virgin Music, a leading British record producer and retailer.

Looking to the future, Central appeared in an enviable position among ITV broadcasters in holding the largest franchise, and yet paying the lowest Exchequer levy of a mere $4000 annually. At the same time, a strong balance sheet has made Central a favorable takeover target after January 1, 1994, when acquisitions of ITV franchises will become possible. Indeed, takeover bids may well come from continental broadcasters as Britain continues opening up its frontiers to the European Community.

Principal Subsidiaries

World International Network; Zodiac; Television Sales and Marketing Services; Central Television Enterprises.

Further Reading

Root, Jane Open the Box: About Television, Comedia Publishing Group, London, 1986; Programming Free-For-All, Financial Weekly, March 23-29, 1990; Big Two Face Toughest TV Franchise Fight, Guardian, May 16, 1991; The Darling Bids of May, Observer, May 19, 1991; Bidders Facing Bechers Brook of Quality TV, Observer, May 19, 1991.

Etan Vlessing

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"Central Independent Television Plc." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Central Independent Television Plc." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/central-independent-television-plc

"Central Independent Television Plc." International Directory of Company Histories. . Retrieved November 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/central-independent-television-plc