1. Jap., ‘the ten realms’, i.e. the states of possible being: (i) jigoku of torment or hell; (ii) gaki-dō, of hungry spirits; (iii) chikusho, of animals; (iv) ashura, that of asuras; (v) ningen, of humans; (vi) tenjō, of heavenly beings; (vii) shōmon, of śrāvakas; (viii) engaku, of pratyekabuddhas; (ix) bosatsu, of bodhisattvas; (x) butsu, of buddhas.
2. Jap., ‘ten precepts’, the ten precepts undertaken by a Buddhist monk: see ŚĪLA.
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