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Pāramitā

Pāramitā (Skt., ‘that which has crossed over’). In Mahāyāna Buddhism, the six (or later ten) virtues developed by bodhisattvas: (i) dāna-paramitā, generosity; (ii) śīla-paramitā, correct conduct; (iii) kṣānti-paramitā, patient acceptance of injuries received; (iv) vīrya-paramitā, exertion; (v) dhyāna-paramitā, meditation; (vi) prajña-paramitā, wisdom; (vii) upāya-kauśalya-paramitā, skill-in-means; (viii) pranidhāna-paramitā, the bodhisattva vow; (ix) bala-paramitā, manifestation of the ten powers of knowledge; (x) jñana-paramitā, true wisdom. Of these, (vi) is often considered paramount, the others relating more to means than to the end. Consequently, there developed the Perfection of Wisdom literature and school (Prajñāparāmitā).

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