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glucose

glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar, monosaccharide sugar with the empirical formula C6H12O6 . This carbohydrate occurs in the sap of most plants and in the juice of grapes and other fruits. Glucose is a normal component of animal blood; it thus requires no digestion prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of a variety of carbohydrates, e.g., milk and cane sugars, maltose, cellulose, or glycogen, but it is usually manufactured by hydrolysis of cornstarch with steam and dilute acid; the corn syrup thus obtained contains also some dextrins and maltose. Glucose is used in the manufacture of candy, chewing gum, jams, jellies, table syrups, and other foods, and for many other purposes. It is the major source of energy in animal metabolism. Glucose tastes only about three-fourths as sweet as table sugar (sucrose). The presence of glucose can be detected by use of Fehling's solution; various modifications of this test are used to detect glucose in urine, which may be a symptom of diabetes.

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glucose

glucose is an important source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain and for red blood cells, which use no other fuel. Chemically glucose is a hexose sugar or monosaccharide — that is, a sugar with 6 carbon atoms and the formula C6H12O6. Most glucose in the body is derived from the digestion of polysaccharides and other sugars: starch, for example, is polyglucose; common sugar, or sucrose, a disaccharide, is one molecule of glucose combined with one of fructose. In blood the level of glucose is around 90 mg per 100 ml. Glucose is stored in the body in the form of glycogen in body cells, especially in the liver and muscle, and is metabolized in tissues to generate the adenosine triphoshate (ATP) which provides energy.

Alan W. Cuthbert


See blood sugar; metabolism.

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glucose

glucose (dextrose; grape sugar) A white crystalline sugar, C6H12O6, occurring widely in nature. Like other monosaccharides, glucose is optically active: most naturally occurring glucose is dextrorotatory. Glucose and its derivatives are crucially important in the energy metabolism of living organisms. It is a major energy source, being transported around the body in blood, lymph, and cerebrospinal fluid to the cells, where energy is released in the process of glycolysis. Glucose is present in the sap of plants, in fruits, and in honey and is also a constituent of many polysaccharides, most notably of starch and cellulose. These yield glucose when broken down, for example by enzymes during digestion.

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glucose

glucose A six‐carbon monosaccharide sugar (hexose), with the chemical formula C6H12O6, occurring free in plant and animal tissues and formed by the hydrolysis of starch and glycogen. Also known as dextrose, grape sugar, and blood sugar.

The major dietary carbohydrates are starches, which are polymers of glucose and disaccharides: sucrose (glucose‐fructose); lactose (glucose‐galactose); maltose and isomaltose, which are dimers of glucose.

It is used in the manufacture of confectionery, since its mixture with fructose prevents sucrose from crystallizing (see boiled sweets); it is 74% as sweet as sucrose.

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glucose

glucose (dextrose) (gloo-kohz) n. a simple sugar containing six carbon atoms (a hexose). Glucose, an important source of energy, is one of the constituents of both sucrose and starch, both of which yield glucose after digestion. It is stored in the body in the form of glycogen. If the blood-glucose concentration falls below the normal level of around 5 mmol/l, neurological and other symptoms may result (see hypoglycaemia). If the blood-glucose level is raised to 10 mmol/l, the condition of hyperglycaemia develops. This is a symptom of diabetes mellitus.

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glucose

glucose (dextrose) Colourless crystalline sugar (C6H12O6) occurring in fruit and honey. It requires no digestion before absorption. Insulin lowers the blood-glucose level by causing the liver to convert glucose into glycogen. A monosaccharide sugar, it is prepared commercially by the hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid.

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glucose

glu·cose / ˈgloōkōs/ • n. Biochem. a simple sugar, C6H12O6, that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. ∎  a syrup containing glucose and other sugars, used in the food industry.

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glucose

glucose (dextrose, D-glucose) C6H12O6, an aldohexose monosaccharide that is a major intermediate compound in cellular metabolism. See also GLYCOGEN.

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glucose

glucose (dextrose) C6H12O6. An aldohexose monosaccharide that is a major intermediate compound in cellular metabolism. See also GLYCOGEN.

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glucose

glucose XIX. — F., irreg. — Gr. gleûkos must, sweet wine, rel. to glukús sweet; see -OSE2.

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glucose

glucoseappose, arose, Bose, brose, chose, close, compose, diagnose, doze, enclose, expose, foreclose, froze, hose, impose, interpose, juxtapose, Montrose, noes, nose, oppose, plainclothes, pose, propose, prose, rose, suppose, those, transpose, underexpose, uprose •Berlioz • flambeaux • thrombose •bandeaux • bulldoze • fricandeaux •metamorphose • pantyhose • glucose •gallows, Hallowes •tableaux • parclose • Fellows •bedclothes • nightclothes • rouleaux •underclothes • misdiagnose •Ambrose • dextrose • Faeroes •primrose • cornrows • sucrose •Burroughs • tuberose •bateaux, gateaux, plateaux •portmanteaux • fructose

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