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Architect

ARCHITECT

A person who prepares the plan and design of a building or other structure and sometimes super-vises its construction.

A landscape architect is responsible for the arrangement of scenery over a tract of land for natural or aesthetic purposes in order to enhance or preserve the property.

Regulation

The practice of planning and designing a building requires the application of specialized skill and knowledge. Because the product of an architect's work is used by members of the general public, the legislature of a state may regulate the practice of those engaged in the profession. Regulatory statutes designed to protect public health and safety are created under the inherent authority of a state to protect the welfare of its citizens. As a general rule, regulatory statutes are valid, provided they are not unreasonable.

Statutes requiring that architects must be registered and licensed are based on public policy aimed at protecting citizens from unqualified practitioners. In many states, statutes call for the revocation of a license for such conduct as fraud, dishonesty, recklessness, incompetence, or misrepresentation when an architect acts in his or her professional capacity.

The power to revoke a license is commonly given by the legislature to a state board of architects who must act in a manner prescribed by statute. Generally, an architect is entitled to notice and a hearing when the board seeks to revoke his or her license. The architect can appeal a revocation.

Qualifications

Statutes setting forth the requirements for obtaining a license or registration generally require that the applicants be of legal age and of good moral character, have completed a certain course of study, and have a certain amount of practical experience. Many states have an additional requirement that applicants must pass an examination. A legislature may provide that certain persons who have practiced architecture for a period of time prior to legislation requiring an examination may register as architects without an examination. Such a statutory provision is called a grandfather clause.

Persons who present themselves to the public as architects must comply with the statutory registration and licensing requirements. The failure to do so is unlawful. In most states, persons who falsely hold themselves out as licensed architects are guilty of a misdemeanor, and contracts rendered by them with others are void and unenforceable.

Employment

The terms and conditions of an architect's employment are designated in a contract and are governed by general rules of contract law. Ordinarily, the person who employs the architect becomes the owner of the plans, unless the employment contract states otherwise. Custom-arily, the architect retains the plans after they have been paid for and the builder may possess and use them while constructing the building.

Authority and Powers

The power and authority of architects are determined by general rules of agency law. In most cases, unless the employment contract states otherwise, architects are held to be agents with limited authority. An employer is liable for acts of an architect when they are within the scope of the architect's agency, although the contracting parties may further restrict the powers if they so desire.

Architects have a duty to exercise their personal skill and judgment in the performance of their work, and they may not delegate this duty without express authority to do so. They may, however, delegate responsibility to subordinates while performing their duties as agents.

A supervising architect does not have implied authority to perform work that has been assigned to a contractor or to employ or discharge workers. The supervising architect does, however, have authority to make decisions concerning proper workmanship, fitness of materials, and the manner of work.

Duties and Liabilities

Although the duties of architects generally depend on what is designated in the employment contract, some duties are carried out as a matter of custom, such as the duty to supervise construction.

Architects are in a fiduciary relationship with their employers, and as such they must exercise good faith and loyalty toward them. As professionals, they are held to a standard of reasonable and ordinary care and skill in applying their knowledge and must conform to accepted architectural practices. The failure to exercise reasonable care and skill can result in liability for damages and the loss of the right to recover compensation for their services.

Compensation

Architects have a right to compensation for their services unless there is an agreement that they shall work gratuitously. To be entitled to compensation, they must carry out their contract with reasonable skill and care and without any substantial omissions or imperfections in performance. The employment contract usually fixes the amount of compensation. A standard payment scale created by the American Institute of Architects is customarily used to determine the amount of compensation.

In the event that an architect is refused payment for services, he or she may sue for the amount of compensation agreed upon in the employment contract or, in the absence of an agreement, for the reasonable value of the services under the theory of quantum meruit.

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Architect

Architect


The path to becoming an architect is not an easy one. It begins in high school with good grades, particularly in such subjects as algebra, calculus, trigonometry, and physics. It then requires at least a bachelor's degree, and possibly a master's degree, from an accredited school of architecture. After a three-to five-year internship, aspiring architects must pass a licensing examination in the state they wish to practice. Along the way, an architect will become comfortable with numbers, measurements, and the principles of engineering. In addition, they develop solid computer skills, including the ability to use computer-aided design and drafting programs.

The architect's job begins with a sketch of the building the client wants, though a landscape architect will design natural environments rather than structures. After imagining the building, the architectusually working as part of a teammust turn the concept into detailed drawings with realistic features so that the builder can construct it in the way it was envisioned, while staying within the customer's timeframe and budget.

It is not enough, though, for an architect to be an artist and mathematician; an architect also has to have good communications skills. Under conditions that are often stressful, an architect will have to communicate with builders throughout the design and construction process and make sure that they have the needed information. The architect also must communicate with clients to ensure they are satisfied with the results of the project.

see also Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architect; Morgan, Julia.

Michael J. O'Neal

Bibliography

Ching, Frank, and Francis D. Ching. Architectural Graphics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Piper, Robert J., et al. Opportunities in Architecture Careers. Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons, 2000.

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architect

architect. Person capable of preparing the plans, elevations, and sections of the design of a sophisticated building with an aesthetic content and to supervise its construction in accordance with the drawings and specifications. Soane described an architect's business as that of making ‘designs and estimates’, directing ‘the works’, and valuing ‘the different parts’: he declared the architect as the ‘intermediate agent between the employer, whose honour and interest he is to study, and the mechanic, whose rights he is to defend’. Soane emphasized the architect's position as implying great trust, being ‘responsible for the mistakes, negligences, and ignorance of those he employs’. Ruskin suggested that one who is neither a sculptor nor painter could not be an architect, but only a builder, and Frank Lloyd Wright stated that an architect cannot bury his mistakes, unlike a physician. With the development of computers and changes in patronage, however, the role of the architect is changing, and indeed many architects are now increasingly concerned with image.

Bibliography

Colvin (1995);
W. Papworth (1852);
Sturgis et al. (1901–2);
Jane Turner (1996);

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architect

ar·chi·tect / ˈärkiˌtekt/ • n. a person who designs buildings and in many cases also supervises their construction. ∎  a person who is responsible for inventing or realizing a particular idea or project: a chief architect of the plan to slash income taxes. • v. [tr.] (usu. be architected) Comput. design and make: few software packages were architected with Ethernet access in mind.

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"architect." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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architect

architect XVI. — F. architecte — It. architetto, or their source, L. architectus — Gr. arkhitéktōn, f. ARCHI- + téktōn builder.
So architectonic XVII. — L. — Gr. architecture XVI. — F. or L.

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"architect." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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architect

architectabreact, abstract, act, attract, bract, compact, contract, counteract, diffract, enact, exact, extract, fact, humpbacked, hunchbacked, impact, interact, matter-of-fact, pact, protract, redact, refract, retroact, subcontract, subtract, tact, tract, transact, unbacked, underact, untracked •play-act • autodidact •artefact (US artifact) • cataract •contact •marked, unremarked •Wehrmacht •affect, bisect, bull-necked, collect, confect, connect, correct, defect, deflect, deject, detect, direct, effect, eject, elect, erect, expect, infect, inflect, inject, inspect, interconnect, interject, intersect, misdirect, neglect, object, perfect, project, prospect, protect, reflect, reject, respect, resurrect, sect, select, subject, suspect, transect, unchecked, Utrecht •prefect • abject • retroject • intellect •genuflect • idiolect • dialect • aspect •circumspect • retrospect • Dordrecht •vivisect • architect • unbaked •sun-baked

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