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## inclined plane

inclined plane, simple machine, consisting of a sloping surface, whose purpose is to reduce the force that must be applied to raise a load. To raise a body vertically a force must be applied that is equal to the weight of the body, i.e., the product of its mass and the acceleration of gravity. The amount of work done (i.e., energy expended) in raising the body is equal to its weight times the distance through which it is raised. By means of an inclined plane a force smaller than the weight of the body can be exerted over a distance greater than the direct vertical distance, doing work equal to the product of the force and the distance through which it acts. If friction is ignored, the work done using the inclined plane will be exactly equal to the work done in lifting the body directly. In any real system some work is done to overcome friction between the plane and the load. The actual mechanical advantage of an inclined plane is the ratio of the load lifted to the force applied; ideally it is equal to the ratio of the length of the sloping plane to its vertical rise. An inclined plane whose sloping length is 5 m and whose vertical rise is 1 m has a mechanical advantage of 5; a 300-newton load can be moved up such a plane by a 60-newton force. The inclined plane has been modified in many ways. The screw and wedge are applications of the principle of the inclined plane but do not require that the load be moved vertically for their successful operation. The chisel, carpenter's plane, auger bit, and ax are some of the many tools based on this principle. Switchbacks on mountain roads are inclined planes that reduce the effort of an automobile engine but increase the distance a car must travel to ascend the mountain.

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"inclined plane." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"inclined plane." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/inclined-plane

"inclined plane." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/inclined-plane

## ramp

ramp / ramp/ • n. 1. a slope or inclined plane for joining two different levels, as at the entrance or between floors of a building: a wheelchair ramp. ∎  a movable set of steps for entering or leaving an aircraft. ∎  an inclined road leading onto or off a main road or highway: an exit ramp. 2. an upward bend in a stair rail. 3. an electrical waveform in which the voltage increases or decreases linearly with time. • v. 1. [tr.] provide or build (something) with a ramp. 2. [intr.] archaic (of an animal) rear up on its hind legs in a threatening posture. ∎  rush about violently or uncontrollably: an awful beast ramping about the woods and fields. ∎  (of a plant) grow or climb luxuriantly: ivy ramped over the flower beds. 3. [intr.] (of an electrical waveform) increase or decrease voltage linearly with time. PHRASAL VERBS: ramp something up (or ramp up) (esp. in reference to the production of goods) increase or cause to increase in amount: they ramped up production to meet booming demand.

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"ramp." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ramp." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp-0

"ramp." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp-0

## ramp

ramp
1. That part of a staircase thrust trajectory which forms the steeply dipping sections between the flats. Where thrusting occurs in horizontally bedded strata the ramps cut up-section, obliquely to the bedding. A thrust belt may contain several types of ramp, classified as frontal, oblique, and lateral according to their respective perpendicular, oblique, and parallel strike orientations in relation to the main direction of transport.

2. See SHELF.

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"ramp." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ramp." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp

"ramp." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp

## ramp

ramp1 rear or stand on the hind legs (threateningly) XIII; rage violently XIV; (dial.) climb, scramble XVI. — (O)F. ramper creep, crawl (a sense rarely repr. in Eng.), climb = It. rampare.
So rampant standing with fore-paws in the air XIV (spec. in her. XV); violent and unrestrained XVII. — (O)F., prp. of ramper; see -ANT.

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"ramp." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ramp." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp-1

"ramp." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp-1

## ramp

ramp.
1. Inclined plane connecting two different levels.

2. Part of the handrail of a stair balustrade with a steep concave upward bend occurring where there is a landing, or where the stair has winders. Opposite of knee.

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"ramp." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ramp." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp

"ramp." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp

## ramp

ramp2 inclined plane. XVIII. — F. rampe, f. ramper RAMP1.

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"ramp." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"ramp." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp-2

## ramp

ramp See shelf.

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"ramp." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"ramp." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp-0

"ramp." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved December 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ramp-0

## ramp

rampamp, camp, champ, clamp, cramp, damp, encamp, gamp, lamp, ramp, samp, scamp, stamp, tamp, tramp, vamp •firedamp • headlamp • wheel clamp •sidelamp • spotlamp • blowlamp •sunlamp •hemp, kemp, temp •blimp, chimp, crimp, gimp, imp, limp, pimp, primp, scrimp, shrimp, simp, skimp, wimp •chomp, clomp, comp, pomp, romp, stomp, swamp, tromp, whomp, yomp •bump, chump, clump, crump, dump, flump, frump, gazump, grump, hump, jump, lump, outjump, plump, pump, rump, scrump, slump, stump, sump, thump, trump, tump, ump, whump •ski-jump • showjump • handpump •mugwump